Pakistan Security Report 2010


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Pakistan Security report Year 2010

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Pakistan Security Report 2010

  1. 1. January 2011 Pakistan Security Report 2010 0|Page
  2. 2. January 2011 Pakistan Security Report 2010 Contents 10.2 Balochistan 10.2.1 IDPs of Balochistan 1. Introduction 10.3 Ethno-Political Violence 2. Overview 10.4 Counter Terrorism Initiatives 2.1 Comparison 10.4.1 Terrorist Arrests 3. Security Landscape in 2010 10.4.2 Search Operations 3.1 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and FATA 10.4.3 Initiatives to Enhance Capacity of 3.1.1 Prominent Killings Law 3.1.2 Assassinations of Political Leaders Enforcement Agencies and Workers 11. Challenges and Opportunities 3.1.3 Attacks on Pro-government Peace 11.1 Critical Areas Committees 11.1.1 FATA 3.1.4 Abduction for Ransom 11.1.2 KPK 3.2 Balochistan 11.1.3 Balochistan 3.2.1Target Killings 11.1.4 Karachi 3.2.2 Attacks/ Target Killings of 11.1.5 South Punjab Political Leaders and Activists 11.2 Critical Internal Threats 3.2.3 Target Killings of Settlers 11.2.1 Sectarian Violence 3.2.4 Enforced Disappearances 11.2.2 Militant Networks and Nexus 3.3 Sindh 11.2.3 Changing Tactics and Targets by 3.3.1 Karachi Terrorists 3.3.2 Ethno-Political Violence 11.2.4 Growing Radicalization 3.4 Punjab 11.2.5 Nexus between Terrorists and 3.5 Azad Kashmir Criminals 3.6 Gilgit Baltistan 11.2.6. Foreign Militants 3.7 Islamabad 11.3 Critical Policies/ Initiatives 4. Suicide Attacks 11.3.1 Counter-terrorism Policy 5. Sectarian Violence 11.3.2 Judicial Reforms 5.1 Sectarian-related Terrorist Attacks 11.4 Critical Regional Issues 5.2 Sectarian Clashes 11.4.1 Pak-Afghan 5.3Attacks on Shrines and Worship Places 11.4.2 Reconciliation with Taliban 6. Attacks on NATO Supplies 11.4.3 Terrorists’ Support 7. Attacks on Educational Institutes 11.4.4. India’s Role in Afghanistan 8. Border Tensions 11.4.5 Transit Trade Agreement 8.1 Pak-Afghan Border 11.5 Pak-US 8.2 Pak-Iran Border 11.6 Iran 8.3 Pak-India Border 11.7 India 9. Drone Attacks 12. Recommendations 10. State Responses 12.1 Internal Security 10.1 FATA and KPK 12.2 Critical Areas and Initiatives 10.1.1Political Front 12.3 Borders and Regional Security a. Development Initiatives Notes and References b. Internally Displaced Persons Appendices (IDPs) 1. Pakistan and South Asia: A Comparison c. Peace Committees & Jirgas 2. Non-traditional Security Threats d. Compensations 2.1 Floods e. Sacking of government 2.2. Food Security employees having alleged links 2.3 Energy with militants 2.4 Water f. Promulgation of Counter 2.5 Epidemics Terrorism Ordinance 2010 in Annexure PATA 10.1.2 Operational Front a. Military Operations b. Trials of Arrested Militants c. Recruitment of Additional Troops in FC and Levy Force 1|Page
  3. 3. January 2011 Pakistan Security Report 2010 1. Introduction indicators.iv In 2010, Pakistan witnessed an 11 percent The internal security situation continues to be a decrease in the number of incidents of violence pressing challenge for Pakistan. The security and terrorism compared to the previous year. scenario indicates that critical security An effective military campaign against militants challenges still remain unaddressed, with the in the tribal areas, increased surveillance by law government yet to evolve an effective and enforcement agencies and killing of key comprehensive counter-terrorism policy. The terrorists in US drone strikes in FATA were challenges consistently highlighted in the last among the main factors behind this decrease. few years have not been addressed. Better But this decrease was not uniform across the coordination among intelligence agencies, country. Violent incidents increased in the capacity building of law enforcement agencies, provinces of Sindh and Punjab and in Gilgit curbs on terrorism financing and, most Baltistan in 2010 compared to the previous year, importantly, adequate measures to prevent indicating growing urban terrorism in Pakistan. banned militant groups from operating across There was a considerable decrease in the the country remained persistently