Techniques and PrinciplesTechniques and Principlesin Language Teachingin Language TeachingYueh-chiu Helen WangYueh-chiu Helen Wang
IntroductionIntroduction The actions are the techniquesThe actions are the techniquesand the thoughts are theand the thoughts are theprinciples. It is important toprinciples. It is important torecognize that methods linkrecognize that methods linkthoughts and actions becausethoughts and actions becauseteaching is not entirely aboutteaching is not entirely aboutone or the other.one or the other.
You have thoughts about yourYou have thoughts about yoursubject matter—what languagesubject matter—what languageis, what culture is—and aboutis, what culture is—and aboutyour students—who they are asyour students—who they are aslearners and how it is they learn.learners and how it is they learn.You have also have thoughtsYou have also have thoughtsabout yourself as a teacher andabout yourself as a teacher andwhat you can do to help yourwhat you can do to help yourstudents learn.students learn.
It is very important for you toIt is very important for you tobecome aware of the thoughtsbecome aware of the thoughtsthat guide your actions in thethat guide your actions in theclassroom.classroom.
Everyone knows that being aEveryone knows that being agood teacher means givinggood teacher means givingpositive feedback to studentspositive feedback to studentsand being concerned about theirand being concerned about theiraffective side on their feelings.affective side on their feelings.
Learning to listen to themselvesLearning to listen to themselvesis part of lessening their relianceis part of lessening their relianceon the teacher. The teacher willon the teacher. The teacher willnot always be there. Also, theynot always be there. Also, theywill be encouraged to formwill be encouraged to formcriteria for correcting theircriteria for correcting theirmistakes—for monitoring theirmistakes—for monitoring theirown progress.own progress.
Observing a class will give youObserving a class will give youa greater understanding of aa greater understanding of aparticular method and will giveparticular method and will giveyou more of an opportunity toyou more of an opportunity toreflect on your own practicereflect on your own practicethan if you were to simply read athan if you were to simply read adescription of it.description of it.
Ten questionsTen questions 1. What are the goals of1. What are the goals ofteachers who use this method?teachers who use this method? 2. What is the role of the2. What is the role of theteacher? What is the role of theteacher? What is the role of thestudents?students?3. What are some3. What are somecharacteristics of thecharacteristics of theteaching/learning process?teaching/learning process?
4. What is the nature of student-4. What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is theteacher interaction? What is thenature of student-studentnature of student-studentinteraction?interaction? 5. How are the feelings of the5. How are the feelings of thestudents dealt with?students dealt with? 6. How is language viewed?6. How is language viewed?How is culture viewed?How is culture viewed?
7. What areas of language are7. What areas of language areemphasized? What languageemphasized? What languageskills are emphasized?skills are emphasized? 8. What is the role of the8. What is the role of thestudents’ native language?students’ native language? 9. How is evaluation9. How is evaluationaccomplished?accomplished?
10. How does the teacher10. How does the teacherrespond to student errors?respond to student errors?
The Grammar-TranslationThe Grammar-TranslationMethodMethod The Grammar-TranslationThe Grammar-TranslationMethod was called the ClassicalMethod was called the ClassicalMethod since it was first used inMethod since it was first used inthe teaching of the classicalthe teaching of the classicallanguages, Latin and Greeklanguages, Latin and Greek(Chastian, 1988).(Chastian, 1988).
This method was used for theThis method was used for thepurpose of helping studentspurpose of helping studentsread and appreciate foreignread and appreciate foreignlanguage literature. Throughlanguage literature. Throughthe study of the grammar of thethe study of the grammar of thetarget language, students wouldtarget language, students wouldbecome more familiar with thebecome more familiar with thegrammar of their nativegrammar of their nativelanguage and that this familiaritylanguage and that this familiaritywith the grammar of their nativewith the grammar of their native
language better. Finally, it waslanguage better. Finally, it wasthought that foreign languagethought that foreign languagelearning would help studentslearning would help studentsgrow intellectually.grow intellectually.
PrinciplesPrinciples Learning a foreign language isLearning a foreign language isto be able to read literatureto be able to read literaturewritten in it. Literary language iswritten in it. Literary language issuperior to spoken language. Ifsuperior to spoken language. Ifstudents can translate from onestudents can translate from onelanguage into another, they arelanguage into another, they areconsidered successful languageconsidered successful languagelearners.learners.
The ability to communicate inThe ability to communicate inthe target language is not a goalthe target language is not a goalof foreign language instruction.of foreign language instruction. The primary skills to beThe primary skills to bedeveloped are reading anddeveloped are reading andwriting. Little attention is givenwriting. Little attention is givento speaking and listening andto speaking and listening andalmost none to pronunciation.almost none to pronunciation.
The teacher is the authority inThe teacher is the authority inthe classroom. It is verythe classroom. It is veryimportant that students get theimportant that students get thecorrect answer.correct answer. Learning is facilitated throughLearning is facilitated throughattention to similarities betweenattention to similarities betweenthe target language and thethe target language and thenative language.native language.
Deductive application of anDeductive application of anexplicit grammar rule is a usefulexplicit grammar rule is a usefulpedagogical technique.pedagogical technique. Language learning providesLanguage learning providesgood mental exercise.good mental exercise.
Students should be conscious ofStudents should be conscious ofthe grammatical rules of thethe grammatical rules of thetarget language.target language.
There is little student initiationThere is little student initiationand little student-studentand little student-studentinteraction.interaction. There are no principles of theThere are no principles of themethod which relate to students’method which relate to students’feelings.feelings.
Vocabulary and grammar areVocabulary and grammar areemphasized. Reading andemphasized. Reading andwriting are the primary skills thatwriting are the primary skills thatthe students work on.the students work on.
The role of the students’The role of the students’native languagenative language The meaning of the targetThe meaning of the targetlanguage is made clear bylanguage is made clear bytranslating the students’ nativetranslating the students’ nativelanguage. The language that islanguage. The language that isused in class is mostly theused in class is mostly thestudents’ native language.students’ native language.
How is evaluationHow is evaluationaccomplished?accomplished? Written tests in which studentsWritten tests in which studentsare asked to translate from theirare asked to translate from theirnative language to the targetnative language to the targetlanguage or vice versa are oftenlanguage or vice versa are oftenused.used.
How does the teacherHow does the teacherrespond to student errors?respond to student errors? Having the students get theHaving the students get thecorrect answer is consideredcorrect answer is consideredvery important.very important.
The Direct MethodThe Direct Method The Direct Method has one veryThe Direct Method has one verybasic rule: No translation isbasic rule: No translation isallowed. Meaning is to beallowed. Meaning is to beconveyed directly in the targetconveyed directly in the targetlanguage through the use oflanguage through the use ofdemonstration and visual aids.demonstration and visual aids.
PrinciplesPrinciples The reading skill will beThe reading skill will bedeveloped through practice withdeveloped through practice withspeaking. Language is primarilyspeaking. Language is primarilyspeech. Culture consists ofspeech. Culture consists ofmore than the fine arts(e.g. themore than the fine arts(e.g. thestudents study geography andstudents study geography andcultural attitudes).cultural attitudes).
Objects (e.g. realia or pictures)Objects (e.g. realia or pictures)present in the immediatepresent in the immediateclassroom environment shouldclassroom environment shouldbe used to help studentsbe used to help studentsunderstand the meaning.understand the meaning. The native language should notThe native language should notbe used in the classroom.be used in the classroom.
The teacher shouldThe teacher shoulddemonstrate, not explain ordemonstrate, not explain ortranslate. It is desirable thattranslate. It is desirable thatstudents make a directstudents make a directassociation between the targetassociation between the targetlanguage and meaning.language and meaning.
Students should learn to think inStudents should learn to think inthe target language as soon asthe target language as soon aspossible. Vocabulary ispossible. Vocabulary isacquired more naturally ifacquired more naturally ifstudents use it in full sentencesstudents use it in full sentencesrather than memorizing wordrather than memorizing wordlists.lists.
The purpose of languageThe purpose of languagelearning is communication.learning is communication. Pronunciation should be workedPronunciation should be workedon right from the beginning ofon right from the beginning oflanguage instruction.language instruction.
Self-correction facilitatesSelf-correction facilitateslanguage learning.language learning. Lessons should contain someLessons should contain someconversational activity—someconversational activity—someopportunity for students to useopportunity for students to uselanguage in real contexts.language in real contexts.Students should be encouragedStudents should be encouragedto speak as much as possible.to speak as much as possible.
Grammar should be taughtGrammar should be taughtinductively. There may neverinductively. There may neverbe an explicit grammar rulebe an explicit grammar rulegiven.given. Writing is an important skill, toWriting is an important skill, tobe developed from thebe developed from thebeginning of languagebeginning of languageinstruction.instruction.
