Swm BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14

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Swm BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14

  1. 1. I.R. Ilaboya, E. Atikpo, F.F. Asekhame, D.O. Onaiwu and F.E Omofuma, 2011. Design of an Integrated Solid Waste ISSN 2088-3218 Management Scheme: A Model Design for Igbinedion University Community. Volume 1, Number 2: 125-138, August, 2011 © T2011 Department of Environmental Engineering Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Surabaya & Indonesian Society of Sanitary and Environmental Engineers, Jakarta Open Access http://www.trisanita.org/jatesInternational peer-reviewed journal International peer-reviewed journal This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Practical Case Study DESIGN OF AN INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SCHEME: A MODEL DESIGN FOR IGBINEDION UNIVERSITY COMMUNITY I.R. ILABOYA1*, E. ATIKPO3, F.F. ASEKHAME4, D.O. ONAIWU2 and F.E OMOFUMA5 1Department of Civil Engineering, 2Department of Petroleum Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, Nigeria. 3Department of Civil Engineering, 4Department of Mechanical Engineering, 5Department of PetroleumEngineering, General Abdusalami A. Abubakar College of Engineering, Igbinedion University Okada, PMB 0006, Nigeria. *Corresponding Author: Phone: 08038027260; E-mail: id_rudolph@yahoo.com Received: 20th April 2011; Revised: 1st June 2011; Accepted: 3rd June 2011 Abstract: A critical review of the existing solid waste management system was first carried out through an effective and detailed solid waste survey and administration of relevant questionnaires to selected group of person taking into consideration there sex, age limit and scope of work of the individual. Attempt was also made to study the possible defects of the existing solid waste management system in other to suggest possible and lasting solutions. The main focus of the research work therefore was to review the existing solid waste management scheme and to design a more effective and integrated solid waste management system of lower transportation, construction and operation/maintenance cost for the study area and which can also serve as a model for a larger population. Keywords: Integrated solid waste systems, source reduction, transfer station, waste generation, waste storageINTRODUCTION Rapid increase in volume and types of solid waste as a result of continuous economicgrowth, urbanization and industrialization, is becoming a burgeoning problem for national andlocal governments to ensure effective and sustainable management of waste [1]. It is estimatedthat in 2006 the total amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated globally reached 2.02billion tones, representing a 7% annual increase since 2003 (Global Waste Management MarketReport 2007). It is further estimated that between 2007 and 2011, global generation of municipal 125 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation, 1 (2): 125-138.
  2. 2. I.R. Ilaboya, E. Atikpo, F.F. Asekhame, D.O. Onaiwu and F.E Omofuma, 2011. Design of an Integrated Solid Waste Management Scheme: A Model Design for Igbinedion University Community.waste will rise by 37.3%, equivalent to roughly 8% increase per year [2]. Although considerableefforts are being made by many Governments and other entities in tackling waste-relatedproblems, there are still major gaps to be filled in this area. Hence, developing countries faceuphill challenges to properly manage their waste with most efforts being made to reduce the finalvolumes and to generate sufficient funds for waste management [3]. This forms the premise forIntegrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) system.MATERIALS AND METHODSDescription of Study Area General overview of the university: Generally, the university has a central administrativeunit and various colleges which include among others: The college of Engineering, college ofNatural and Applied Sciences, College of Basic Medicine, College of Pharmacy, College of Law,College of Business and Social Sciences. In addition, there is the university teaching hospital,Works transport and planning, Security unit among others. Location: The University (Igbinedion University Okada) is located in the North Eastern partof Benin City in Edo State Nigeria. Edo State came into being on August 27, 1991 when whatwas known as Bendel State split into two in a state creation exercise that also led to the birth ofDelta State. Edo State shares boundaries with Delta on the South, Ondo on the West, and Kogion the North-East. The main towns in the state are Benin, is also the state capital, Ubiaja, Auchi,Ekpoma and Uromi. The State has such educational institutions as the University of Benin,Ambrose Ali University, Edo State institute of Technology Management, College of Educationsand Auchi Polytechnic among others. Igbinedion University is actually located at the heart ofOkada the head quarter of Ovia North East Local government area in Edo State. Topography: The land is generally flat. It is higher towards the north because of the levee ofthe River Ogbese. The area falls within the delta flood plain morphology. It is overlain by sandand silt soil along the bank of the river which leaves fine texture clay at the back swamp. Rainfall and vegetation: The area fall in the tropical rainforest and hence sometimesexperience heavy down pour. This area falls within the tropical rainforest vegetation and thusexhibits characteristics of the tropical rain forest belt. The mean average temperature of the areacan be estimated at 270C. Estimated population: Igbinedion University Okada is estimated at a population of aroundeight thousand persons (8000). The population distributions per person and per locations aregiven with the figures 1-3 as follows.Fig 1: Estimated population Distribution per persons 126 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation, 1 (2): 125-138.