lacking. number of violent attacks in Khyber In the absence of a comprehensive long-term Pakhtunkhwa’s (KPK) settled areas. However, strategy, the government continues to rely although the writ of the state was partially almost exclusively on military solutions to the restored in FATA, the security situation militancy in FATA. Failure to address the remained volatile as militants dislodged from growing ethno-political and sectarian their strongholds constantly managed to intolerance and the influence of militants in relocate to other parts of FATA.i Despite the Karachi as well as the continuing alienation and progress on the security front, sustainable peace radicalization of a largely young and poor has not been achieved in KPK and FATA due to population in South Punjab have compounded the less than impressive performance of a weak the problem. The military is mainly relying on a political administration, which is beset by ‘hit, hold, build and clear’ strategy. The holding chronic challenges of poor governance and and rebuilding parts of this strategy cannot failure to ensure effective political participation succeed without public support and for the people.ii partnership, better coordination among federal Rule of law is a critical element of good and provincial governments and availability of governance, which is lacking not only in KPK adequate resources. The strategy requires and FATA but across the country. According to political will to initiate bold action but also World Justice Project (WJP) rule of law index judicious implementation. This would be hard 2010, Pakistan is among the countries where to achieve without considerably improved rule of law is sorely lacking.iii The latest Funds cooperation among the military, the political for Peace failed states index ranks Pakistan as government and the people. Adequate foreign the 10th most poorly governed state on account assistance, in terms of financial resources, of poor governance as well as security equipment and training, is also crucial to meet 2|Page
  4. 4. January 2011 Pakistan Security Report 2010 the challenge and must be ensured because Urdu dailies, magazines, and journals, and Pakistan’s stability is also crucial to regional various television news channels are monitored and international peace. to update the database and archives. Regional daily newspapers and weeklies from Peshawar, In this context, Pak Institute for Peace Studies Quetta, Gilgit and Karachi are also monitored (PIPS) hopes the fifth edition of its annual for details on incidents reported in the local security report will help the policymakers, media. Correspondents in provincial capitals academics, media and civil society understand are the primary source for PIPS to verify the the gravity of the situation with a view to move media reports. In case of a major incident, PIPS toward sustainable solutions. As usual, the teams consult the local administration and report contains comprehensive data on violent journalists for further details. In cases where incidents, comparative analysis of the security PIPS finds it difficult to verify facts of a situation and the regional context, the changing particular incident, it gives preference to the targets and tactics of militants, government official statements in that regard. strategies and the nature of its response to the security challenges. This year’s report also The credit for this report goes to Abdul Basit highlights regional perspectives and the usual and his team: Shagufta Hayat and Nida Naz for and non-traditional threats to peace. their constant dedication to monitoring and recording the security developments in the PIPS security reports are the only major source country throughout the year. on internal security in Pakistan as no official Acknowledgements would be incomplete database is available in the country. Although without the mention of Safdar Sial, Mujtaba the government has the resources, it lacks a Rathore and Khuram Iqbal for their valuable reliable body that can gather and tabulate data input. Credit is also due to Farhan Yousaf and from all offices and present it in an accurate and Khurram Shahzad, who