The syllabus is based onThe syllabus is based onsituations or topics, not usuallysituations or topics, not usuallyon linguistic structures.on linguistic structures. Learning another language alsoLearning another language alsoinvolves learning how speakersinvolves learning how speakersof that language live.of that language live.
What are the goals of teachersWhat are the goals of teacherswho use the Direct Method?who use the Direct Method? Teachers who use the DirectTeachers who use the DirectMethod intend that studentsMethod intend that studentslearn how to communicate in thelearn how to communicate in thetarget language. In order to dotarget language. In order to dothis successfully, studentsthis successfully, studentsshould learn to think in theshould learn to think in thetarget language.target language.
What is the role of teacher?What is the role of teacher? Although the teacher directs theAlthough the teacher directs theclass activities, the student roleclass activities, the student roleis less passive than in theis less passive than in theGrammar-Translation Method.Grammar-Translation Method.The teacher and the studentsThe teacher and the studentsare more like partners in theare more like partners in theteaching/learning process.teaching/learning process.
What are some characteristics ofWhat are some characteristics ofthe teaching/learning process?the teaching/learning process? Teachers believe students needTeachers believe students needto associate meaning and theto associate meaning and thetarget language directly.target language directly.Students speak in the targetStudents speak in the targetlanguage a great deal andlanguage a great deal andcommunicate as if they were incommunicate as if they were inreal situations. The syllabus isreal situations. The syllabus isbased upon situations or topics.based upon situations or topics.
What is the nature of student-What is the nature of student-teacher interaction?teacher interaction? The initiation of the interactionThe initiation of the interactiongoes both ways, from teacher togoes both ways, from teacher tostudents and from student tostudents and from student toteacher, although the latter isteacher, although the latter isoften teacher-directed.often teacher-directed.
How are the feelings of theHow are the feelings of thestudents dealt with?students dealt with? There are no principles of theThere are no principles of themethods which relate to thismethods which relate to thisarea.area.
How is language viewed?How is language viewed? Language is primarily spoken,Language is primarily spoken,not written.not written.
What areas of language areWhat areas of language areemphasized?emphasized? Vocabulary is emphasized overVocabulary is emphasized overgrammar.grammar.
What is the role of theWhat is the role of thestudents’ native language?students’ native language? Students’ native languageStudents’ native languageshould not be used in theshould not be used in theclassroom.classroom.
How is evaluationHow is evaluationaccomplished?accomplished? The students might beThe students might beinterviewed orally by the teacherinterviewed orally by the teacheror might be asked to write aor might be asked to write aparagraph about something theyparagraph about something theyhave studied.have studied.
How does the teacherHow does the teacherrespond to student errors?respond to student errors? The teacher, employing variousThe teacher, employing varioustechniques, tries to get studentstechniques, tries to get studentsto self-correct wheneverto self-correct wheneverpossible.possible.
The Audio-Lingual MethodThe Audio-Lingual Method The Audio-Lingual Method, likeThe Audio-Lingual Method, likethe Direct Method, is also anthe Direct Method, is also anoral-based approach. However,oral-based approach. However,it is very different in that theit is very different in that theAudio-Lingual Method drillsAudio-Lingual Method drillsstudents in the use ofstudents in the use ofgrammatical sentence patterns.grammatical sentence patterns.
It also,unlike the Direct Method, hasIt also,unlike the Direct Method, hasa strong theoretical base ina strong theoretical base inlinguistics and psychology. It haslinguistics and psychology. It hasprinciples from behavioralprinciples from behavioralpsychology (Skinner, 1957)werepsychology (Skinner, 1957)wereincorporated. It was thought that theincorporated. It was thought that theway to acquire the sentence patternsway to acquire the sentence patternsof the target language was throughof the target language was throughconditioning—helping learners toconditioning—helping learners torespond correctly to stimuli throughrespond correctly to stimuli throughshaping and reinforcement.shaping and reinforcement.
Learners could overcome theLearners could overcome thehabits of their native languagehabits of their native languageand from the new habitsand from the new habitsrequired to be target languagerequired to be target languagespeakers.speakers.
The Audiolingual MethodThe Audiolingual Method The Audio-lingual Method, likeThe Audio-lingual Method, likethe Direct Method, is also anthe Direct Method, is also anoral-based approach. However,oral-based approach. However,it is very different in that theit is very different in that theAudio-Lingual Method drillsAudio-Lingual Method drillsstudents in the use ofstudents in the use ofgrammatical sentence patterns.grammatical sentence patterns.
It was thought that the way toIt was thought that the way toacquire the sentence patterns of theacquire the sentence patterns of thetarget language was throughtarget language was throughconditioning—helping learners toconditioning—helping learners torespond correctly to stimuli throughrespond correctly to stimuli throughshaping and reinforcement.shaping and reinforcement.Learners could overcome the habitsLearners could overcome the habitsof their native language and form theof their native language and form thenew habits required to be targetnew habits required to be targetlanguage speakers.language speakers.
PrinciplesPrinciples Language forms do not occur byLanguage forms do not occur bythemselves; they occur mostthemselves; they occur mostnaturally within a context.naturally within a context.
The native language and theThe native language and thetarget language have separatetarget language have separatelinguistic systems. They shouldlinguistic systems. They shouldbe kept apart so that thebe kept apart so that thestudents’ native languagestudents’ native languageinterferes as little as possibleinterferes as little as possiblewith the students’ attempts towith the students’ attempts toacquire the target language.acquire the target language.
The language teacher’s roleThe language teacher’s role One of the language teacher’sOne of the language teacher’smajor roles is that of a model ofmajor roles is that of a model ofthe target language. Teachersthe target language. Teachersshould provide students with ashould provide students with agood model. By listening to howgood model. By listening to howit is supposed to sound,it is supposed to sound,students should be able tostudents should be able tomimic the model.mimic the model.
Language learning is a processLanguage learning is a processof habit formation. The moreof habit formation. The moreoften something is repeated, theoften something is repeated, thestronger the habit and thestronger the habit and thegreater the learning.greater the learning.
It is important to preventIt is important to preventlearners from making errors.learners from making errors.Errors lead to the formation ofErrors lead to the formation ofbad habits. When errors dobad habits. When errors dooccur, they should beoccur, they should beimmediately corrected by theimmediately corrected by theteacher.teacher.
The purpose of languageThe purpose of languagelearning is to learn how to uselearning is to learn how to usethe language to communicate.the language to communicate.
Particular parts of speechParticular parts of speechoccupy particular ‘slots’ inoccupy particular ‘slots’ insentences. In order to createsentences. In order to createnew sentences, students mustnew sentences, students mustlearn which part of speechlearn which part of speechoccupies which slot.occupies which slot.
Positive reinforcement helps thePositive reinforcement helps thestudents to develop correctstudents to develop correcthabits.habits.
Students should learn toStudents should learn torespond to both verbal andrespond to both verbal andnonverbal stimuli.nonverbal stimuli.
Pattern practice helps studentsPattern practice helps studentsto form habits which enable theto form habits which enable thestudents to use the patterns.students to use the patterns.
Students should ‘overlearn’,Students should ‘overlearn’,learn to answer automaticallylearn to answer automaticallywithout stopping to think.without stopping to think.
The teacher should be like anThe teacher should be like anorchestra leader—conducting,orchestra leader—conducting,guiding, and controlling theguiding, and controlling thestudents’ behavior in the targetstudents’ behavior in the targetlanguage.language.
The major objective of languageThe major objective of languageteaching should be for studentsteaching should be for studentsto acquire the structuralto acquire the structuralpatterns; students will learnpatterns; students will learnvocabulary afterward.vocabulary afterward.
The learning of a foreignThe learning of a foreignlanguage should be the samelanguage should be the sameas the acquisition of the nativeas the acquisition of the nativelanguage. The rules necessarylanguage. The rules necessaryto use the target language willto use the target language willbe figured out or induced frombe figured out or induced fromexamples.examples.
The major challenge of foreignThe major challenge of foreignlanguage teaching is gettinglanguage teaching is gettingstudents to overcome the habitsstudents to overcome the habitsof their native language.of their native language.
Speech is more basic toSpeech is more basic tolanguage than the written form.language than the written form.The ‘natural order’ –the orderThe ‘natural order’ –the orderchildren follow when learningchildren follow when learningtheir native language—of skilltheir native language—of skillacquisition is: listening,acquisition is: listening,speaking, reading, and writing.speaking, reading, and writing.
