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Ai Workshop Slides Used By John Loty In 2008.
 

Ai Workshop Slides Used By John Loty In 2008.

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These slides together with a workbook were used in a 2 day Introductory Workshop on Appreciative Inquiry and how AI is being used for change management and organisational development.

These slides together with a workbook were used in a 2 day Introductory Workshop on Appreciative Inquiry and how AI is being used for change management and organisational development.

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  • These results followed 4 D iterative process

Ai Workshop Slides Used By John Loty In 2008. Ai Workshop Slides Used By John Loty In 2008. Presentation Transcript

  • Welcome Appreciative Inquiry2 day workshop Melbourne and Sydney April 2008
  • Introductions and expectations
    What do you hope and expect will be the outcome of this workshop?
    Do you have any specific situations or issues you would like addressed during this workshop?
    If so please tell us now or let me know privately if you would prefer.
    Please include some background as to what attracted you to this workshop.
  • Deficit Theory of Change
    Identify problem
    Conduct root cause analysis
    Brainstorm and analyse possibilities
    Action plans
    Most schools, companies, families and organizations function on an unwritten rule…
    “Let’s fix what’s wrong and let the strengths take care of themselves”
    Metaphor: Organisations are problems to be solved
  • Problem focus
    Focus on the problem leads to questions or challenges to do with:
    • FEAR and Insecurity
    • DENIAL, Distraction or Blame
    • This is the old or traditional way
    • The “problem approach” to change
  • New approach needed
    Einstein said You can’t solve problems with the same level or type of thinking that created the problem in the first place.
    • This means we have to come up with a new approach – or if you like a new way of thinking about business challenges and change.
  • Initial resistance and objections
    Often finding the “solution” means “looking for a problem” first.
    See Medic Inn case study.
    AI is an intervention and will lead to solutions.
    However we will use different methodology.
    Problem solving is a tool and like a hammer can be very useful.
    We will briefly examine the limits of Problem Solving.
  • The Problem with Problem-solving:
    “ After twenty-five years of helping would-be creators, I have found that the most difficult hurdle they confront is the habit of focussing on problems. I’ve discovered that before they can fully embrace the creative process, they must recognize the limits of problem-solving. Those who rush into the creative process before they fully understand problem-solving’s flaws inevitably try to force their new creating skills into their old problem-focussed framework.” from p 55 of the e Book SIMPLICITY AND SUCCESS by Bruce Elkin.
  • The Problem with Problem-solving:
    An Introduction
    “ two fundamentally different kinds of questions or challenges that we call problems.” A Guide for the Perplexed, E.F. Schumacher
    The first, which he calls convergent problems, narrow down to single solutions. The more intelligently you study them, the more the answers converge around that one solution.
    This kind of problem is solvable. Ask thirty experts what the solution is to a broken tibia bone or a malfunctioning dishwasher and they will give you basically the same answer.From Chap 5 SSeBook
  • Convergent and Divurgent
    However, ask thirty experts, “What is the best way to raise children, run a country, or craft a simple yet successful life?” and you’re likely to get thirty different answers.
    Questions like this are divergent. They are open-ended and messy. The more you study them, the more the answers diverge from each other.
  • Divergent Questions
    Divergent questions are not problems that can be solved.
    They are challenges to be grappled with, mysteries to be pondered, questions to be lived with.
    Divergent questions don’t have a “correct” answer. They do not lend themselves to straight-line logic and simplistic “solutions.”
  • Look Out - Challenges ahead
    Most of the difficult situations we face — large or small — are not convergent problems. They are messy, open-ended, divergent challenges. Rather than flail away at such challenges with our problem-solving hammers, there are more useful ways to approach them.
    So let’s look at them and our changing world.
  • Dichotomies are not “solvable”
    In fact, the more we try to clarify and solve them logically, the more they diverge. If we push them to extremes we end up with pairs of conflicting opposites, dichotomies such as
    “Freedom vs. Discipline,”
    “Growth vs. Decay,”
    “Dependence vs. Independence,” or
    “Simplicity vs. Success.”