managed the records credible manner. That results in lack of and archives. Special thanks to Shahzad uniformity, inconsistency and contradictions in Ahmed, the IT manager who developed official data.v comprehensive maps of the conflicts. The conflict/security database and PIPS Muhammad Amir Rana archives are the basic resources relied upon for this report. The archives and the database are January 11, 2011 the outcome of a meticulous monitoring process on every relevant incident in the country on a daily basis. A regular follow up is conducted in liaison with the PIPS correspondents in the regions in order to keep track of daily developments on such incidents. PIPS compiles data from sources including newspapers, magazines, journals, field sources and screening of official records. More than 30 English and 3|Page
  5. 5. January 2011 Pakistan Security Report 2010 2. Overview 10,003 people dead and 10,283 injured. (See Table 2) A total of 2,113 militant, insurgent and sectarian-related terrorist attacks were reported from across the country in 2010, killing 2,913 people and injuring another 5,824. The worst Table 2: Nature of Attacks affected region of the country was the insurgency-hit province of Balochistan where Attacks/ No. of the highest number of attacks was reported Clashes Incidents Killed Injured (737), followed by the militancy-infested Terrorist Federally Administered Tribal Areas (720). attacks 2,113 2,913 5,824 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) was the third most Clashes volatile region of the country with 459 attacks; between 369 2,007 877 while 111 attacks were reported in Sindh, 62 in security forces Punjab, 13 in Gilgit Baltistan, six in Islamabad and militants and five in Azad Kashmir. (See Table 1) Operational attacks by Table 1: Terrorist Attacks in Pakistan in 2010 security forces 260 2,631 1,495 Drone attacks 135 961 383 Province/Area No. of Killed Injured 69 65 53 Border clashes Attacks Ethno-political violence 233 660 966 KPK 459 836 1832 Inter-tribal clashes 214 766 685 Balochistan 737 600 1117 Total 3,393 10,003 10,283 FATA 720 904 1433 Punjab 62 309 897 Pakistan witnessed an overall decrease in the number of violent incidents in 2010, the first Karachi 93 233 436 time that had happened since 2007. (See Chart 1) A total of 3,393 attacks were reported in 2010,vi Sindh 18 5 30 compared to 3,816 in 2009, a decrease of 11 percent. Similarly, the overall casualties also Gilgit-Baltistan 13 7 16 went down, from 12,623 fatalities in 2009 to 10,003 in 2010. The number of people injured in Azad Kashmir 5 4 28 these attacks also declined from 12,815 in 2009 Islamabad 6 15 35 to 10,283 in 2010. The number of suicide attacks across the country also fell by 22 percent in Total 2113 2913 5824 comparison with 2009, with 68 suicide attacks in 2010, compared to 87 the previous year. Nearly half the suicide attacks were concentrated in KPK. Attacks by US drones in FATA registered 2.1 Comparison a 165 percent increase in 2010 compared to the previous year. If casualties in terrorist attacks, operations by the security forces and their clashes with the militants, inter-tribal clashes and cross-border attacks (including drone strikes and incursions by NATO/ISAF forces in FATA) in Pakistan are counted, the overall figures in 2010 amount to 4|Page
  6. 6. January 2011 Pakistan Security Report 2010 Chart 1: Comparison of Attacks and Casualties (2007-10) For the complete Pakistan Security Report 2010 contact: PIPS Publications Email: Ph. No.: +92-51-2291586 Price/copy: PKR 300.00; US$ 15.00 Notes Introduction i Brigadier (R) Mehmood Shah, security analyst, interview with PIPS, Peshawar, January 1, 2011. ii Ismail Khan, Resident Editor Dawn Peshawar, interview with PIPS, Peshawar, January 3, 2011. iii Jim Lobe, “Rule of Law Prospers Most in Sweden, Least in Pakistan”, Institute of Policy Studies, November 25, 2010. iv The Nation, June 22, 2010. v Ammara Durrani, strategic communications specialist, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, interview with PIPS, Islamabad, January 3, 2011. Overview vi These attacks included all the categories mentioned in Table 2. 5|Page