Language cannot be separatedLanguage cannot be separatedfrom culture. Culture is not onlyfrom culture. Culture is not onlyliterature and the arts, but alsoliterature and the arts, but alsothe everyday behavior of thethe everyday behavior of thepeople who use the targetpeople who use the targetlanguage. One of the teacher’slanguage. One of the teacher’sresponsibilities is to presentresponsibilities is to presentinformation about that culture.information about that culture.
The nature of student-teacherThe nature of student-teacherinteractioninteraction Most of the interactions isMost of the interactions isbetween teacher and studentsbetween teacher and studentsand is initiated by the teacher.and is initiated by the teacher.
How is language viewed?How is language viewed? Everyday speech is emphasizedEveryday speech is emphasizedin the Audio-lingual Method.in the Audio-lingual Method.The level of complexity of theThe level of complexity of thespeech is graded, so thatspeech is graded, so thatbeginning students arebeginning students arepresented with only simplepresented with only simplepatterns. Culture consists of thepatterns. Culture consists of theeveryday behavior and lifestyleeveryday behavior and lifestyleof the target language speakers.of the target language speakers.
What areas of language areWhat areas of language areemphasized?emphasized? Vocabulary is kept to aVocabulary is kept to aminimum while the students areminimum while the students aremastering the wound systemmastering the wound systemand grammatical patterns.and grammatical patterns.
The oral/aural skills receiveThe oral/aural skills receivemost of the attention.most of the attention.Pronunciation is taught from thePronunciation is taught from thebeginning, often by studentsbeginning, often by studentsworking in language laboratoriesworking in language laboratorieson discriminating betweenon discriminating betweenmembers of minimal pairs.members of minimal pairs.
The role of the students’The role of the students’native languagenative language The target language is used inThe target language is used inthe classroom, not the students’the classroom, not the students’native language.native language.
How is evaluationHow is evaluationaccomplished?accomplished? Students might be asked toStudents might be asked todistinguish between words in adistinguish between words in aminimal pair, for example, or tominimal pair, for example, or tosupply an appropriate verb formsupply an appropriate verb formin a sentence.in a sentence.
How does the teacherHow does the teacherrespond to student errors?respond to student errors? Student errors are to be avoidedStudent errors are to be avoidedif at all possible through theif at all possible through theteacher’s awareness of whereteacher’s awareness of wherethe students will have difficultythe students will have difficultyand restriction of what they areand restriction of what they aretaught to say.taught to say.
The role of instructionalThe role of instructionalmaterialsmaterials Instructional materials in theInstructional materials in theAudiolingual Method assist theAudiolingual Method assist theteacher to develop languageteacher to develop languagemastery in the learner. Theymastery in the learner. Theyare primary teacher-oriented.are primary teacher-oriented. Tape recorders and audiovisualTape recorders and audiovisualequipment often have centralequipment often have centralroles in an audiolingual course.roles in an audiolingual course.
The decline of AudioligualismThe decline of Audioligualism Audiolingualism reached itsAudiolingualism reached itsperiod of most widespread useperiod of most widespread usein the 1960s and was appliedin the 1960s and was appliedboth to the teaching of foreignboth to the teaching of foreignlanguage in the United Stateslanguage in the United Statesand to the teaching of Englishand to the teaching of Englishas a second or foreignas a second or foreignlanguage.language.
Audiolingualism stresses theAudiolingualism stresses themechanistic aspects ofmechanistic aspects oflanguage learning and languagelanguage learning and languageuse.use.
Total Physical ResponseTotal Physical Response(TPR)(TPR) TPR is a language teachingTPR is a language teachingmethod built around themethod built around thecoordination of speech andcoordination of speech andaction; it attempts to teachaction; it attempts to teachlanguage through physicallanguage through physicalmotor activity. Developed bymotor activity. Developed byJames Asher, a professor ofJames Asher, a professor ofpsychology at San Jose Statepsychology at San Jose StateUniversity, California.University, California.
He claims that speech directedHe claims that speech directedto young children consiststo young children consistsprimarily of commands, whichprimarily of commands, whichchildren respond to physicallychildren respond to physicallybefore they begin to producebefore they begin to produceverbal responses.verbal responses.
Asher shares with the school ofAsher shares with the school ofhumanistic psychology ahumanistic psychology aconcern for the role of affectiveconcern for the role of affectivefactors in language learning.factors in language learning.
Asher has elaborated anAsher has elaborated anaccount of what he feelsaccount of what he feelsfacilitates or inhibits foreignfacilitates or inhibits foreignlanguage learning. For thislanguage learning. For thisdimension of his learning theorydimension of his learning theoryhe draws on three influentialhe draws on three influentiallearning hypotheses:learning hypotheses:
1. There exists a specific innate1. There exists a specific innatebio-program for languagebio-program for languagelearning which defines anlearning which defines anoptimal path for first and secondoptimal path for first and secondlanguage development.language development. 2. Brain lateralization defines2. Brain lateralization definesdifferent learning functions indifferent learning functions inthe left-and-right brainthe left-and-right brainhemispheres.hemispheres.
3. Stress intervenes between3. Stress intervenes betweenthe act of learning and what is tothe act of learning and what is tobe learned; the lower the stress,be learned; the lower the stress,the greater the learning.the greater the learning.
Listening should beListening should beaccompanied by physicalaccompanied by physicalmovement. Speech and othermovement. Speech and otherproductive skills should comeproductive skills should comelater.later.
Asher sees TPR as directed toAsher sees TPR as directed toright-brain learning, whereasright-brain learning, whereasmost second language teachingmost second language teachingmethods are directed to left-methods are directed to left-brain learning. Asher hold thatbrain learning. Asher hold thatthe child language learnerthe child language learneracquires language throughacquires language throughmotor movement.motor movement.
Similarly, the adult shouldSimilarly, the adult shouldproceed to language masteryproceed to language masterythrough right hemisphere motorthrough right hemisphere motoractivities, while the leftactivities, while the lefthemisphere watches and learns.hemisphere watches and learns.
The objective of TPRThe objective of TPR The objective of TPR is to teachThe objective of TPR is to teachoral proficiency at a beginningoral proficiency at a beginninglevel. Comprehension is alevel. Comprehension is ameans to an end. The ultimatemeans to an end. The ultimateaim is to teach basic speakingaim is to teach basic speakingskills. TPR requires initialskills. TPR requires initialattention to meaning rather thanattention to meaning rather thanto the form of items. Grammarto the form of items. Grammaris thus taught inductively.is thus taught inductively.
Learners in TPR have theLearners in TPR have theprimary roles of listener andprimary roles of listener andperformer. They listenperformer. They listenattentively and respondattentively and respondphysically to commands givenphysically to commands givenby the teacher. Learners areby the teacher. Learners arealso expected to recognize andalso expected to recognize andrespond to novel combinationsrespond to novel combinationsof previously taught items.of previously taught items.
Learners monitor and evaluateLearners monitor and evaluatetheir own progress. They aretheir own progress. They areencouraged to speak when theyencouraged to speak when theyfeel ready to speak—that is,feel ready to speak—that is,when a sufficient basis in thewhen a sufficient basis in thelanguage has been internalized.language has been internalized.The teacher plays an activeThe teacher plays an activeand direct role in TPR.and direct role in TPR.
The Silent WayThe Silent Way The Silent Way is the name of aThe Silent Way is the name of amethod of a language teachingmethod of a language teachingdevised by Caleb Gattegno.devised by Caleb Gattegno.
It is based on the premise thatIt is based on the premise thatthe teacher should be silent asthe teacher should be silent asmuch as possible in themuch as possible in theclassroom but the learnerclassroom but the learnershould be encouraged toshould be encouraged toproduce as much language asproduce as much language aspossible.possible.
Elements of the Silent Way,Elements of the Silent Way,particularly the use of colorparticularly the use of colorcharts and the coloredcharts and the coloredCuisenaire rods, grew out ofCuisenaire rods, grew out ofGattegno’s previous experienceGattegno’s previous experienceas an educational designer ofas an educational designer ofreading and mathematicsreading and mathematicsprograms.programs.
Learning hypothesesLearning hypotheses 1. Learning is facilitated if the1. Learning is facilitated if thelearner discovers or createslearner discovers or createsrather than remembers andrather than remembers andrepeats what is to be learned.repeats what is to be learned. Learning is facilitated byLearning is facilitated byaccompanying physical objects.accompanying physical objects.
3. Learning is facilitated by3. Learning is facilitated byproblem solving involving theproblem solving involving thematerial to be learned.material to be learned.