  • Time to Re-think Human Organization and Change
    Global Context of Change
    Guiding Images of the Future
    No Limits to Cooperation—value nets, complimentary partnerships, combining competition and cooperation
    A Positive Revolution in Change Research
    Positive Psychology Movement
    “Whole System” Excellence—agility, speed, accelerated learning, execution and follow through; reality of SCALE
    Sustainable Design: Sustainability as the 21st Century Business Opportunity?
  • http://www.authentichappiness.org/
    VIA Signature Strengths Survey
    Resources at This Website
    17 more happiness questionnaires
    Other pioneers in Positive Psychology have opened the door.
  • Science of Human Strengths
    Six categories of character strengths or virtues
    Wisdom & Knowledge – creativity, curiosity, perspective
    Courage – persistence, bravery, integrity
    Humanity – love, kindness, emotional intelligence
    Justice – Citizenship, responsibility, fairness, leadership
    Temperance – forgiveness, humility-modesty, self-control
    Transcendence – appreciation, purpose hope, humor, spiritualitySource Peterson and Seligman 2004
    Source: Peterson & Seligman (2004)
    Source: Peterson & Seligman (2004)
    Source: Peterson & Seligman (2004)
  • Peter Drucker quoted by David Cooperrider PhD
    “The task of leadership is to create an alignment of strengths…
    making a system’s weaknesses irrelevant”.
  • Positive Emotions BroadenThought-Action Repertoires
    Joy…………………………...play, innovate
    Interest…………………….expansive, explore
    Contentment……………...savor, integrate
    Love…………………………..connect, relate
  • Empirical Support for “Broaden and Build” Theory of Change
    Three “Revolutionary” Contributions:
    Broaden Attention and Thinking(Fredrickson & Branigan, 2002; Waugh & Fredrickson, in prep)
    Undo Lingering Negative Emotional Arousal(Fredrickson & Levenson, 1998; Fredrickson, Mancuso, Branigan & Tugade, 2000)
    Fuel Resilient Coping, Like Immune System
    (Fredrickson, Tugade, Waugh & Larkin, 2002; Tugade & Fredrickson, 2002)
  • Empirical Support
    Over time, Positive Emotions:
    Prevent depression
    (Fredrickson, Tugade, Waugh, & Larkin, 2002)
    Build optimism, and resilience, and elevated relationships of benefit (Fredrickson, Tugade, Waugh, & Larkin, 2002; Haight 2003)
    Trigger Upward Spirals to Increase Well-being (Fredrickson & Joiner, 2002; Tugade & Fredrickson, 2002)
  • Many Disciplines
    Positive Images of Future ---> Positive Action
    Positive Health…Placebo, etc.
    Pygmalion: We are Made and Imagined In Each Others Eyes
    What Good are Positive Emotions? Inspiration, Hope, Joy
    Contentment and Interest (Barbara Fredrickson PhD)
    Imbalanced “Inner Dialogue”& Energy Networks
  • Quick conversation…
    What areas of the “positive” connected approaches —Pygmalion, inner dialogue, “what good are positive emotions”, rise and fall of cultures, affirmative capability—are most interesting to you?
    Other research? An experience for your life?
    “Positive Deviance” (a recent variant)
    Is there a “generative” principle at play?
  • Dee Hock, Founder & CEO--Visa
    We are at the very point in time when a 400-year old age is dying and another is struggling to be born, a shifting of culture, science, society, and institutions enormously greater than the world has ever experienced. Ahead, the possibility of the regeneration of relationships, liberty, community, and ethics such as the world has never known, and a harmony with nature, with one another, and with the divine intelligence such as the world has never dreamed.
  • Principles of “AI”
    Constructionist Principle
    Principle of Simultaneity
    Open Book - “Poetic Principle”
    Anticipatory Principle
    Positive Principle
    And a 6th – Awareness Principle
    (added by Dynamic Relationship Authors)
  • WHAT is AI (AppreciativeInquiry)?
    Appreciative Inquiry is a simple technique with a complex background. It is also a philosophy or a way of being.
    It has been used successfully all over the world to consult with people and learn from their experiences, to involve a whole community in change and development and to builda vision for the future that everyone can share and help put into practice
    Appreciative Inquiry as a technique -- can easily be learned and adapted for a range of situations.
