Published on

The history of web, web 2.0 and web 3.0.

Published in: Technology
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. WEB 3.0 What the buzz is all about ??? By: Fahim Ilyas Sir Tim Berners-Lee Director W3C
  2. 2. History of WWW <ul><li>Created in 1989 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee (England) and Robert Cailliau (Belgium) </li></ul><ul><li>On April 30, 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone. </li></ul><ul><li>In October 1994, Tim Berners-Lee founded W3C. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1994, Mark Andreesen invents MOSAIC at National Center for Super Computing Applications (NCSA) </li></ul><ul><li>There were more than 550 billion documents on the Web, mostly in the &quot; invisible web &quot;, or deep web .(2001) </li></ul>
  3. 3. History… (contd) <ul><li>Info.cern.ch was the address of the world's first-ever web site and web server, running computer at CERN. </li></ul><ul><li>The first web page address was http://info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html , which centered on information regarding the WWW project. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The First Webpage Ever !!!
  5. 5. WWW has changed ???
  6. 6. Google in November, 1998
  7. 7. Google in 2007
  8. 8. Microsoft in December, 1998
  9. 9. Microsoft in 2007
  10. 10. Yahoo! in 1996
  11. 11. Yahoo! in 2007
  12. 12. IBM in 1996
  13. 13. IBM in 2007
  14. 14. Web 2.0 (2003 – 2008) <ul><li>Rich Internet application techniques, optionally Ajax-based. ( Ajax, Adobe Flash, Flex, Nexaweb, OpenLaszlo and Silverlight ) </li></ul><ul><li>CSS </li></ul><ul><li>Semantically valid HTML markup and the use of microformats . </li></ul><ul><li>Syndication of data in RSS/Atom </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive use of folksonomies (e.g. http://del.icio.us ) </li></ul><ul><li>Use of wiki software ( e.g. www.wikipedia.org ) </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Open source software (e.g. apache, php, mysql) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Web 2.0 (cont) <ul><li>Weblog publishing (e.g. http://www.wordpress.org ) </li></ul><ul><li>Mashups (e.g. www.webmashup.com & www.webmunism.com ) </li></ul><ul><li>REST or XML Webservice APIs </li></ul><ul><li>Use of user-friendly content-management systems (CMS). (e.g. Joomla) </li></ul><ul><li>Social Networking (Orkut, Facebook) </li></ul><ul><li>Optimized search engine capability </li></ul>
  16. 16. Web 3.0 ??? <ul><li>Ubiquitous Connectivity , mobile Internet access and mobile devices </li></ul><ul><li>Network computing , software-as-a-service business models, Web services interoperability, distributed computing, grid computing and cloud computing </li></ul><ul><li>Open technologies , Open APIs and protocols, open data formats, open-source software platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Open identity , OpenID, open reputation, roaming portable identity and personal data </li></ul><ul><li>The intelligent web , Semantic web technologies such as RDF, OWL, SPARQL and Semantic application platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed databases , the &quot;World Wide Database&quot; (enabled by Semantic Web technologies) </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent applications , natural language processing, machine learning, machine reasoning, autonomous agents. </li></ul>
  17. 17. 3D Web : Second Life
  18. 18. The Semantic Web
  19. 19. Semantic Web <ul><li>Semantic = Information contained in Data . </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic Web is an evolving extension of the World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>Web content can be expressed not only in natural language, but also in a format that can be read and used by software agents , thus permitting them to find , share and integrate information more easily. </li></ul><ul><li>Medium for data, information, and knowledge exchange . </li></ul>
  20. 20. What is a Software Agent? <ul><li>A software agent is a piece of software that acts for a user or other program in a relationship of agency. </li></ul><ul><li>Agents are not strictly invoked for a task, but activate themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>For example User Agent, Data Mining Agents, Buyer Agents or Shopping agents </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.botspot.com/ </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Web Today is… <ul><li>Syntactic Web . (conforming to the rules of syntax ) </li></ul><ul><li>A place where computers do the presentation (easy) and people do the linking and interpreting (hard). </li></ul><ul><li>Why not get computers to do more of the hard work? </li></ul>Resource Resource Resource Resource Resource Resource Resource Resource Resource Resource href href href href href href href href href href href href
  22. 22. Syntactic Web… Find images of Steve Furber … Carole Goble … Alan Rector…
  23. 23. Impossible Today… <ul><li>Complex queries involving background knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find information about “animals that use sonar but are neither bats nor dolphins” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Locating information in data repositories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel enquiries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prices of goods and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results of human genome experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delegating complex tasks to web “agents” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Book me a holiday next weekend somewhere warm, not too far away, and where they speak French or English </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Information we can see… <ul><li>WWW2006 Edinburgh, Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>The eleventh international world wide web conference </li></ul><ul><li>23rd--26th May </li></ul><ul><li>Edinburgh International Conference Centre </li></ul><ul><li>Who should attend and who will you meet? </li></ul><ul><li>No other event draws the breadth… </li></ul><ul><li>Look Who’s Talking </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Granger reviews the revamping of the NHS IT programme </li></ul><ul><li>Look Who’s Talking </li></ul><ul><li>VeriSign's principal scientist, Dr Phillip Hallam-Baker, goes phishing... </li></ul><ul><li>Registration opens with special offer tickets </li></ul><ul><li>Professor Wendy Hall has announced the opening of registration for the 15th annual World Wide Web Conference 2006… </li></ul>
