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Problem based learning

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  • 1. Problem Based Learning Introduction: Learning is centered around problems. Students are presented with problems, generate learning issues related to what they need to learn in order to understand the problem, and return to their groups to apply their new knowledge to the patient problem.
  • 2. Background and Definition Essential Elements: • Students are presented with a written problem • There is change in faculty role from imparter of information to facilitator of learning • There is an emphasis on student responsibility and self-directed learning • Written problem is the stimulus for learning with students engaging in a problem-solving process
  • 3. Theoretical Foundations • Contextual learning was an appealing rationale for the superiority of PBL. Why?? All learning aspect including basic, clinical and social science are within the context of the problem. A learner would be able to recall information better when he encountered a similar patient within a clinical setting. • Cooperative learning in which individuals are dependent on other group members to achieve their goals.
  • 4. Theoretical Foundations • Self-determination theory identifies controlled, maladaptive and autonomous motivators. • Control theory states that all behavior is based on satisfying the five basic needs of freedom, power, love, belonging, fun, survival and reproduction.
  • 5. Types of Learners • PBL has been used extensively in many health professional programs. Health professional students at all levels can benefit from the use of PBL to simulate realistic clinical situations.
  • 6. Resources • PBL requires different resources to support implementation. There is also a need for numerous small group tutorial rooms and extensive library and other learning resources that enable self-directed learning. And there is an additional need for faculty who are well trained to assume the role of facilitator.
  • 7. Role of Faculty Faculty require training to assume more facilitative roles. • Challenging assumptions and developing understanding of PBL • Experiencing and valuing the tutorial process. • Acquiring general tutor skills • Developing content-specific tutor knowledge and skills.
  • 8. Role of Faculty • Acquiring advanced knowledge and skills • Developing leadership and scholarship skills • Creating organizational vitality It is clear that faculty who possess a level of content expertise in the area under study are the preferred small group facilitators.
  • 9. Conclusion • PBL is an increasingly popular teaching and learning strategy within the health professions. The clinical relevance, small group interactions, and active learning provided make PBL an appealing curricular activity.
  • 10. Service Learning • Experiential learning and reflection are two of the components of service learning. The focus needs to be on both the students and the recipients of care in partnership. That is meeting community needs, students’ learning objectives, and formal reflection of the experience are the components of service learning.
  • 11. Definition and Purpose • It is a structured learning process that combines community service with preparation and reflection. Students engaged in service- learning provide community service in responsen to community-identified concerns and learn about tht context in which service is provided, the connection between their service and their academic coursework, and their roles as citizens
  • 12. Definition and Purpose • Using this meaning, healthcare professionals have discovered that there are many opportunities to work with communities in enhancing health, as well as working with each other. “Service learning not only connects theory with application and practice but also creates an environment where both the provider of service and the recipient learn from each other.”
  • 13. Theoretical Foundations • Service as a concept in the community has been implemented since ancient times when people provided support and care to families.
  • 14. Types of Learners • Service learning is suitable for any level of student in any program. It has been added also to courses and programs outside health care as well such as geography, political science, education, and mathematics.
  • 15. Using the method • Health seldom takes place in a vacuum. It requires the efforts of the individual, family, group, university , and community working in partnership. Service learning works to address the needs identified by a partner.
  • 16. Conclusion • Service learning provides students the opportunities to develop transferable skills such as the ability to synthesize information, creative problem solving, and constructive teamwork. Students need to get out of the classroom and more involved in the community and with each other in order to make knowledge alive.
  • 17. Preceptored Clinical Experience • It provides an opportunity to students or new graduate clinicians to work in a setting or practice area in order to begin socialization, and role transition, as well as to gain exposure to the healthcare area. This experiential teaching and learning methodology provides clear benefits to the learner, preceptor, school and healthcare setting.
  • 18. Definition and Purpose • Preceptorship is a process during which the preceptor, through role modeling, information sharing, coaching, and direction teaches the preceptee the art of professional practice. • The precepted clinical experience is a planned and organized instructional program with specific objectives and goals. It can be useful in supporting the learning process of students at all levels during a clinical, management, education, or research practicum.
  • 19. Theoretical Foundations • Socialization has been defined as the passing of a role from one person to the next, the process by which a person acquires and internalizes new knowledge and skills. • Communication and feedback are the backbone of the preceptor-preceptee relationship. Open, honest, compassionate, and timely feedback is valued by the preceptee. Such communication requires mutual trust and respect.
  • 20. Types of Learners • Whether a preceptee is a student, a new graduate, an experienced clinician or a temporary visitor, all are adult learners who actively participate on some level in the identification of their individual learning needs.
  • 21. The Preceptor • Commited to teaching • Caring • Clinically competent
  • 22. The Preceptee The preceptee is an active participant in the precepting experience and must assume leadership He is also responsible for informing the preceptor when the goals are being met or not. Feedback from the learner helps the preceptor adapt and adjust the experience in a meaningful way
  • 23. Conclusion • The preceptored clinical experience is a valuable teaching and learning methodology with clear benefits for academic institutions and healthcare organizations alike.
  • 24. Philosophical Approaches to Clinical Instruction • The purpose of clinical instruction is to give the student opportunities to bridge information with the realities of practice. Clinical learning within the realm of nursing education is best achieved when there is consistent and meaningful interaction between the student and the CI.
  • 25. Role of the CI • Guide the novice in what constitutes safe practice and to develop clinical judgement. • How? • Competent • Experienced • Knowledgeable • Flexible • Patient • Energetic
  • 26. Conclusion • The philosophical approach to teaching is the foundation by which the instructor operationalizes his or her own practical knowledge. The responsibilities for the instructor are great, calling for clinical expertise, role modeling, and understanding of teaching and learning principles for a variety of students, settings and clinical experiences.
  • 27. Summary Problem-Based Learning • - problem-centered Service – Learning • - community service Preceptored Clinical Experience • - preceptor-preceptee relationship Philosophical Approaches to Clinical Instruction • - clinical learning