Theory of language andTheory of language andlearninglearning The sentence is the basic unit ofThe sentence is the basic unit ofteaching, and the teacherteaching, and the teacherfocuses on propositionalfocuses on propositionalmeaning, rather thanmeaning, rather thancommunicative value. Studentscommunicative value. Studentsare presented with the structuralare presented with the structuralpatterns of the target languagepatterns of the target languageand learn the grammatical rulesand learn the grammatical rulesof the language through largelyof the language through largelyinductive processes.inductive processes.
Gattegno sees vocabulary as aGattegno sees vocabulary as acentral dimension of languagecentral dimension of languagelearning and the choice oflearning and the choice ofvocabulary as crucial.vocabulary as crucial.
Gattegno looked at languageGattegno looked at languagelearning from the perspective oflearning from the perspective ofthe learner by studying the waythe learner by studying the waybabies and young childrenbabies and young childrenlearn.learn.
The teacher points to five blocksThe teacher points to five blocksof color without saying anything.of color without saying anything.The blocks of color representThe blocks of color representthe sounds of five Englishthe sounds of five Englishvowels close to the five simplevowels close to the five simplevowels of Portuguese.vowels of Portuguese.
PrinciplesPrinciples The teacher should start withThe teacher should start withsomething the students alreadysomething the students alreadyknow and build from that to theknow and build from that to theunknown. Languages share aunknown. Languages share anumber of features, soundsnumber of features, soundsbeing the most basic.being the most basic.
Language learners areLanguage learners areintelligent and bring with themintelligent and bring with themthe experience of alreadythe experience of alreadylearning a language. Thelearning a language. Theteacher should give only whatteacher should give only whathelp is necessary.help is necessary.
Language is not learned byLanguage is not learned byrepeating after a model.repeating after a model.Students need to develop theirStudents need to develop theirown ‘inner criteria’ forown ‘inner criteria’ forcorrectness—to trust and to becorrectness—to trust and to beresponsible for their ownresponsible for their ownproduction in the targetproduction in the targetlanguage.language.
Students’ actions can tell theStudents’ actions can tell theteacher whether or not theyteacher whether or not theyhave learned.have learned.
The teacher makes use of whatThe teacher makes use of whatstudents already know. Thestudents already know. Themore the teacher does for themore the teacher does for thestudents what they can do forstudents what they can do forthemselves, the less they will dothemselves, the less they will dofor themselves.for themselves.
Learning involves transferringLearning involves transferringwhat one knows to newwhat one knows to newcontexts.contexts. Reading is worked on from theReading is worked on from thebeginning but follows from whatbeginning but follows from whatstudents have learned to say.students have learned to say.
Silence is a tool. It helps toSilence is a tool. It helps tofoster autonomy, or the exercisefoster autonomy, or the exerciseof initiative. It also removes theof initiative. It also removes theteacher from the center ofteacher from the center ofattention so he can listen to andattention so he can listen to andwork with students. The teacherwork with students. The teacherspeaks, but only whenspeaks, but only whennecessary.necessary.
Meaning is made clear byMeaning is made clear byfocusing students’ perceptions,focusing students’ perceptions,not through translation.not through translation. Students can learn from oneStudents can learn from oneanother. The teacher’s silenceanother. The teacher’s silenceencourages group cooperation.encourages group cooperation.
Student attention is a key toStudent attention is a key tolearning.learning. Students should engage in aStudents should engage in agreat deal of meaningfulgreat deal of meaningfulpractice without repetition.practice without repetition. Language is for self-expression.Language is for self-expression.
The teacher can gain valuableThe teacher can gain valuableinformation from studentinformation from studentfeedback.feedback.
What are the goals of teachersWhat are the goals of teacherswho use the Silent Way?who use the Silent Way? Students should be able to useStudents should be able to usethe language for self-expressionthe language for self-expression—to express their thought,—to express their thought,perception, and feelings.perception, and feelings.
What is the role of teacher?What is the role of teacher? The teacher is a technician orThe teacher is a technician orengineer.engineer. The teacher should respect theThe teacher should respect theautonomy of the learners in theirautonomy of the learners in theirattempts at relating andattempts at relating andinteracting with the newinteracting with the newchallenges.challenges.
What is the role of theWhat is the role of thestudents?students? The role of the students is toThe role of the students is tomake use of what they know, tomake use of what they know, tofree themselves of anyfree themselves of anyobstacles that would interfereobstacles that would interferewith giving their utmost attentionwith giving their utmost attentionto the learning task.to the learning task.
What are some characteristics ofWhat are some characteristics ofthe teaching/learning process?the teaching/learning process? Students begin their study of theStudents begin their study of thelanguage through its basiclanguage through its basicbuilding blocks, its sounds.building blocks, its sounds. This provides valuableThis provides valuableinformation for the teacher andinformation for the teacher andencourages students to takeencourages students to takeresponsibility for their ownresponsibility for their ownlearning.learning.
What is the nature of student-What is the nature of student-teacher interaction?teacher interaction? For much of the student-teacherFor much of the student-teacherinteraction, the teacher is silent.interaction, the teacher is silent. Student-student verbalStudent-student verbalinteraction is desirable (studentsinteraction is desirable (studentscan learn from one another) andcan learn from one another) andis therefore encouraged.is therefore encouraged.
How are the feelings of theHow are the feelings of thestudents dealt with?students dealt with? The teacher constantlyThe teacher constantlyobserves the students. Whenobserves the students. Whentheir feelings interfere, thetheir feelings interfere, theteacher tries to find ways for theteacher tries to find ways for thestudents to overcome them.students to overcome them.
How is language viewed?How is language viewed? Languages of the world share aLanguages of the world share anumber of features. However,number of features. However,each language also has its owneach language also has its ownunique reality since it is theunique reality since it is theexpression of a particular groupexpression of a particular groupof people.of people.
How is culture viewed?How is culture viewed? Their culture, as reflected inTheir culture, as reflected intheir own unique world view, istheir own unique world view, isinseparable from their language.inseparable from their language.
What areas of language areWhat areas of language areemphasized?emphasized? Since the sounds are basic toSince the sounds are basic toany language, pronunciation isany language, pronunciation isworked on from the beginning.worked on from the beginning.
What language skills areWhat language skills areemphasized?emphasized? All four skills are worked onAll four skills are worked onfrom the beginning of thefrom the beginning of thecourse, although there is acourse, although there is asequence in that students learnsequence in that students learnto read and write what theyto read and write what theyalready produced orally.already produced orally.
What is the role of theWhat is the role of thestudents’ native language?students’ native language? Meaning is made clear byMeaning is made clear byfocusing the students’focusing the students’perceptions, not by translation.perceptions, not by translation.
How is evaluationHow is evaluationaccomplished?accomplished? The teacher’s silence frees himThe teacher’s silence frees himto attend to his students and toto attend to his students and tobe aware of these needs.be aware of these needs.
How does the teacherHow does the teacherrespond to student errors?respond to student errors? Student errors are seen as aStudent errors are seen as anatural, indispensable part ofnatural, indispensable part ofthe learning process. Errors arethe learning process. Errors areinevitable since the students areinevitable since the students areencouraged to explore theencouraged to explore thelanguage.language.
DesuggestopediaDesuggestopedia In order to make better use ofIn order to make better use ofour reserved capacity, theour reserved capacity, thelimitations we think we havelimitations we think we haveneed to be ‘desuggested.’need to be ‘desuggested.’ Desuggestopedia, theDesuggestopedia, theapplication of the study ofapplication of the study ofsuggestion to pedagogy, hassuggestion to pedagogy, hasbeen developed to helpbeen developed to helpstudentsstudents
eliminate the feeling that theyeliminate the feeling that theycannot be successful or thecannot be successful or thenegative association they maynegative association they mayhave toward studying and, thus,have toward studying and, thus,to help them overcome theto help them overcome thebarriers to learning.barriers to learning.
PrinciplesPrinciples Learning is facilitated in aLearning is facilitated in acheerful environment. Thecheerful environment. Theclassroom is bright and colorful.classroom is bright and colorful. Students can learn from what isStudents can learn from what ispresent in the environment,present in the environment,even if their attention is noteven if their attention is notdirected to it (‘Peripheraldirected to it (‘Peripherallearning).learning).
If students trust and respect theIf students trust and respect theteacher’s authority, they willteacher’s authority, they willaccept and retain informationaccept and retain informationbetter. (The teacher speakerbetter. (The teacher speakerconfidently.)confidently.)
The teacher gives the studentsThe teacher gives the studentsthe impression that learning thethe impression that learning thetarget language will be easy andtarget language will be easy andenjoyable.enjoyable.
The students choose newThe students choose newnames and identities and feelnames and identities and feelless inhibited since theirless inhibited since theirperformance is really that of aperformance is really that of adifferent person.different person.