  25. 25. Information computer can see…            …    …
  26. 26. Solution: XML markup with “meaningful” tags? <name>   </name> <date>  </date> <location>   </location> <introduction>    …  </introduction> <speaker>  </speaker> <bio>  </bio> … <speaker>  </speaker> <bio>  </bio> … <registration>   <registration>
  27. 27. Still Machine Sees Only <  >   <  > <  >  </  > <  >   <  > <  >    …  </  > <  >  </  > <  >  </  > … <  >  </  > <  >  </  > … <  >   <  >
  28. 28. Limits of XML <ul><li>How do I know that you mean the same thing by <price> that I do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does that include tax? shipping? surcharges? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This is critical in B2B e-commerce. </li></ul><ul><li>That is, if the computers of two companies are negotiating, they need to know that they truly understand each other. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer 1: Do you sell heavy duty crowbars? [thinks: I need crowbars that can withstand 10,000 lbs. Pressure ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer 2: Yes. [thinks: Our crowbars are good to 5,000 lbs. ] </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. The Semantic Stack and Ontology Languages From “The Semantic Web” technical report by Pierce The Semantic Language Layer for the Web A B A = Ontology languages based on XML syntax B = Ontology languages built on top of RDF and RDF Schema
  30. 30. <ul><li>Today, in computer science, an ontology is typically a hierarchical collection of classes , permissible relationships amongst those classes , and inference rules . </li></ul><ul><li>Agents can parse a page , and immediately understand its semantics . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No need for natural language processing . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Searches can be done on concepts . </li></ul><ul><li>Data and knowledge sharing . </li></ul>What’s an Ontology?
  31. 31. What’s an Ontology? <ul><li>“ Ontology” is an often used term in the field of Knowledge Representation, Information Modeling, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>English definitions tend to be vague to non-specialists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptionalization” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But really, if you sit down to describe a subject in terms of its classes and their relationships using RDFS or DAML , you are creating an Ontology . </li></ul>
  32. 32. Ontology : Example <ul><li>Description: Ships are a kind of Watercraft , or Sea Vessel. </li></ul><ul><li>Ships have a Crew and Cargo . </li></ul><ul><li>Through the transitivity of the hypernym relation, Ships also have a Location . </li></ul><ul><li>The Location of a Ship has a Longitude and Latitude . </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a framework for describing and interchanging metadata (data describing the web resources ). </li></ul><ul><li>RDF provides machine understandable semantics for metadata. This leads, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>better precision in resource discovery than full text search, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interoperability of metadata . </li></ul></ul>Resource Description Framework (RDF) - I
  34. 34. <ul><li>RDF has following important concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource : The resources being described by RDF are anything that can be named via a URI. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property : A property is also a resource that has a name, for instance Author or Title. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement : A statement consists of the combination of a Resource, a Property, and an associated value. </li></ul></ul>Resource Description Framework (RDF)- II Example: John is the creator of the resource http://www.cs.indiana.edu/~John.
  35. 35. Example http://www.cs.indiana.edu/~John creator = http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/creator John is the creator of the resource http://www.cs.indiana.edu/~John <ul><li>Property “creator” refers to a specific definition. (in this example by Dublin Core </li></ul><ul><li>Definition Standard). So, there is a structured URI for this property. This URI makes this </li></ul><ul><li>property unique and globally known. </li></ul><ul><li>By providing structured URI, we also specified the property value Alice as following. </li></ul><ul><li>“ http://www.cs.indiana.edu/People/auto/b/John” </li></ul>John Resource Property Property Value
  36. 36. Example John is the creator of the resource http://www.cs.indiana.edu/~John . <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf=” http://www.w3c.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns## ” xmlns:dc=” http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1 ” xmlns:cgl=” http://cgl.indiana.edu/people ”> <rdf:Description about=” http://www.cs.indiana.edu/~John ”> <dc:creator> <cgl:staff> John </cgl:staff> </dc:creator> </rdf:RDF> <ul><li>Given RDF model enables any general purpose application to infer the same structure. </li></ul>Why bother to use RDF instead of XML?