    As well as being a good surveying method, it has also been found to be of benefit in a community training session.
    It is an approach that involvesand engages people. It encourages listening and communication skills and above all it empowers individuals and demonstrates respect for their views.
    See http://ai.cwru.edu and www.appreciativeinquiry.net.au
  • Inquiry is about asking
    What we ask determines what we discover
    What we discover determines how we talk
    How we talk determines how we dream (envision possibilities) together
    How we dream determines what we design and create together
  • Could it Be… Catalysing Change Might Be All About Strengths?
    Why would strength connected to strength…create change?
    Its often been said that strengths perform, but how about the idea that strengths do more than perform, they transform?
    What would it mean to create an entire change theory around strengths?
    (David Cooperrider PhD)
  • What is AI? (Appreciative Inquiry) 1
    Appreciate
    1. Valuing …
    The act of recognising the best in people and the world around us;
    Affirming past and present strengths, successes, and potentials;
    To perceive those things that give life (health, vitality, and excellence) to living systems.
    2. To increase in value, e.g. the economy has appreciated in value.
    Synonyms: valuing, prizing, esteeming,and honouring.
  • What is AI? (Appreciative Inquiry) 2
    INQUIRY (also enquiry)
    1. The act of exploration and discovery.
    2. To ask questions; to be open to seeing new potentials and possibilities.
    Synonyms: discovery, search, studyand systematic exploration.
    ….to learn by asking
    In Macquarie – 1.an investigation into a matter.2. the act of inquiring or seeking information by questioning. Also, enquiry.
  • What does the practice of AI look like?
    AI centres at around two basic questions:
    1. What in this particular setting has already made (your strategic topic/focus) possible?
    2. What possibilities exist, expressed or latent, to do (strategic topic/focus) even better in the future?
  • Success Cause Analysis
    It is the first question that makes AI unique -- and it is "fateful".
    Why invoke the past to change the future?
    It is the "best of the past" question that reveals those processes, factors and behaviours that lead to (extraordinary) success.
    This "success cause analysis" -- the Discovery process -- reveals the "positive core".
  • What we focus on GROWS
    This revealed positive core influences the dreams and ideas about future possibilities.
    Bolder, brighter, and more uncommon.
    Away from the incremental drift of most strategic planning processes
    Creative rather than “patching” and “fixing”.
  • The “Positive Core”
    Achievements
    Core competencies
    Key success factors
    Visions of possibility
    Vital traditions, values
    Positive macro trends
    Social capital
    Embedded knowledge
    Business ecosystems (e.g., suppliers, partners, competitors, customers)
    Organization wisdom
    Strategic opportunities
    Product strengths
    Technical assets
    Innovations
    Elevated thoughts
    Best business practices
    Positive emotions
    Financial assets
    Relational resources
  • The “Positive Core”
    Ai systematically and collaboratively creates a knowledge link between the entire enterprise and the life-generating “positive core” of past, present, and future capacities…and this ignites change.
    Can you see that this (the link igniting change) might be so?
  • The AI 4-D Model -
    Affirmative
    Topic
    Plus DEFINE scope or theme
    Discovery
    “What gives life?”
    The best of what is.
    Appreciating
    Deliver
    “How to empower, learn, and improvise?”
    Sustaining
    Dream
    “What might be?”
    Envisioning
    Results/Impact
    Positive Core
    Design
    “What should be – the ideal?”
    Co-constructing
  • The AI 4-D Model – Roadway Ex.
    Affirmative
    Topic
    DEFINE
    16 people at Akron
    Discovery
    “What we are at our best?
    Positive Core
    Appreciating
    Destiny
    Action Projects Ongoing learning,
    Inclusion of others
    Dream
    “What might be?”
    Envisioning
    Results/Impact
    Our future Employee driven throughput
    Design
    3 yr Aspiration
    Statements
  • AI SUMMIT – large scale – 3 days
    Overview of what happened at Roadways
    Refer excerpts from Akron Terminal material – the actual worksheets used. See handout
    Discovery involves “digging” for underlying factors that “give life” – “tell the story”.
