Module Two: The Individual PART FOUR: -MOTIVATION THEORIES -MOTIVATION APPLICATIONSPre pare d by : Had elzein M. Elfatih 20 12
MOTIVATION HIGHLIGHTS Definition and elements of motivation, Early theories of motivation: - Hierarchy of Needs Theory - Theory X and Theory Y - Two Factor Theory Contemporary theories of motivation: - Goal Setting Theory - Reinforcement Theory - Equity Theory Motivation Application; three ways: - Job design - Employee involvement - Using rewards to motivate employees
Motivation refers to the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal. Three elements to motivation:- Intensity: how hard a person tries (how much effort),- Direction: channeling and guiding effort (focus),- Persistence: maintaining effort(how long ).
Early Motivation Theories 1. Hierarchy of Needs Theory: Maslow identified a hierarchy of five needs: Lower Order Needs: physiological and safety needs that are satisfied externally, and Higher Order Needs are needs that are satisfied internally such as social, esteem and self actualization needs. As each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. 2. Theory X and Theory Y: McGregor identified employees belonging to Theory X as those who dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility and must be coerced to work. Theory Y: McGregor identified employees belonging to Theory Y as those who like work, are creative, seek responsibility and exercise self- direction. McGregor suggested Theory Y is more valid in practice than Theory X, and so he introduced topics like participative decision making and challenging jobs. Both Maslow’s and McGregor’s theories have no empirical evidence. 3. Two Factor Theory: Herzberg made a survey with one question “what do people want from their jobs” and concluded that people relate intrinsic factors (achievement, advancement, responsibility) to job satisfaction and success while associates extrinsic factors (supervision, pay, policies) with dissatisfaction and failure . Also known as motivation hygiene theory, it identified hygiene factors as conditions that surround the job and when adequate cause satisfaction(promotion, personal growth and recognition).
Contemporary Motivation Theories 1. Goal Setting Theory: says that specific and difficult goals with feedback lead to higher performance, because goals direct focus, energize and persistent. A practical example of this theory is Management By Objectives: a program with specific goals participatively set for an explicit time with feedback, it involves cascading overall objectives into specific and individual ones. 2. Reinforcement Theory: argues that behaviour is environmentally caused and that reinforcers control behaviour: encourage desired behaviours by rewards and discourage undesired behaviours by punishment. It takes a behaviouristic approach rather than a cognitive approach(opposite of goals setting theory) 3. Equity Theory: says that individuals compare their job inputs(education, experience, effort) and outcomes(salary, promotion, recognition) with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities: - O/IA > O/IB: inequity resulting from being over rewarded. - O/IA = O/IB : equity - O/IA < O/IB : inequity resulting from being under rewarded. Responses to inequity include changing input or outcome, choosing a different comparison or leaving the field.
Motivation through Job Design Job Design: the way job elements are organized. These elements can act to increase or decrease efforts. The Job Characteristics Model was designed by Hackman and Oldham and it proposes five core dimensions which describe a job:Core Dimensions Critical Personal and WorkPsychological States Psychological States OutcomesOutcomesSkill Variety (number of tasks, skills andactivities in one job)Task Identity(degree of job’scompletion of a whole and an identifiable Meaningful •High intrinsicpiece of work) Work motivationTask Significance (degree of job’s substantial •High job performanceimpact on the lives or work of other people •High job satisfaction •Low absentee ism and turnoverAutonomy (degree of Responsibilitysubstantial freedom, independence and for outcomesdiscretion while performing a jobFeedback (degree of obtaining direct and Knowledge ofclear information about job performance) Results
Motivation through Job DesignJ o b R e d e s i g n a n d A l t e r n a t i v e Wo r k A r r a n g e m e n t s Job Redesign is done through: 1. Job Rotation: also called cross- training, it is the periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another, at the same level and with similar skill requirements. Reduces boredom, increases flexibility but involves big training costs. 2. Job Enrichment: refers to the vertical expansion of jobs. It increases the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of the work. Alternative Work Arrangements are done through: 1. Flextime: dividing work hours into core and flexible work hours to reduce absenteeism, yet it is not applicable to every job. (exhibit 8-3 P. 282) 2. Job Sharing: two or more persons split the 40- hour- a- week job. (acquiring skilled people who can not work fully but difficult to find to find compatible pairs). 3. Telecommuting: working from home at least two days a week on a computer linked to the office (the virtual office) it is appropriate for mobile and knowledge related jobs. Results in higher productivity, less turnover, improved morale and less office space costs, yet it makes supervision more difficult , it has an “out of sight out of mind” effect and it increases feelings of isolation.
Motivation by Job Involvement Employee Involvement refers to using employees’ input to increase their commitment to the organization’s success. Examples of employee involvement programs are: - Participative Management: a process in which subordinates share a significant degree of decision making power with their immediate superiors(MBO). - Representative Participation: a system in which workers participate in organizational decision making through a small group of representative employees. Examples are work councils and board representatives. - Quality Circles: developed in Japan, they are work groups of employees who meet regularly to discuss their quality problems, investigate causes, and recommend solutions.
Motivation by RewardingExtrinsic Rewards: pay programs (direct andindirect financial rewards) Extrinsic rewards can be offered by variable pay programs and flexible benefits: 1. Variable Pay Program: a pay plan that bases a portion of an employee’s pay on some individual and/ or organizational measure of performance. It includes individual - based pay and organizational based pay programs: Individual- based pay programs include: - Piece- Rate Pay: a pay plan in which workers are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production/ work completed. - Merit- Based Pay: a pay plan based on performance appraisal ratings. - Bonus: a pay plan that rewards employees for recent performance rather than historical performance. - Skill- Based Pay: a pay plan that sets pay levels on the basis of how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can do.
Motivation by RewardingExtrinsic Rewards: pay programs (direct andindirect financial rewards) Organizational based pay programs include: - Profit Sharing Plan: giving rewards based on some established formula designed around a company’s profitability. - Gainsharing: a company established benefits plan in which employees acquire stock, usually below the market prices. 2. Flexible Benefits: a benefits’ plan that allows each employees to put together a benefits package individually tailored to his or her own needs and situation.
Motivation by RewardingIntrinsic Rewards: Employee Recognition Programs Research suggested that financial rewards can be more motivating in the short run, but in the long run, non-financial rewards are more motivating. Intrinsic rewards are offered in the form of employee recognition programs. Through employee recognition programs, specific behaviours are encouraged, recognized and rewarded. Such programs can range from a verbal praise: “good job” to a widely publicized formal programs (the best employee award) Employee recognition programs are inexpensive and motivating yet they are often subject to manipulation by management, especially when there are no clear criteria for good performance.