The dialogue that students learnThe dialogue that students learncontains language they can usecontains language they can useimmediately. Songs are usefulimmediately. Songs are usefulfor ‘freeing the speech muscles’for ‘freeing the speech muscles’and evoking positive emotions.and evoking positive emotions.
Fine art provides positiveFine art provides positivesuggestions for students.suggestions for students. One way that meaning is madeOne way that meaning is madeclear is through native languageclear is through native languagetranslation.translation.
Communication takes place onCommunication takes place on‘two planes’: on one the‘two planes’: on one thelinguistic message is encoded;linguistic message is encoded;and on the other are factorsand on the other are factorswhich influence the linguisticwhich influence the linguisticmessage. On the consciousmessage. On the consciousplane, the learner attends to theplane, the learner attends to thelanguage; on the subconsciouslanguage; on the subconsciousplane, the music suggests thatplane, the music suggests thatlearning is easy and pleasant.learning is easy and pleasant.
When there is a unity betweenWhen there is a unity betweenconscious and subconscious,conscious and subconscious,learning is enhanced.learning is enhanced.
A calm state, such as oneA calm state, such as oneexperiences when listening to aexperiences when listening to aconcert, is ideal for overcomingconcert, is ideal for overcomingpsychological barriers and forpsychological barriers and fortaking advantage of learningtaking advantage of learningpotential.potential.
The fine arts (music, art, andThe fine arts (music, art, anddrama) enable suggestions todrama) enable suggestions toreach the subconscious. Thereach the subconscious. Thearts should, therefore, bearts should, therefore, beintegrated as much as possibleintegrated as much as possibleinto the teaching process.into the teaching process.
The teacher should help theThe teacher should help thestudents ‘activate’ the materialstudents ‘activate’ the materialto which they have beento which they have beenexposed. Novelty aidsexposed. Novelty aidsacquisition.acquisition.
Music and movement reinforceMusic and movement reinforcethe linguistic material. If theythe linguistic material. If theytrust the teacher, they will reachtrust the teacher, they will reachthis state more easily.this state more easily.
In an atmosphere of play, theIn an atmosphere of play, theconscious attention of theconscious attention of thelearner does not focus onlearner does not focus onlinguistic forms, but rather onlinguistic forms, but rather onusing the language. Learningusing the language. Learningcan be fun.can be fun.
Errors are corrected gently, notErrors are corrected gently, notin a direct, confrontationalin a direct, confrontationalmanner.manner.
What are the goals of teachersWhat are the goals of teacherswho use Desuggestopedia?who use Desuggestopedia? Teachers hope to accelerate theTeachers hope to accelerate theprocess by which students learnprocess by which students learnto use a foreign language forto use a foreign language foreveryday communication. Ineveryday communication. Inorder to do this, more of theorder to do this, more of thestudents’ mental powers muststudents’ mental powers mustbe tapped.be tapped.
What is the role of teacher?What is the role of teacher? The teacher is the authority inThe teacher is the authority inthe classroom. In order for thethe classroom. In order for themethod to be successful, themethod to be successful, thestudents must trust and respectstudents must trust and respecther. Once the students trust theher. Once the students trust theteacher, they can feel moreteacher, they can feel moresecure. If they feel secure, theysecure. If they feel secure, theycan be more spontaneous andcan be more spontaneous andless inhibited.less inhibited.
What are some characteristics ofWhat are some characteristics ofthe teaching/learning process?the teaching/learning process? The posters are change everyThe posters are change everyfew weeks to create a sense offew weeks to create a sense ofnovelty in the environment.novelty in the environment.Students select target languageStudents select target languagenames and choose newnames and choose newoccupations. During the courseoccupations. During the coursethey create whole biographies tothey create whole biographies togo along with their newgo along with their newidentities.identities.
What is the nature of student-What is the nature of student-teacher interaction?teacher interaction? The teacher initiates interactionsThe teacher initiates interactionswith the whole group of studentswith the whole group of studentsand with individuals right fromand with individuals right fromthe beginning of a languagethe beginning of a languagecourse.course.
How are the feelings of theHow are the feelings of thestudents dealt with?students dealt with? If students are relaxed andIf students are relaxed andconfident, they will not need toconfident, they will not need totry hard to learn the language.try hard to learn the language.It will just come naturally andIt will just come naturally andeasily.easily.
How is language viewed?How is language viewed? Language is the first two planesLanguage is the first two planesin the two-plane process ofin the two-plane process ofcommunication. In the secondcommunication. In the secondplane are the factors whichplane are the factors whichinfluence linguistic message.influence linguistic message.
How is culture viewed?How is culture viewed? The culture which students learnThe culture which students learnconcerns the everyday life ofconcerns the everyday life ofpeople who speak the language.people who speak the language.The use of fine arts is alsoThe use of fine arts is alsoimportant in Desuggestopedicimportant in Desuggestopedicclasses.classes.
What areas of language areWhat areas of language areemphasized?emphasized? Vocabulary is emphasized.Vocabulary is emphasized.Grammar is dealt with explicitlyGrammar is dealt with explicitlybut minimally.but minimally.
What language skills areWhat language skills areemphasized?emphasized? Speaking communicatively isSpeaking communicatively isemphasized. Students alsoemphasized. Students alsoread in the target language (forread in the target language (forexample, dialogs) and write (forexample, dialogs) and write (forexample, imaginativeexample, imaginativecompositions).compositions).
What is the role of theWhat is the role of thestudents’ native language?students’ native language? Native-language translation isNative-language translation isused to make the meaning ofused to make the meaning ofthe dialog clear. The teacherthe dialog clear. The teacheralso uses the native language inalso uses the native language inclass when necessary.class when necessary.
How is evaluationHow is evaluationaccomplished?accomplished? Evaluation usually is conductedEvaluation usually is conductedon students’ normal in-classon students’ normal in-classperformance and not throughperformance and not throughformal tests, which wouldformal tests, which wouldthreaten the relaxedthreaten the relaxedatmosphere consideredatmosphere consideredessential for acceleratedessential for acceleratedlearning.learning.
How does the teacherHow does the teacherrespond to student errors?respond to student errors? Errors are corrected gently, withErrors are corrected gently, withthe teacher using a soft voice.the teacher using a soft voice.
Community LanguageCommunity LanguageLearning Method (CLL)Learning Method (CLL) It takes its principles from moreIt takes its principles from moregeneral Counseling-Learninggeneral Counseling-Learningapproach developed by Charlesapproach developed by CharlesA. Curran.A. Curran. Curran believed that a way toCurran believed that a way todeal with the fears of students isdeal with the fears of students isfor teachers to becomefor teachers to become‘language counselors.’‘language counselors.’
By understanding students’By understanding students’fears and being sensitive tofears and being sensitive tothem, he can help studentsthem, he can help studentsovercome their negative feelingsovercome their negative feelingsand turn them into positiveand turn them into positiveenergy to further their learning.energy to further their learning.
PrinciplesPrinciples Building a relationship with andBuilding a relationship with andamong students is veryamong students is veryimportant.important. Any new learning experienceAny new learning experiencecan be threatening. Whencan be threatening. Whenstudents have an idea of whatstudents have an idea of whatwill happen in each activity, theywill happen in each activity, theyoften feel more secure.often feel more secure.
Language is for communication.Language is for communication. The superior knowledge andThe superior knowledge andpower of the teacher can bepower of the teacher can bethreatening. If the teacher doesthreatening. If the teacher doesnot remain in the front of thenot remain in the front of theclassroom, the threat is reducedclassroom, the threat is reducedand the students’ learning isand the students’ learning isfacilitated.facilitated.
The teacher should be sensitiveThe teacher should be sensitiveto students’ level of confidenceto students’ level of confidenceand give them just what theyand give them just what theyneed to be successful.need to be successful. Students feel more secure whenStudents feel more secure whenthey know the limits of anthey know the limits of anactivity.activity.
Teacher and students are wholeTeacher and students are wholepersons. Sharing about theirpersons. Sharing about theirlearning experience allowslearning experience allowslearners to get to know onelearners to get to know oneanother and to build community.another and to build community.
Guided by the knowledge thatGuided by the knowledge thateach learner is unique, theeach learner is unique, theteacher creates an acceptingteacher creates an acceptingatmosphere. Learners feel freeatmosphere. Learners feel freeto lower their defenses and theto lower their defenses and thelearning experience becomeslearning experience becomesless threatening.less threatening.
The teacher understands whatThe teacher understands whatthe students say.the students say. The students’ native language isThe students’ native language isused to make the meaning clearused to make the meaning clearand to build a bridge from theand to build a bridge from theknown to the unknown.known to the unknown.Students feel more secure whenStudents feel more secure whenthey understand everything.they understand everything.
