Book 11 pertaining to the rules of inheritance (kitab al faraai'd)


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Book 11 pertaining to the rules of inheritance (kitab al faraai'd)

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Book 11 pertaining to the rules of inheritance (kitab al faraai'd)

  1. 1. Bk 11 Pertaining to the Rules of Inheritance(Kitab Al−Farai`d)INTRODUCTIONInheritance is the entry of living persons into possession ofdead persons property and exists in some form wherever theinstitution of private property is recognised as the basis ofthe social and economic system. The actual forms ofinheritance and the laws governing it, however, differaccording to the ideals of different societies. The law ofinheritance in Islam is based upon five main considerations:To break up the concentration of wealth in individuals andspread it out in society. To respect the property right ofownership of an individual earned through honest means. Tohammer in the consciousness of man the fact that man is notthe absolute master of wealth he produces but he is itstrustee and is not, therefore, authorised to pass it on toothers as he likes. To consolidate the family system which isthe social unit of an Islamic society. To give incentive towork and encourage economic activity as sanctioned by Islam.In the pre−Islamic world and even in modern societies the lawof inheritance has so many evils in it, which may be summed upin the following points: Women had been completely denied theshare of inheritance. They were rather regarded as part of theproperty of the deceased and, therefore, their right toproperty by inheritance was out of question. In pre−IslamicArabia and other countries where there had been tribalsocieties not only women were deprived of the right ofinheritance but even weak and sick persons and minor childrenwere given no share in it, as the common principle ofinheritance was that he alone is entitled to inherit whowields the sword. Then in certain societies there had beenexisting the law of primogeniture and it exists even today insome of the so−called civilised parts of the world which
  2. 2. entitles only the eldest son to inherit the whole of thefathers property or to get the lions share. Islam introducedso many reforms in the laws of inheritance which can besuccinctly summed up as follows. It defined and determined inclear−cut terms the share of each inheritor and imposed limitson the right of the property−owner to dispose of his propertyaccording to his whim and caprice. It made the female, who hadbeen prevously thought a chattel, the co−sharer with the maleand thus not only restored her dignity, but safeguarded hersocial and economic rights. It laid the rules for the break−upof the concentrated wealth in the society and helped in itsproper and equitable distribution amongst a large number ofpersons. It gave a death−blow to the law of primogeniture andthus provided the democratic basis for the division of theproperty of the deceased. The above are some of thedistinguishing features of the Islamic law of inheritance.While laying down the rules for the distribution of the estateof the deceased, the first principle to be observed is thatthe property both movable and immovable can be distributedafter meeting the following obligations: funeral expenses;clearing off the debts incurred by the deceased; payment ofbequest, if any, to the extent of one−third of the totalassets. It may be remembered that the Mahr of the wife, if ithad not been paid, is included in the debt. Moreover, it isnot lawful to make a bequest in favour of a person who isentitled to a share in the inheritance. Four persons cannotget inheritance:(a) a fugitive slave who has fled away from his master, (b)one who has murdered ones predecessor intentionally orunintentionaly (c) one who professes a religion other thanIslam, (d) one living in Dar−ul−Harb cannot inherit theproperty of one living in Dar−ul−Islam and vice versa.According to Islam, the heirs have been divided into threeclasses. (A) Dhaw−ul−Faraid are those persons who have aright to definite shares in assets left by the deceased. Thesesharers are twelve in number; four males: father, grandfather,uterine brothers and husband; and eight females: wife, singledaughter, sons daughter, mother, grandmother, full sister,
  3. 3. consanguine sister, uterine sister. Fathers share isone−sixth when the deceased leaves a son or a sons son, butif the deceased is not survived by a son or grandson hisfather will, in addition to this share (one−sixth), also get ashare of being Asaba. The grandfathers share is like that offathers share but in three conditions: According to ImamBukhiri and Imam Muslim, the presence of father deprives eventhe brothers of their share in the inheritance. but this isnot the case with the grandfather. Imam Abu Hanifa is of theopinion that the presence of grandfather deprives the brotherof his share in the inheritance. If the father of the deceasedis alive, then the share of the mother is of what is left fromthe share of the wife of the deceased. The presence ofgrandfather does not reduce the share of the mother of thedeceased. The grandmother of the deceased has no share in thepresence of the father of the deceased but she has a share inthe presence of the grandfather. The third set of sharers areuterine brothers and sisters. They are entitled to one−sixthif their number is one, and one−third if they are more thanone. The husbands share is one−half of the property of thedeceased wife if she has no children, but in case of childrenit is one−fourth. The wife is entitled to one−fourth if thehusband dies childless; otherwise it is one−eighth. Realdaughter: one−half when alone, and two−thirds if more thanone. If the deceased is survived by a male child also. thedaughters are then treated as Asaba and the male child wouldget double of what falls to the lot of daughters. Thegranddaughters stand on the same level as daughters. But incase the deceased is survived by one real daughter and one ormore than one granddaughter they would get one−sixth. Thegranddaughter is not entitled to any share if the deceased issurvived by a son, but if he is survived by grandsons andgranddaughters, they would be treated as Asaba and the malegrandchild would get double of what goes to the femalegrandchild. Full sister gets one−half if she is alone, andtwo−thirds if they are more than one. Consanguine sister isentitled to one−half if one, and two thirds if more. Mother isentitled to one−sixth when she has a child or grandchild, and