    Narrative Principle
    Interview (Discovery) couples – unlikely!
    Next step is for pairs to regroup into larger groups of 6/8 and discover the PC or DNA of success in that organisation.
  • Roadways Express
    (now Yellow Roadway)
    Throughput
    improved 47% to 64%
    • Transit speed reduced 2.3 to 2.1 days
    • Production efficiency - 59% to 64%
    • Grievances down 300
    to 0 at 1 site
    • Stock price doubled during a recession
  • DREAM (imagine)
    Dream questions: Imagine all that could be
    Put yourself 3 years into the future…deep sleep………
    How………..?
    What………..?
    How did this ……………?
    (see handout)
    67 change ideas (180 participants 8 per table )
  • Facilitating and sorting “flyers”
    Processes to record all ideas then selecting common elements - prioritising / voting.
    Sticky dots, rounds – “needs more work” etc
    DISCUSSION by this group as to different processes to achieve this. Minority voice.
    We will be doing an AI of our own so will practice some of these ideas.
  • DESIGN – PP – action plans
    What kind of ‘architecture’, organisational forms, policies, and structures will enable the cooperative capacity necessary to make these imaginative outcomes and highest wishes a reality?
    Creating (designing) foundations upon which guiding structures are built.
    Leadership, reward systems, etc
    What needs changing?
    How implement dreams? (DETAIL)
  • Provocative Propositions
    An example:
    RE is the #1 transportation provider in the world due to our unsurpassed throughput service. “Team-sell” is contagious. Each employee is a stakeholder engaged in celebrating the success of the company. Customers are honoured to have RE 211 employees handle their business. All customer contact workgroups are key components to our success. They are recognized as the best-trained, most highly motivated sales force in the universe.
    No competitor is safe
  • another example of PP - US Navy
    AI into “leaders at every level”
    Navy learning and development
    Education and training are the foundation of the empowered culture of excellence in the Navy. We foster leadership that and carriages, challenges and supports all members of the organisation to engage in ongoing learning, both personal and professional. The Maybe provides lifelong learning and education opportunities that support a sense of purpose, and direction and continual growth. This in turn nurtures the strength and confidence people need to achieve their full personal and professional potential. (see handout)
  • Destiny (Delivery)
    Aim is to ensure that the shared dreamscan be realised through the “blueprint” of desired action/outcomes.
    Specific action planning, scenario building and role allocation for the next steps.
    This may include involving others (expertise)
    Implementation plans using a common template (see p120 of handout for Roadways) examples of AP follow
  • Implementation Plan example
    Supervisors and dock workers working together to experiment with short information exchanges at start of each shift that involve more union members initiating and leading discussions.
    This has since catalysed into a major restructure of the dock workers into self-managed “the zone teams” were supervisors are serving in new roles as mentors and coaches.
  • Drivers become sales associates
    “local pickup and delivery (P&D)drivers organising and being equipped to generate new, short notice business from customers they see most often, becoming part of the customer sales representative team.
    Note that title change now in effect.
    Pilot mentoring program involving senior union members coaching and new/Junior members to reduce absenteeism.
    Many more to give results noted.
  • The appreciative approach has many applications
    One can do an appreciative inquiry into any subject.
    Strategically relevant and
    Attractive to those invited into the inquiry.
  • Starting an AI Interview (dialogue in pairs) 1
    Although the word “interview” is used it is important to note that the objective of the Discovery (inquiry) is best achieved by considerable preparatory work to ensure that the “interview” is more a dialogue or narrative. (see www.ImagineChicago.org)
    In this regard emphasis is given to the importance of “active listening” and asking.
  • Starting an AI Interview (dialogue in pairs) 2
    A-->B (20/25 min) DISCOVERY
    B-->A (20/25 min)
    Refer to workbook. (p4 – 12)
    Spirit of discovery
    Take brief notes – sufficient to prompt.
    At the end.. summary & thanks
    This is just an example. Try it. The Energy.
    We need to frame up the scenario and agree on TOPIC (What it would take for all us at XYZ to really enjoy coming to work)
    Pairs and then groups of 4/6 which will present to all.