The teacher asks the studentsThe teacher asks the studentsto form a semicircle in front ofto form a semicircle in front ofthe blackboard so they can seethe blackboard so they can seeeasily.easily. Learning at the beginningLearning at the beginningstages is facilitated if studentsstages is facilitated if studentsattend to one task at a time.attend to one task at a time.
The teacher encourages studentThe teacher encourages studentinitiative and independence, butinitiative and independence, butdoes not let student flounder indoes not let student flounder inuncomfortable silences.uncomfortable silences. Students need quiet reflectionStudents need quiet reflectiontime in order to learn.time in order to learn.
In groups, students can begin toIn groups, students can begin tofeel a sense of community andfeel a sense of community andcan learn from each other ascan learn from each other aswell as the teacher.well as the teacher.Cooperation, not competition, isCooperation, not competition, isencouraged.encouraged.
The teacher should work in aThe teacher should work in anon-threatening way with whatnon-threatening way with whatthe learner has produced.the learner has produced. Developing a community amongDeveloping a community amongthe class members builds trustthe class members builds trustand can help to reduce theand can help to reduce thethreat of the new learningthreat of the new learningsituation.situation.
Retention will best take placeRetention will best take placesomewhere in between noveltysomewhere in between noveltyand familiarity.and familiarity.
What are the goals of teachersWhat are the goals of teacherswho use CLL Methods?who use CLL Methods? Teachers who use theTeachers who use theCommunity language LearningCommunity language LearningMethod want their students toMethod want their students tolearn how to use the targetlearn how to use the targetlanguage communicatively.language communicatively.
What is the role of theWhat is the role of theteacher?teacher? The teacher’s initial role isThe teacher’s initial role isprimarily that of a counselor.primarily that of a counselor.Rather, it means that theRather, it means that theteacher recognizes howteacher recognizes howthreatening a new learningthreatening a new learningsituation can be for adultsituation can be for adultlearners.learners.
What is the role of theWhat is the role of thestudents?students? Initially the learners are veryInitially the learners are verydependent upon the teacher. It isdependent upon the teacher. It isrecognized that as the learnersrecognized that as the learnerscontinue to study, they becomecontinue to study, they becomeincreasingly independent. CLTincreasingly independent. CLTmethodologists have identified fivemethodologists have identified fivestages in this movement fromstages in this movement fromdependency to mutualdependency to mutualinterdependency with the teacher.interdependency with the teacher.
It should be noted that accuracyIt should be noted that accuracyis always a focus even in theis always a focus even in thefirst three stages; however, it isfirst three stages; however, it issubordinated to fluency.subordinated to fluency.
What are some characteristics ofWhat are some characteristics ofthe teaching/learning process?the teaching/learning process? In a beginning class, which is whatIn a beginning class, which is whatwe observed, students typically havewe observed, students typically havea conversation using their nativea conversation using their nativelanguage. The teacher helps themlanguage. The teacher helps themexpress what they want to say byexpress what they want to say bygiving them the target languagegiving them the target languagetranslation in chunks. These chunkstranslation in chunks. These chunksare recorded, and when they areare recorded, and when they arereplayed, it sounds like a fairly fluidreplayed, it sounds like a fairly fluidconversation.conversation.
During the course of the lesson,During the course of the lesson,students are invited to say howstudents are invited to say howthey feel, and in return thethey feel, and in return theteacher understands them.teacher understands them.
According to Curran, there areAccording to Curran, there aresix elements necessary for non-six elements necessary for non-defensive learning: security,defensive learning: security,aggression, attention, reflection,aggression, attention, reflection,and retention.and retention.
What is the nature of student-What is the nature of student-teacher interaction?teacher interaction? The Community LanguageThe Community LanguageLearning Method is neitherLearning Method is neitherstudent-centered, nor teacher-student-centered, nor teacher-centered, but rather teacher-centered, but rather teacher-student-centered. Teacher-student-centered. Teacher-student-centered, with bothstudent-centered, with bothbeing decision-makers in thebeing decision-makers in theclass.class.
How are the feelings of theHow are the feelings of thestudents dealt with?students dealt with? Responding to the students’Responding to the students’feelings is considered veryfeelings is considered veryimportant in Counseling-important in Counseling-Learning. The teacher listensLearning. The teacher listensand responds to each commentand responds to each commentcarefully. While security is acarefully. While security is abasic element of the learningbasic element of the learningprocess, the way in which it isprocess, the way in which it isprovided will change dependingprovided will change dependingupon the stage of learner.upon the stage of learner.
How is language viewed?How is language viewed? Language is for communication.Language is for communication.Curran writes that ‘learning isCurran writes that ‘learning ispersons, meaning that bothpersons, meaning that bothteacher and students work atteacher and students work atbuilding trust in one another andbuilding trust in one another andthe learning process.the learning process.
How is culture viewed?How is culture viewed? Curran believes that in this kindCurran believes that in this kindof supportive learning process,of supportive learning process,language becomes the meanslanguage becomes the meansfor developing creative andfor developing creative andcritical thinking. Culture is ancritical thinking. Culture is anintegral part of languageintegral part of languagelearning.learning.
What areas of language areWhat areas of language areemphasized?emphasized? The most important skills areThe most important skills areunderstanding and speaking theunderstanding and speaking thelanguage at the beginning, withlanguage at the beginning, withthe reinforcement throughthe reinforcement throughreading and writing.reading and writing.
What is the role of theWhat is the role of thestudents’ native language?students’ native language? Where possible, literal nativeWhere possible, literal nativelanguage equivalents are givenlanguage equivalents are givento the target language wordsto the target language wordsthat have been transcribed.that have been transcribed.
How is evaluationHow is evaluationaccomplished?accomplished? Although no particular mode ofAlthough no particular mode ofevaluation is prescribed in the CLLevaluation is prescribed in the CLLMethod, whatever evaluation isMethod, whatever evaluation isconducted should be in keeping withconducted should be in keeping withthe principles of the method. Finally,the principles of the method. Finally,it is likely that teachers wouldit is likely that teachers wouldencourage their students to self-encourage their students to self-evaluate—to look at their ownevaluate—to look at their ownlearning and to become aware oflearning and to become aware oftheir own progress.their own progress.
How does the teacher respond toHow does the teacher respond tostudent errors?student errors? Teachers should work with whatTeachers should work with whatthe learner has produced in athe learner has produced in anon-threatening way. One waynon-threatening way. One wayof doing this is for the teacher toof doing this is for the teacher torepeat correctly what therepeat correctly what thestudent has said incorrectly.student has said incorrectly.
The two most basic principles whichThe two most basic principles whichunderlie the kind of learning that canunderlie the kind of learning that cantake place in the CLL Method aretake place in the CLL Method aresummed up in the following phrases:summed up in the following phrases:(1) ‘Learning is persons,’ which(1) ‘Learning is persons,’ whichmeans that whole-person learning ofmeans that whole-person learning ofanother language takes place best inanother language takes place best ina relationship of trust, support, anda relationship of trust, support, andcooperation between teacher andcooperation between teacher andstudents and among students. (2)students and among students. (2)
‘‘Learning is dynamic andLearning is dynamic andcreative,’ which means thatcreative,’ which means thatlearning is a living andlearning is a living anddevelopmental process.developmental process.
Communicative LanguageCommunicative LanguageTeachingTeaching It became clear that communicationIt became clear that communicationrequired that students performrequired that students performcertain functions as well, such ascertain functions as well, such aspromising, inviting, and decliningpromising, inviting, and declininginvitations within a social contextinvitations within a social context(Wilkins, 1976). In short, being able(Wilkins, 1976). In short, being ableto communicate required more thanto communicate required more thanlinguistic competence; it requiredlinguistic competence; it requiredcommunicative competence (Hymes,communicative competence (Hymes,1971)—knowing when and how to1971)—knowing when and how tosay what to whom.say what to whom.
Such observations contributedSuch observations contributedto a shift in the field in the lateto a shift in the field in the late1970s and early 1980s from a1970s and early 1980s from alinguistic structure-centeredlinguistic structure-centeredapproach to a Communicativeapproach to a CommunicativeApproach (Widdowson, 1990).Approach (Widdowson, 1990).
CLT aims broadly to apply theCLT aims broadly to apply thetheoretical perspective of thetheoretical perspective of theCommunicative Approach byCommunicative Approach bymaking communicativemaking communicativecompetence the goal ofcompetence the goal oflanguage teaching and bylanguage teaching and byacknowledging theacknowledging theinterdependence of languageinterdependence of languageand communication.and communication.