  37. 37. <ul><li>RDF Schema is an extension of Resource Description Framework. </li></ul><ul><li>RDF Schema provides a higher level of abstraction than RDF . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>specific classes of resources , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>specific properties , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and the relationships between these properties and other resources can be described . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDFS allows specific resources to be described as instances of more general classes . </li></ul><ul><li>RDFS provides mechanisms where custom RDF vocabulary can be developed . </li></ul><ul><li>Also, RDFS provides important semantic capabilities that are used by enhanced semantic languages like DAML, OIL and OWL. </li></ul>RDF Schema (RDFS ) It resembles objected-oriented programming
  38. 38. <ul><li>No standard for expressing primitive data types such as integer, etc. All data types in RDF/RDFS are treated as strings . </li></ul><ul><li>No standard for expressing relations of properties (unique, transitive, inverse etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>No standard to express equivalence, disjointedness etc. among properties </li></ul>Limitations of RDF/RDFS
  39. 39. Enters DAML + OIL
  40. 40. <ul><li>RDFRDFS define a framework, however they have limitations. There is a need for new semantic web languages with following requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They should be compatible with (XML, RDF/RDFS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They should have enough expressive power to fill in the gaps in RDFS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They should provide automated reasoning support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ontology Inference Layer (OIL) and DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML) are two important efforts developed to fulfill these requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Their combined efforts formed DAML+OIL declarative semantic language. </li></ul>DAML, OIL and DAML+OIL - I
  41. 41. <ul><li>DAML+OIL is built on top of RDFS. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It uses RDFS syntax. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It has richer ways to express primitive data types. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>DAML+OIL allows other relationships (inverse and transitivity) to be directly expressed. </li></ul><ul><li>DAML+OIL provides well defined semantics, This provides followings: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning of DAML+OIL statements can be formally specified. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Machine understanding and automated reasoning can be supported. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More expressive power can be provided. </li></ul></ul></ul>DAML, OIL and DAML + OIL - II
  42. 42. <ul><li>Example: T. Rex is not herbivore and not a currently living species. </li></ul><ul><li>This statement can be expressed in DAML+OIL, but not in RDF/RDFS since RDF/RDFS cannot express disjointedness. </li></ul><ul><li>DAML+OIL provides automated reasoning by providing such expressive power. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For instance, a software agent can find out the “list of all the carnivores that won’t be any threat today” by processing the DAML+OIL data representation of the example above. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RDF/RDFS does not express “is not” relationships and exclusions. </li></ul></ul>Example How is DAML+OIL is different than RDF/RDFS?
  43. 43. <ul><li>Web Ontology Language (OWL) is another effort developed by the OWL working group of the W3Consorsium. </li></ul><ul><li>OWL is an extension of DAML+OIL. </li></ul><ul><li>OWL is divided following sub languages. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OWL Lite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OWL (Description Logics) DL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OWL Full – limited cardinality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>OWL Lite provides many of the facilities of DAML+OIL provides. In addition to RDF/RDFS tags, it also allows us to express equivalence, identity, difference, inverse, and transivity. </li></ul><ul><li>OWL Lite is a subset of OWL DL, which in turn is a subset of OWL Full. </li></ul>Web Ontology Language (OWL)
  44. 44. Semantic Web as a Web of Services <ul><li>Automatic Discovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of Web Service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Automatic Invocation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Execution of discovered Web Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software Agents Interpret the markup, Knows inputs and handle outputs and execute the service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Automatic Composition and Interoperation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using many services to perform a task. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Future of WWW <ul><li>“ We can imagine a web-enabled microwave oven consulting the popcorn manufacturer’s website for optimal popping parameters” </li></ul>
  46. 46. Example : Indexing the Hidden Web <ul><li>Search engines – google, infoseek, etc. – work by constantly crawling the web , and building huge indexes , with entries for every word encountered. </li></ul><ul><li>But a lot of web information is not linked to directly . It is “hidden” behind forms . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eg www.allmovies.com allows you to search a vast database of movies and actors. But it does not link to those movies and actors. You are required to enter a search term. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A web-spider , not knowing how to interact with such sites, cannot penetrate any deeper than the page with the form . </li></ul>
  47. 47. Indexing the Hidden Web (Contd.) <ul><li>Now imagine that allmovies.com had some RDF attached , which said </li></ul><ul><li>“ I am allmovies.com. I am an interface to a vast database of movie and actor information. If you input a movie title into the box , I will return a page with the following information about the movie: … If you input an actor name , I will return a page with the following information about the actor : …” </li></ul>
  48. 48. Indexing the Hidden Web (Contd.) <ul><li>An RDF aware spider can come to such a page and do one of two things: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If it is a spider for a specialized search engine, it may ignore the site altogether. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If not, it can say to itself: “I know some movie titles. I’ll input them (being careful not to overwhelm the site), and index the results ( and keep on spidering from the result pages). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the least, the search engine can record the fact that </li></ul><ul><li>“ www.allmovies.com/execperson?name=x” returns information about the actor with name x. </li></ul>
  49. 49. FOAF (Friend of A Friend)
  50. 50. See <ul><li>OpenID ( www.openid.net ) </li></ul><ul><li>Second Life ( www.secondlife.com ) </li></ul><ul><li>DAML ( www.daml.org/ ) </li></ul><ul><li>RDF ( www.w3.org/RDF/ ) </li></ul><ul><li>FOAF ( http://www.foaf-project.org /) </li></ul>