  • REFLECTION on the discovery stage.
    How do and did you feel?
    What was your experience of this process?
    What did you learn?
    What is your experience of energy levels?
    Enthusiasm, hope, interest, joy?
    Let’s get into DREAMING after we visit some other ideas.
    • Appreciate “What is” (What gives life?)
    • Imagine “What Might Be”
    • Determine “What Should Be”
    • Create “What Will Be”
    Metaphor: Organisations are centres of relationship embedded in a world of infinite capacity—ever expansive “webs of strength”
    Appreciative Inquiry
  • From “The Power of Appreciative Inquiry: A Practical Guide to Positive Change”
    Affirmative Topic Choice
    Positive Core
    Discovery “Appreciate what is”
    Dream “Imagine what might be”
    Design “Determine what should be”
    Destiny (Delivery) “Create what will be”
  • Positive (affirmative) Topic Choice
    Human systems move in the direction of what we deeply and persistently ask questions about –like plants and the sun.
    Transformational topics are possible in any situation, and will generate more positive change—every time.
    The skill of framing and re-framing
  • Best Way to Build High Engagement & Enthusiasm?
    • Magnify and learn from moments of highest engagement & enthusiasm?
    Don’t ignore “bad news” – in fact ensure it surfaces very early
    - Otherwise it may come to bite you!
  • The Theory of Positive Change
    Transformation comes more from pursuing profound questions than seeking practical answers.
    -- Peter Block, The Answer to How is Yes
    • Human systems move in the direction of their images of the future
    • Images of the future are formed in relationship and conversation
    • Relationships and conversation are formed, in part by the questions we ask…
    • Therefore… the questions we ask are “fateful”.
    • A process, as well as an outcome
  • Positive Topic Creation: Examples
    Organisation in “Full Voice”
    Transformational Cooperation
    Revolutionary Customer Response
    Magnetic Work Environment
    Outstanding Arrival Experiences
    Liberating Collaboration
    Optimising Margins
    Empowering & Enlightened Leadership
    “Lightning Fast Consensus”
  • DESIGN and Delivery
    See other slides
  • Appreciative approach by UN
  • Next Steps …
    The best way to predict the future is to create it.
    (Peter Drucker)
  • A hard look at soft numbers
    In 1999 Gallup released some research that supported the concept that a “happy workplace” actually translates to a healthier bottom line.
    To put it another way it was found that:
    “Employee Engagement” is a leading indicator and correlates with other more tangible business outcomes.
    From: The relationship between employee perceptions and business outcomes by Curt Coffman and Jim Harter, Ph.D.
  • Gallup Research shows: -
    Successful companies and, even more specifically, successful business units within any company, have different profiles of employee perceptions than less successful organizations and business units.
    The data clearly show that within successful business units employees have clear expectations, close relationships, can see how what they do relates to “something significant,” and have an ongoing opportunity to contribute to that “something significant” while learning and growing as individuals.
    Further, the behaviors that help to define these seemingly intangible perceptions can be discovered by studying the success within one’s own organization.
    MARCH 1999 ©1999 THE GALLUP ORGANIZATION
  • Step 2 Formulate P Questions
    – Anatomy (p65 in Encyclopedia)
    Starting by “priming the pump” – Lead in Q
    Lead to personal experience and insight
    Resonate with the yearning for meaning
    Personal and affective – the human angle
    Qualities that “give life” (spirit) and are also practical – “whole brained” responses.
    Follow on – time frames, senses and imagination –telling stories and learning
    Please discuss and add your points.
  • Focal theme leads to topics
    Focal Theme: Strategic Planning
    Topics could be: _
    Strategic Advantage (p 48)
    Best in class (p 7/8)
    Strategic opportunity (p 49)
  • Focal theme leads to topics
    Theme: Organisation Culture Change
    Topics could be: -
    Compelling Communication (p 11)
    Joy in job well done (p 27)
    Teamwork (p 50)
  • Focal theme leads to topics
    Theme: Leadership
    Topics could be: -
    Inspirational Leadership (p 29)
    Irresistible Leadership (p 30)
    Participatory Decision Making ( p 19)
    Integrity in action (p 26)
  • Constructing the Guide (protocol)
    Choose an Affirmative Topic (s) – Theme
    Formulate (OR CHOOSE) Positive Questions around the topics
    Construct your own Guide(using template)
    Conduct the “interview”. (tips on conducting “interviews” in handout material)
  • Some other considerations about questions follow
  • Imagine Chicago questions to consider
    What constitutes “high quality” intergenerational interviewing?