  3. 3. I.R. Ilaboya, E. Atikpo, F.F. Asekhame, D.O. Onaiwu and F.E Omofuma, 2011. Design of an Integrated Solid Waste Management Scheme: A Model Design for Igbinedion University Community.Fig 2: Population Distribution per location from 8am-4pmFig 3: Population Distribution per location from 4pmThe reason for the variation in population distribution for figure 3 and 4 is based on the fact thatthe seat of administration is in the permanent site and the crown estate houses the students andbulk of the staffs.Methodology of Research Solid waste management and design of integrated solid waste management scheme is afundamental issue that requires the attention of all concern individuals irrespective of the level ofplanning (local, continental or international). On the bases of these, it is pertinent to know andunderstand much about the underlying concept of solid waste (MSW). Important question thatneeds to be properly addressed includes [4]: What type and quantities of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) are generated/collected At what rate are these wastes generated/collected Are the wastes generated properly stored/collected Is the collection process effective or not What problems if any are associated with the collection process Is there any transfer station for the waste collection systems What treatments processes are employed to take care of the waste 127 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation, 1 (2): 125-138.
  4. 4. I.R. Ilaboya, E. Atikpo, F.F. Asekhame, D.O. Onaiwu and F.E Omofuma, 2011. Design of an Integrated Solid Waste Management Scheme: A Model Design for Igbinedion University Community. What disposal methods are employed in taking care of the wasteIn addition to the above questions, information regarding the design of an integrated solid wastemanagement scheme for the study area was also evaluated as follows [5]: What is the present waste management practice in the area under study The present needs of the study area for an efficient waste management systemIn other to find solution to the above issues of concern, the following basic researchmethodologies were employed: Examination of available literatures on the subject matter Oral interview with the generators of the waste Accurate solid waste survey and sites visitation Use of questionnaires Application of mass balance equations Literature examination: An extensive literature survey was done on the subject matter.Theses include; review of available books, journals, book of abstract, dailies, including articlesand monographs. Oral interviews: Waste dump sites were visited, households and solid waste handlers werealso visited and oral interview conducted to find out the effectiveness of the existing wastemanagement scheme Accurate solid waste survey: One basic problem that has militated against most solidwaste management scheme has being the under estimation of the amount of solid wastegenerated. This has lead to poor design calculation which has propagated into incorrect capacityof waste management systems. This issue needed to be addressed hence an accurate solidwaste survey was done to get an insight of the approximate amount of solid waste generatedwithin the area under study. Use of questionnaires: Relevant questionnaires were designed and given to individuals(Students, staffs and non staffs). The focus of the questionnaires was to check the effectivenessof the existing waste management scheme and to design a model for an integrated solid wastemanagement scheme. The questionnaires were administered and collated; thereafter they wereanalyzed using relevant statistical software. For the purpose of this work, statistical package forthe social sciences (SPSS) was employed.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONAnalysis of Questionnaires Key issues in the questionnaires were selected and critically analyzed to study the efficiencyof the existing waste management system and establish the need for an integrated wastemanagement system. Some of the critical issues that were carefully analyzed include: To established whether or not there is a problem with waste generation within the area under study Whether or not there is existing facilities for proper waste storage within the study area. To evaluate the effective usage of waste storage facilities if at all they exist. i. e., in location where the waste storage facilities exist, are they properly used or not. Is there any transfer station within the area under study Is it important to have a transfer station for the study area Is there any limitation against one very large transfer station within the study area Are waste generated within the study area treated before being disposed Are there facilities for waste treatment within the study area 128 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation, 1 (2): 125-138.