PrinciplesPrinciples Whenever possible, ‘authenticWhenever possible, ‘authenticlanguage’ –language as it islanguage’ –language as it isused in a real context—shouldused in a real context—shouldbe introduced.be introduced. Being able to figure out theBeing able to figure out thespeaker’s or writer’s intentionsspeaker’s or writer’s intentionsis part of being communicativelyis part of being communicativelycompetent.competent.
The target language is a vehicle forThe target language is a vehicle forclassroom communication, not justclassroom communication, not justthe object of study.the object of study. One function can have manyOne function can have manydifferent linguistic forms. Since thedifferent linguistic forms. Since thefocus of the course is on realfocus of the course is on reallanguage use, a variety of linguisticlanguage use, a variety of linguisticforms are presented together. Theforms are presented together. Theemphasis is on the process ofemphasis is on the process ofcommunication rather than justcommunication rather than justmastery of language forms.mastery of language forms.
Students should work withStudents should work withlanguage at the discourse orlanguage at the discourse orsuprasentential (above thesuprasentential (above thesentence) level. They mustsentence) level. They mustlearn about cohesion andlearn about cohesion andcoherence, those properties ofcoherence, those properties oflanguage which bind thelanguage which bind thesentences together.sentences together.
Games are important becauseGames are important becausethey have certain features inthey have certain features incommon with realcommon with realcommunicative events—there iscommunicative events—there isa purpose to the exchange.a purpose to the exchange.Also, the speaker receivesAlso, the speaker receivesimmediate feedback from theimmediate feedback from thelistener on whether or not he orlistener on whether or not he orshe has successfullyshe has successfullycommunicated.communicated.
Students should be given anStudents should be given anopportunity to express their ideasopportunity to express their ideasand opinions.and opinions. Errors are tolerated and seen as aErrors are tolerated and seen as anatural outcome of the developmentnatural outcome of the developmentof communication skills. Since thisof communication skills. Since thisactivity was working on fluency, theactivity was working on fluency, theteacher did not correct the student,teacher did not correct the student,but simply noted the error, which hebut simply noted the error, which hewill return to at a later point.will return to at a later point.
One pf the teacher’s majorOne pf the teacher’s majorresponsibilities is to establishresponsibilities is to establishsituations likely to promotesituations likely to promotecommunication.communication. Communicative interactionCommunicative interactionencourages cooperativeencourages cooperativerelationships among students. Itrelationships among students. Itgives students an opportunity togives students an opportunity towork on negotiating meaning.work on negotiating meaning.
The social context of theThe social context of thecommunicative event iscommunicative event isessential in giving meaning toessential in giving meaning tothe utterances.the utterances. Learning to use language formsLearning to use language formsappropriately is an importantappropriately is an importantpart of communicativepart of communicativecompetence.competence.
The teacher acts as a facilitatorThe teacher acts as a facilitatorin setting up communicativein setting up communicativeactivities and as an advisoractivities and as an advisorduring the activities.during the activities. In communicating, a speakerIn communicating, a speakerhas a choice not only abouthas a choice not only aboutwhat to say, but also how to saywhat to say, but also how to sayit.it.
The grammar and vocabularyThe grammar and vocabularythat the students learn followthat the students learn followfrom the function, situationalfrom the function, situationalcontext, and the roles of thecontext, and the roles of theinterlocutors.interlocutors.
Students should be givenStudents should be givenopportunities to listen toopportunities to listen tolanguage as it is used inlanguage as it is used inauthentic communication. Theyauthentic communication. Theymay be coached on strategiesmay be coached on strategiesfor how to improve theirfor how to improve theircomprehension.comprehension.
What are the goals ofWhat are the goals ofteachers who use CLT?teachers who use CLT? The goal is to enable studentsThe goal is to enable studentsto communicate in the targetto communicate in the targetlanguage. To do this studentslanguage. To do this studentsneed knowledge of linguisticneed knowledge of linguisticforms, meanings, and functions.forms, meanings, and functions.Communication is a process;Communication is a process;knowledge of the forms ofknowledge of the forms oflanguage is insufficient.language is insufficient.
What is the role of theWhat is the role of theteacher?teacher? The teacher facilitates communication inThe teacher facilitates communication inthe classroom. In this role, one of histhe classroom. In this role, one of hismajor responsibilities is to establishmajor responsibilities is to establishsituations likely to promote communication.situations likely to promote communication.During the activities he acts as an adviser,During the activities he acts as an adviser,answering students’ questions andanswering students’ questions andmonitoring their performance. He mightmonitoring their performance. He mightmake note of their errors to be worked onmake note of their errors to be worked onat a later time during more accuracy-basedat a later time during more accuracy-basedactivities. At other times he might beactivities. At other times he might be
A ‘co-communicator’ engagingA ‘co-communicator’ engagingin the communicative activityin the communicative activityalong with students (Littlewood,along with students (Littlewood,1981).1981).
What is the role of theWhat is the role of thestudents?students? Students are, above all,Students are, above all,communicators. They are activelycommunicators. They are activelyengaged in negotiating meaning—inengaged in negotiating meaning—intrying to make themselvestrying to make themselvesunderstood and in understandingunderstood and in understandingothers.others. Since the teacher’s role is lessSince the teacher’s role is lessdominant than in a teacher-centereddominant than in a teacher-centeredmethod, students are seen as moremethod, students are seen as more
Responsible managers of theirResponsible managers of theirown learning.own learning.
What are some characteristics ofWhat are some characteristics ofthe teaching/learning process?the teaching/learning process? The most obviousThe most obviouscharacteristics of CLT is thatcharacteristics of CLT is thatalmost everything that is done isalmost everything that is done isdone with a communicativedone with a communicativeintent. Students use theintent. Students use thelanguage a great deal throughlanguage a great deal throughcommunicative activities suchcommunicative activities suchas games, role plays, andas games, role plays, andproblem-solving tasks.problem-solving tasks.
According to Morrow (inAccording to Morrow (inJohnson and Morrow, 1981),Johnson and Morrow, 1981),activities that are trulyactivities that are trulycommunicative have threecommunicative have threefeatures in common: informationfeatures in common: informationgap, choice, and feedback.gap, choice, and feedback.
In communicative, the speakerIn communicative, the speakerhas a choice of what she willhas a choice of what she willsay and how she will say it.say and how she will say it.True communication isTrue communication ispurposeful. A speaker can thuspurposeful. A speaker can thusevaluate whether or not hisevaluate whether or not hispurpose has been achievedpurpose has been achievedbased upon the information shebased upon the information shereceives from his listener.receives from his listener.
Another characteristic of CLT isAnother characteristic of CLT isthe use of authentic materials. Itthe use of authentic materials. Itis considered desirable to giveis considered desirable to givestudents an opportunity tostudents an opportunity todevelop strategies fordevelop strategies forunderstanding language as it isunderstanding language as it isactually used.actually used.
Finally, we noted that activitiesFinally, we noted that activitiesin CLT are often carried out byin CLT are often carried out bystudents in small groups. Smallstudents in small groups. Smallnumbers of students interactingnumbers of students interactingare favored in order to maximizeare favored in order to maximizethe time allotted to each studentthe time allotted to each studentfor communicating.for communicating.
What is the nature of student-What is the nature of student-teacher interaction?teacher interaction? The teacher may present someThe teacher may present somepart of the lesson, such as whenpart of the lesson, such as whenworking with linguistic accuracy.working with linguistic accuracy.At other times, he is theAt other times, he is thefacilitator of the activities, but hefacilitator of the activities, but hedoes not always himself interactdoes not always himself interactwith the students.with the students.
Students interact a great dealStudents interact a great dealwith one another. They do thiswith one another. They do thisin various configurations: pairs,in various configurations: pairs,triads, small groups, and wholetriads, small groups, and wholegroup.group.
How are the feelings of theHow are the feelings of thestudents dealt with?students dealt with? One of the basic assumptions ofOne of the basic assumptions ofCLT is that by learning toCLT is that by learning tocommunicate students will becommunicate students will bemore motivated to study amore motivated to study aforeign language since they willforeign language since they willfeel they are learning to dofeel they are learning to dosomething useful with thesomething useful with thelanguage.language.
How is language viewed?How is language viewed? Language is for communication.Language is for communication.Linguistic competence, theLinguistic competence, theknowledge of forms and theirknowledge of forms and theirmeanings, is just one part ofmeanings, is just one part ofcommunicative competence.communicative competence.Another aspect ofAnother aspect ofcommunicative competence iscommunicative competence isknowledge of the functionsknowledge of the functionslanguage is used for.language is used for.