    And how can we tell if it has made a difference?
    How can the individual transformation generated by the interviewing process lead to change on larger levels?
  • Imagine Chicago questions to consider 2
    What specific relationships, practices, and institutionalizing strategies must be put into place to ensure that individual change carries over into the public realm?
    What practices and supports must be in place to keep young people meaningfully engaged in community change efforts?
  • Imagine Chicago questions to consider 3
    How can communities sustain the energy, enthusiasm, and passion generated by positive visioning processes?
    How is hope kept alive when visioning confronts very real inequities and deprivations? How can hope infuse and nurture the implementation of specific action for community change?
    Answering questions like these will not be easy, but there is, happily, a growing community of individuals and organizations who are committed to tackling them. Imagine Chicago enriches this community.
  • Practical exercises on Questions
  • What is Appreciative Inquiry?
    It is a Strengths-based Approach to Transition, Growth and Change
    'AI' is an affirmative approach which builds on core strengths and values to create a positive, powerful and compelling future for an individual, group, business, organization or community. Emerging from the fields of positive organizational development and paralleling the positive psychology movement, it has received world-wide acclaim for the quick and sustainable results it produces in organizations and communities. AI is now being used to similar advantage in personal coaching as well.
  • How will you benefit?
    An introduction to the theory, practice and MAGIC of Appreciative Inquiry. It offers some simple steps and tools you can use immediately in your life and work. Focusing on what already works, AI helps you discover your own strengths, talents, wisdom and resources and develop a riveting dream of the future. The AI process will guide you to create the structures, alliances and plans that will allow fulfillment of the dream. You will begin to find greater work/life success.
  • Using Joy for a change
    Appreciative Inquiry (AI) is a powerful change process using positive questions, past successes, vision and values and an overall appreciative approach. Unfolding in 5 major phases - Define, Discover, Dream, Design, Deliver -- AI encourages people to acknowledge strengths, values and personal and professional high points, imagine a compelling future and build structures and relationships that help them craft inspired, innovative plans to fulfill their dreams. It unleashes excellence and joy.
  • Listserv discussions example
    To me the irreducible essence of Appreciative Inquiry lies in the "Tell Me About A Time" discovery question. The question invites/encourages/assists/permissions the speaker to construct a new reality in the now; this happens as they play the mind movie that lets them answer the question. And the process very frequently induces a new and desirable feeling state in her/him. The process also can induce similar feeling state in the questioner who's inner being/computer rewards him/her with feeling good for assisting the other person (I'm having a nestor cube/wheel within a wheel moment over this).
    The question is likely to be successful in engaging when the asker communicates authentic interest - which is highly dependent on tonality/body language/and facial expression.
  • Listserv Discussion example 2
    A second and powerful question is the "without being humble what did you do" question
    These questions and the admiring listening create coaching moments - so all Appreciative Inquirers are "coaching"
    These comments have not addressed a main piece of Sue's message - can we generate emotion from physical movement (eg smiling). Well, we never do know what will happen do we - and we can always find something to admire - so Sue I am hugely in your debt for throwing that thought particle into the cyclotron of my mind.
    By the way, Sue's E mail considered emotions and facial expression - where is thinking. My sense is that AI works by stimulating thoughts - and the thoughts … then generate feeling states and movements. See Positivity by Barbara Fredrickson.
  • Acknowledgements
    We all build on the shoulders of giants.
    The AI Commons in particular and all the contributors (AI practitioners) – especially David Cooperrider PhD, the originator and thought leader of AI are thanked and acknowledged for most of the material that these slides are built on.
    I have used this material from the AI Commons with permission.
    Visit: www.appreciativeinquiry.net.au