  5. 5. I.R. Ilaboya, E. Atikpo, F.F. Asekhame, D.O. Onaiwu and F.E Omofuma, 2011. Design of an Integrated Solid Waste Management Scheme: A Model Design for Igbinedion University Community. Are there facilities for proper and effective waste disposal within the study area Finally to establish the need for an effective and integrated waste management system for the area under study.These issues where critically analyzed using appropriate statistical software (SPSS) and thefollowing conclusion were drawn at the end of the analysis/evaluation; That lack of accurate population data was a critical issue that hinders the ability of researchers to account for the total waste generated within the area. This issue was then properly handled by conducting regular visitation to different departments and units to get an update of their population records. It was discovered from the analysis of the questionnaires; that waste storage facilities exist in some locations; but the fact remains that the facilities were rather too small in terms of size and also they were under utilized. It was also discovered from the analysis of the questionnaires; that no transfer station exist within the study area even as individuals who where issued questionnaires agreed that a transfer station is of utmost importance in the effective design of an integrated waste management system. The questionnaires analysis also reveals that wastes generated were not treated since treatment processes do not exist in the first place. Finally, analysis of the questionnaires reveals that wastes are improperly disposed thus making individuals to clamour for the design of an integrated waste management scheme for the study area.A statistical method was employed in the analysis of the questionnaires. Detail result of theanalysis is given in tables 1-10 as follows.Table 1: Is there problem with waste generation Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cum. Percent Yes 39 60.9 60.9 60.9 No 25 39.1 39.1 100.0 Total 64 100.0 100.0Table 2: Existing facilities for waste storage Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cum. Percent Yes 38 59.4 59.4 59.4 No 26 40.6 40.6 100.0 Total 64 100.0 100.0Table 3: Effective Usage of Storage Facilities Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cum. Percent Yes 23 35.9 35.9 35.9 No 41 64.1 64.1 100.0 Total 64 100.0 100.0Table 4: Presence of Transfer Station Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cum. Percent Yes 17 26.6 26.6 26.6 No 47 73.4 73.4 100.0 Total 64 100.0 100.0 129 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation, 1 (2): 125-138.
  6. 6. I.R. Ilaboya, E. Atikpo, F.F. Asekhame, D.O. Onaiwu and F.E Omofuma, 2011. Design of an Integrated Solid Waste Management Scheme: A Model Design for Igbinedion University Community.Table 5: Importance of transfer station Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cum. Percent Yes 55 85.9 85.9 85.9 No 9 14.1 14.1 100.0 Total 64 100.0 100.0Table 6: Limitation Against one Very Large Transfer Station Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cum.Percent Yes 40 62.5 62.5 62.5 No 24 37.5 37.5 100.0 Total 64 100.0 100.0Table 7: Availability of treatment Processes Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cum. Percent Yes 13 20.3 20.3 20.3 No 51 79.7 79.7 100.0 Total 64 100.0 100.0Table 8: Need for Effective Waste Treatment Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cum. Percent Yes 59 92.2 92.2 92.2 No 5 7.8 7.8 100.0 Total 64 100.0 100.0Table 9: Presence of Effective Waste Disposal Systems Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cum. Percent No 44 68.8 68.8 68.8 Yes 20 31.3 31.3 100.0 Total 64 100.0 100.0Table 10: Need for Effective Waste Disposal Systems Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cum. Percent Yes 62 96.9 96.9 96.9 No 2 3.1 3.1 100.0 Total 64 100.0 100.0Integrated Solid Waste Management Scheme To integrate a solid waste management program within a community, the program shouldaddress the needs of the community as a whole. In other words waste generated from individualhomes and apartments, public places, businesses, and industries located within a communityshould be taken into consideration for efficient management of all types of solid waste generatedwithin the community. The program must satisfy the regulatory requirements and address theeconomic parameters set by the community [6]. Enough flexibility should be built into a programso it can protect the environment in a variable marketplace. Educating the public (includingmanagers of industrial and commercial institutions) understanding the benefits of an ISWMprogram is a key to the success of the program in the long run. 130 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation, 1 (2): 125-138.