Thus, learners need knowledgeThus, learners need knowledgeof forms and meanings andof forms and meanings andfunctions. However, they mustfunctions. However, they mustalso use this knowledge andalso use this knowledge andtake into consideration thetake into consideration thesocial situation in order tosocial situation in order toconvey their intended meaningconvey their intended meaningappropriately.appropriately.
How is culture viewed?How is culture viewed? Culture is the everyday lifestyleCulture is the everyday lifestyleof people who use theof people who use thelanguage. There are certainlanguage. There are certainaspects of it that are especiallyaspects of it that are especiallyimportant to communication—important to communication—the use of nonverbal behaviorthe use of nonverbal behaviorwhich might receive greaterwhich might receive greaterattention in CLT.attention in CLT.
What areas of language areWhat areas of language areemphasized?emphasized? Language functions might beLanguage functions might beemphasized over forms. Typically,emphasized over forms. Typically,a functional syllabus is used. Aa functional syllabus is used. Avariety of forms are introduced forvariety of forms are introduced foreach function. Only the simplereach function. Only the simplerforms would be presented at first, butforms would be presented at first, butas students get more proficient in theas students get more proficient in thetarget language, the functions aretarget language, the functions arereintroduced and more complexreintroduced and more complexforms are learned.forms are learned.
What language skills areWhat language skills areemphasized?emphasized? Students work on all four skillsStudents work on all four skillsfrom the beginning. Just as oralfrom the beginning. Just as oralcommunication is seen to takecommunication is seen to takeplace through negotiationplace through negotiationbetween speaker and listener,between speaker and listener,so too is meaning thought to beso too is meaning thought to bederived from the written wordderived from the written wordthrough an interaction betweenthrough an interaction betweenthe reader and the writer.the reader and the writer.
What is the role of theWhat is the role of thestudents’ native language?students’ native language? Judicious use of the students’Judicious use of the students’native language is permitted innative language is permitted inCLT. However, wheneverCLT. However, wheneverpossible, the target languagepossible, the target languageshould be used not only duringshould be used not only duringcommunicative activities, butcommunicative activities, butalso for explaining the activitiesalso for explaining the activitiesto the students or in assigningto the students or in assigninghomework.homework.
How is evaluationHow is evaluationaccomplished?accomplished? A teacher evaluates not only theA teacher evaluates not only thestudents’ accuracy, but alsostudents’ accuracy, but alsotheir fluency.their fluency. A teacher can informallyA teacher can informallyevaluate his students’evaluate his students’performance in his role as anperformance in his role as anadviser or co-communicator.adviser or co-communicator.
How does the teacherHow does the teacherrespond to student errors?respond to student errors? Errors of form are toleratedErrors of form are toleratedduring fluency-based activitiesduring fluency-based activitiesand are seen as a naturaland are seen as a naturaloutcome of the development ofoutcome of the development ofcommunication skills.communication skills.
Content-based ApproachContent-based Approach There are three moreThere are three moreapproaches that makeapproaches that makecommunication central: content-communication central: content-based instruction, task-basedbased instruction, task-basedinstruction, and participatoryinstruction, and participatoryapproach. The difference is aapproach. The difference is amatter of their focus.matter of their focus.
CLT lessons centered on givingCLT lessons centered on givingstudents opportunities to practicestudents opportunities to practiceusing the communicative function ofusing the communicative function ofmaking predictions. In this chapter,making predictions. In this chapter,the approaches we examine do notthe approaches we examine do notbegin with functions or any otherbegin with functions or any otherlanguage items. Instead, they givelanguage items. Instead, they givepriority to process overpriority to process overpredetermined linguistic content.predetermined linguistic content.
In these approaches rather thanIn these approaches rather than‘learning to use English,‘learning to use English,‘students use ‘English to learn it’‘students use ‘English to learn it’(Howatt, 1984:279).(Howatt, 1984:279).
Using content from otherUsing content from otherdisciplines in language coursesdisciplines in language coursesis not a new idea. For years,is not a new idea. For years,specialized language coursesspecialized language courseshave included content relevanthave included content relevantto a particular profession orto a particular profession oracademic discipline.academic discipline.
The special contribution ofThe special contribution ofcontent-based instruction is thatcontent-based instruction is thatit integrates the learning ofit integrates the learning oflanguage with the learning oflanguage with the learning ofsome other content, oftensome other content, oftenacademic subject matter. It hasacademic subject matter. It hasbeen observed that academicbeen observed that academicsubjects provide natural contentsubjects provide natural contentfor language instruction.for language instruction.
Such observations motivated theSuch observations motivated the‘language across the curriculum’‘language across the curriculum’movement for native Englishmovement for native Englishspeakers in England, which wasspeakers in England, which waslaunched in the 1970s to integratelaunched in the 1970s to integratethe teaching of reading and writingthe teaching of reading and writinginto all other subject areas. Ofinto all other subject areas. Ofcourse, when students studycourse, when students studyacademic subjects in a non-nativeacademic subjects in a non-nativelanguage, they will need a great deallanguage, they will need a great deal
of assistance in understandingof assistance in understandingsubject matter texts. Content-subject matter texts. Content-based instruction fits in with thebased instruction fits in with theother methods in this chapterother methods in this chapterwhere the selection andwhere the selection andsequence of language itemssequence of language itemsarise from communicativearise from communicativeneeds, not predetermined byneeds, not predetermined bysyllabi.syllabi.
PrinciplesPrinciples The subject matter content isThe subject matter content isused for language teachingused for language teachingpurposes.purposes. Teaching should build onTeaching should build onstudents’ previous experience.students’ previous experience.
When learners perceive theWhen learners perceive therelevance of their language use,relevance of their language use,they are motivated to learn.they are motivated to learn.They know that it is a means toThey know that it is a means toan end, rather than an end inan end, rather than an end initself.itself.
The teacher ‘scaffolds’ theThe teacher ‘scaffolds’ thelinguistic content, i.e. helpslinguistic content, i.e. helpslearners say what it is they wantlearners say what it is they wantto say by building together withto say by building together withthe students a completethe students a completeutterance.utterance.
Language is learned mostLanguage is learned mosteffectively when it is used as aeffectively when it is used as amedium to convey informationalmedium to convey informationalcontent of interest to thecontent of interest to thestudents.students.
Vocabulary is easier to acquireVocabulary is easier to acquirewhen there are contextual clueswhen there are contextual cluesto help convey meaning.to help convey meaning. When they work with authenticWhen they work with authenticsubject matter, students needsubject matter, students needlanguage support.language support.
Learners work with meaningful,Learners work with meaningful,cognitively demanding languagecognitively demanding languageand content within the context ofand content within the context ofauthentic material and tasks.authentic material and tasks.
Communicative competenceCommunicative competenceinvolves more than usinginvolves more than usinglanguage conversationally. Itlanguage conversationally. Italso includes the ability to read,also includes the ability to read,discuss, and write about contentdiscuss, and write about contentfrom other fields.from other fields.
Another content-basedAnother content-basedinstruction ‘face,’ where contentinstruction ‘face,’ where contentand language instruction haveand language instruction havebeen integrated, is the adjunctbeen integrated, is the adjunctmodel. Students enroll in amodel. Students enroll in aregular academic course. Inregular academic course. Inaddition, they take a languageaddition, they take a languagecourse that is linked to thecourse that is linked to theacademic course.academic course.
In sheltered–language instruction inIn sheltered–language instruction ina second language environment,a second language environment,both native speakers and non-nativeboth native speakers and non-nativespeakers of a particular languagespeakers of a particular languagefollow a regular academicfollow a regular academiccurriculum. For classes with non-curriculum. For classes with non-native speakers, however, ‘sheltered’native speakers, however, ‘sheltered’instruction is geared to students’instruction is geared to students’developing second languagedeveloping second languageproficiency.proficiency.
Sheltered-language instructorsSheltered-language instructorssupport that their students throughsupport that their students throughthe use of particular instructionalthe use of particular instructionaltechniques and materials. It offerstechniques and materials. It offersthe significant advantage thatthe significant advantage thatsecond language students do notsecond language students do nothave to postpone their academichave to postpone their academicstudy until their language controlstudy until their language controlreaches a high level.reaches a high level.
In sum, what all modes of content-In sum, what all modes of content-based instruction have in common isbased instruction have in common islearning both specific content andlearning both specific content andrelated language skills. In content-related language skills. In content-based language teaching, the claimbased language teaching, the claimin a sense is that students get “twoin a sense is that students get “twofor one”—both content knowledgefor one”—both content knowledgeand increased language proficiency’and increased language proficiency’(Wesche, 1993).(Wesche, 1993).