  4. 4. in case of being childless she gets one−third of the share. Ifthe deceased is survived either by paternal grandmother ormaternal grand− mother or even by both, they are entitled toone−sixth. The grandmother (maternal) is deprived of her shareif the mother of the deceased is alive; and if father is alivethe paternal grandmother is deprived of this share. (B) Whenthe heirs of the first group have received the respectiveshares, the residue of the assets falls to the share of thoserelatives who are called Asaba which, according to theShariah, implies those relatives in whose line ofrelationship no female enters. This is the second group ofinheritors. There is no fixed share of the Asabat. If thedeceased is not survived by any Dhaw−ul−Faraid, the whole ofthe property falls to their share; and If Dhaw−uI. Faraidare there to get their due share, the residue will be taken bythe Asabat. The following are the Asabat: Son: He is thefirst to get the residue in order of succession. The daughtersare entitled to half of the share as given to the son. Thegrandsons are not entitled to any share in the presence of theson. If the son is not living, then the grandson is entitledto a share in the inheritance. If there are more than one son,the inheritance will be distributed equally amongst them. Thefather, grandfather and the great−grandfather are included inthe category of Dhaw−ul−Faraid. If, however, the deceased isnot survived by category of a son, grandson of great−grandson,then the father will fall under the category of Asaba, and,in the absence of the father, the grandfather assumes thatposition. If the deceased is not survived by son, or grandsonor father or grandfather, i. e. none amongst the Asabat, thenthe brother, and in the absence of brother his son, and in theabsence of son, his grandson will be entitled to share in theinheritance as Asaba and the female would also join them inshare claiming half of the share as compared with male. Ifunfortunately the deceased is survived by none of theabove−mentioned relatives amongst the Asabat, thenconsanguine brother will be entitled to share in theinheritance and he will be preferred to full brothers son.Then comes the turn of full paternal uncle. (C) The last
  5. 5. category of inheritors are known ad Dhaw−ul Arham, i. e.relations connected through females, but it is in extremelyrare cases that they get any share in the inheritance. Thefollowing relatives come under this category. The son of thedaughter and daughter of the daughter. The son of the daughterof the son, and daughter of the daughter of the son and theirchildren. Maternal grandfather, maternal grandfather of thefather, the grandfather of the mother, maternal grandfather ofthe mother, the grandmother of the mother, the children of thesisters, the sisters of the father and those of the mother,etc.Chapter 1: GIVE THE INHERITANCE TO THOSE ENTITLED TO ITBk 11, Number 3928:Usama b. Zaid reported Allahs Messenger (may peace be uponhim) as saying: A Muslim is not entitled to inherit from anon−Muslim, and a non−Muslim is not entitled to inherit from aMuslim.Bk 11, Number 3929:Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with them) reported AllahsMessenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Give the sharesto those who are entitled to them, and what remains over goesto the nearest male heir.Bk 11, Number 3930:Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with them) reported AllahsMessenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Give the sharesto those who are entitled to them, and what is left from thosewno are entitled to it goes to the nearest male heir.Bk 11, Number 3931:Tawus reported on the authority of his father Ibn Abbas (Allahbe pleased with them) narrating that Allahs Messenger (maypeace be upon him) said: Distribute the property amongst Ahlal−Faraid, according to the Book of Allah, and what is leftout of them goes to the nearest male heir.Chapter 2: THE LAW OF INHERITANCE IN REGARD TO AL−KALALA (THEPERSON WHO DIES LEAVING NO CHILD OR PARENT)Bk 11, Number 3932:Jabir b. Abdullah (Allah be pleased with them) reported: Ifell sick and there came to me on foot Allahs Messenger (may
  6. 6. peace be upon him) and Abu Bakr for inquiring after my health.I fainted. He (the Holy Prophet) performed ablution and thensprinkled over me the water of his ablution. I felt somerelief and said: Allahs Messenger, how should I decide aboutmy property? He said nothing to me in response until thisverse pertaining to the law of inheritance was revealed:" Theyask you for a decision; say: Allah gives you a decisionconcerning the person who has neither parents nor children"(iv. 177).Bk 11, Number 3933:Jabir b. Abdullah (Allah be pleased with him) reported:Allahs Apostle (may peace be upon him) and Abi Bakr (Allah bepleased with him) visited me on foot in Banu Salama, and foundme unconscious. He (the Holy Prophet) called for water andperformed ablution and sprinkled out of it (the water) overme. I felt relieved. I said: Allahs Messenger, what should Ido with my property? And this verse was revealed:" Allahenjoins you concerning your children: for the male is equal ofthe portion of two females."Bk 11, Number 3934:Jabir b. Abdullah (Allah be pleased with them) reported:While I had been ill Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him)visited me and Abu akr (Allah be pleased with him) was withhim, and they both came walking on foot. He (the Holy Prophet)found me unconscious. Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him)performed ablution and then sprinkled over me the water of hisablution. I felt relieved regained my consciousness) and foundAllahs Messenger (may peace be upon him) there. I said:Allahs Messenger, what should I do with my property? He gaveme no reply until the verse (iv. 177) relating to the law ofinheritance was revealed.Bk 11, Number 3935:Jabir b. Abdullah (Allah be pleased with him) reported: WhiloI was ill Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him) came to meand found me unconscious. He (the Holy Prophet) performedablution, and sprinkled over me the water of his ablution. Iregained my consciousness and said: Allahs Messenger, my caseof inheritance is that of Kalala. Then the verse pertaining to
  7. 7. the inheritance ( of Kalala) was revealed. I (one of thenarrators) said: I said to Muhammad b. Munkadir: (Do you meanthis verse)" They ask you; say: Allah gives you decision inregard to Kalala" (iv. 177)? He said: Yes, it was thusrevealed.Bk 11, Number 3936:This hadith is transmitted on the authority of Shuba but witha slight variation of words.Bk 11, Number 3937:Abu Talha reported: Umar b. al−Khattab (Allah be pleased withhim) delivered a sermon on Friday and made a mention ofAllahs Apostle (may peace be upon him) and he also made amention of Abu Bakr (Allah be pleased with him) and then said:I do not leave behind me any problem more difficult than thatof Kalala. I did not refer to Allahs Messenger (may peace beupon him) more repeatedly than in case of the problem ofKalala, and he (the Holy Prophet) never showed more annoyanceto me than in regard to this problem, so much so that hestruck my chest with his fingers and said: Umar, does theverse revealed in summer season, at the end of Sura al−Nisanot suffice you? Hadrat Umar (then) said: If I live I wouldgive such verdict about (Kalala) that everyone would be ableto decide whether he reads the Quran or he does not.Bk 11, Number 3938:This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Qatada withthe same chain of transmitters.Chapter 3: THE LAST VERSE REVEALED WAS THAT PERTAINING TOKALALABk 11, Number 3939:Al−Bara (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the lastverse revealed in the Holy Quran is:" They ask thee for areligious verdict; say: Allah gives you a religious verdictabout Kalala (the person who has neither parents norchildren)" (iv 177).Bk 11, Number 3940:Abu Ishaq said that he heard al−Bara b. Azib (Allah bepleased with him say: The last verse revealed (in the HolyQuran) is that pertaining to Kalala, and the last sura
  8. 8. revealed is Sura al−Baraat.Bk 11, Number 3941:Abu Ishaq said that he heard al−Bara b. Azib (Allah bepleased with him) say: The last complete sura revealed (in theHoly Quran) is Sura Tauba (i e. al−Baraat, ix.), and thelast verse revealed is that pertaining to Kalala.Bk 11, Number 3942:Aba Ishaq reported this hadith on the authority of al−Bara(Allah be pleased with him) with a slight variation of words,viz. the last sura that was revealed complete.Bk 11, Number 3943:Al−Bara (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the lastverse revealed was:" They ask of thee religious verdict.."(iv. 177).Chapter 4: HE WHO LEAVES BEHIND PROPERTY, THAT IS FOR THEHEIRSBk 11, Number 3944:Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported that when thebody of a dead person having burden of debt upon him wasbrought to Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him) he wouldask whether he had left property enough to clear off his debt,and if the property left had been sufficient for that(purpose), he observed funeral prayer for him, otherwise hesaid (to his companions): You observe prayer for yourcompanion. But when Allah opened the gateways of victory forhim, he said: I am nearer to the believers than themselves, soif anyone dies leaving a debt, its payment is myresponsibility, and if anyone leaves a property, it goes tohis heirs.Bk 11, Number 3945:This hadith has been narrated on the authority of al−Zuhrithrough another chain of transmitters.Bk 11, Number 3946:Abn Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported AllahsApostle (may peace be upon him) having said this: By Him inWhose Hand is the life of Muhammad, there is no believer onthe earth with whom I am not the nearest among all the people.He who amongst you (dies) and leaves a debt, I am there to pay
  9. 9. it, and he who amongst you (dies) leaving behind children I amthere to look after them. And he who amongst You leaves behindproperty, that is for the inheritor whoever he is.Bk 11, Number 3947:Hammam b. Munabbih reported: This is what Abu Huraira (Allahbe pleased with him) narratted to us from Allahs Messenger(may peace he upon him). And he narrated many ahadith, and onewas this: Allalis Messenger (may peace be upon him said: Iam, according to the Book of Allah, the Exalted and Majestic,nearest to the believers of all the human beings. So whoeveramongst you dies in debt or leaves behind destitute children,you should call me (for help) ), for I am his guardian. Andwho amongst you leaves property, his inheritor is entitled toget it, whoever he is.Bk 11, Number 3948:Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported AllahsApostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who leavesproperty, that is for the inheritors; and he who leaves behinddestitute children, then it is my responsibility (to lookafter them). This hadith has been narrated on the authority ofShuba with the same chain of transmitters.