  7. 7. I.R. Ilaboya, E. Atikpo, F.F. Asekhame, D.O. Onaiwu and F.E Omofuma, 2011. Design of an Integrated Solid Waste Management Scheme: A Model Design for Igbinedion University Community. Willing participation of the community as a whole (which includes both industrial andnonindustrial sectors) in reducing waste is essential. Thus, apart from management practices,due consideration should be given to educating the public regarding the source reduction conceptcoupled with proper storage, effective collection, transshipment, proper treatment and disposal ofthe different waste generated. Basically, an integrated waste management scheme consist of the following basic elements[7]. It includes waste generation and the sources, waste storage in bins (small, big and dynasurebins), waste collection in an organized waste management systems, waste transfer which includethe bulk movement of the solid waste from the collection point to another loaction called thetransfer station before the final disposal point, waste treatment options, and waste disposal.Design of an Integrated Solid Waste Management System Design criteria: Some of the criteria assumed for the overall design include [11]: Design Period. This is the period when the capacity of the waste management system (especially the disposal structure will be used up or the period when the excess capacity will equal zero. For the purpose of this work, a 35 year design period was assumed. The meaning is that the excess capacity of the system will become zero by 2045. Population. Using the past and present population figure (2005 and 2010), the population growth rate was computed and gotten to be 2.5% using a geometric growth rate analysis. This growth rate was used to compute the ultimate population figure which was finally used in the design. From: lnPt = e lnP0 + B (t2045 – t2005) Where Pt is the ultimate population, P0 is the present population, and B is the population growth rate. = ln (8000) + 0.025 (40) = 8.987 + 1 = 9.987 = 21,742 However, a safety factor of 1.2 (Ayanta 2001) would be applied for a more accurate design = 21,742 x 1.2 = 26,090. This is the ultimate population that was used in design. This gives the design projected population to P2045 = 26,090 Design specification: Effective design of integrated solid waste management systems willrequire accurate knowledge regarding the following: Rate of generation of solid waste Total solid waste generated Total volume of waste generated Effective collection calculation including required numbers of trucks Sanitary Landfill computation including land requirement, leachate and gas control design requirements. Solid waste composition: Information regarding the composition of solid waste generatedwithin the study area is an essential component needed in the design. This information isimportant not only in the design or processing alternatives, but also in the selection of appropriatewaste storage equipments and effective planning of the collection system. The figure belowshows the mean percentage composition by mass of the different components of the total wastegenerated within the study area. 131 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation, 1 (2): 125-138.
  8. 8. I.R. Ilaboya, E. Atikpo, F.F. Asekhame, D.O. Onaiwu and F.E Omofuma, 2011. Design of an Integrated Solid Waste Management Scheme: A Model Design for Igbinedion University Community.Fig 4: Percentage Composition of Residential Solid Waste generated Within the Study AreaFig 5: Percentage Composition of Institutional Solid Waste generated Within the Study AreaIgbinedion University Okada has a teaching hospital that generates hospital wastes that must beproperly disposed of. These wastes include pathological and surgical wastes, clinical andbiological wastes, patient care items, drugs, chemicals and food waste together withadministrative and related office waste.Determination of Design Parameters Amount of solid waste generation: For the purpose of this calculation, IgbinedionUniversity Environment was tag a medium income area having a residential waste generationrate of 0.75kg/capital/day and low income area of 0.54kg/capital/day residential waste generationrate. This generation rate was also assumed to remain fairly constant over the design periodexcept under the emergence of industrialization around the university community which is likely tocause a little increment. On the bases of theses, a 1.2 projection safety factor was used to takecare of any likely increment that can take place over the design period. For long term planning,combined residential generation rate is usually more accurate. With medium income at 90% andlow income at 10%, a weighted average of 0.75*0.9 + 0.54*0.1 is gotten. Therefore, solid wastegeneration rate within the study area was given as 0.675 + 0.054 = 0.729kg/capital/day. Applyinga projection safety factor of 1.2 over the design period of 35 years, the actual generation rate wascalculated to be 0.875kg/capital/day. Total waste generated = 0.875*26090 =22828.75kg/capital/day. When this was spread over the design period of 35 years we had 132 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation, 1 (2): 125-138.
  9. 9. I.R. Ilaboya, E. Atikpo, F.F. Asekhame, D.O. Onaiwu and F.E Omofuma, 2011. Design of an Integrated Solid Waste Management Scheme: A Model Design for Igbinedion University Community.1.787kg/day. Finally, total waste generated was computed to be 22828.75kg/capital/day at a rateof 1.787kg/day. Volume of storage containers needed: The primary objective here is to ensure thatwastes generated are properly stored to ease the collection process. As such, it was important toknow the sizes of the different storage containers that will be needed per locations. In decidingthe containers to be used for outside storage, the following factors were considered; wastegeneration rate, coupled with public health and aesthetics. With a generation rate of 1.787kg/dayadopted for use as the average of municipal solid waste generation rate, and also adopting anaverage solid waste density of 297kg/m3, the volume of waste generated per capital/day wascomputed as: Volume = Mass/Density = 1.787/297 = 0.00602m3 = 6 liters/capital/day. Consider ahostel having 4 students per room; we have 4*6 = 24 liters per day. If the waste is to be disposedof every two days, then the container size should be 2*24 = 48 litres/day: hence a container sizeof 60 liters will be appropriate per rooms. Consider a hostel building containing about 100 rooms,then 6,000 liters central dinosaurs will be needed which must be emptied every 3 days. Collection frequency: The frequency of collection has a direct bearing on public health andwelfare as well as aesthetic reasons. The optimum collection frequency of twice per week forresidential building waste management design was adopted for the purpose of this researchwork. Collection vehicles: From the volume generated per capital per day (0.00602m3), totalvolume of solid waste generated by the entire population is given by: 0.00602m3 *26,090 =157m3/day. If 157m3 wastes are to be collected using a vehicle capacity of 27m3, then thenumber of trips to be made from the station by such a vehicle will be:Nt = (Vw) / (Vr * n)Where: Nt is the number of trips to be made by the collection vehicle, Vw is the volume of wastegenerated per day (157m3), Vr is the capacity of collection vehicle and n is the collectionfrequency (2). Finally, Nt was computed to be approximately 3 trips. Since collection vehicle willeach require periodic maintenance, during which they will be unavailable for service, an additionalreserve vehicle will be needed to cater for both periodic maintenance lapses and allow for 100%operations during the collection period. For crew performance and evaluation, the use of threeman crews will be adopted for this design. Three man collection crew appears most appropriateand will allow for a driver and two labourers to collect from containers along both sides of the walkways and handle large bins efficiently thus minimizing labour cost within acceptable limit. Design of collection systems: The collection system adopted for this research is the SCS(Stationary Collection System) in which case, the containers used for the storage of waste remainat the point of storage and compacted vehicles and labourers are used to empty them. For thedesign of the collection system, the following parameters were used:• Ultimate population = 26,090• Average number of residents per service = 16• Solid waste generation rate = 1.787kg/day• Average density of solid waste = 297• Collection frequency = 2 times weekly• Assumed container per service = 500 liters• Collection vehicle compaction ratio (r) = 2• Round trip haul distance (X) = 20 miles• Nominal length of work day (H) = 8hrs• Number of trips per day (Nt) = 3 The following assumptions were then made for the accuracy of the overall design: 133 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation, 1 (2): 125-138.
  10. 10. I.R. Ilaboya, E. Atikpo, F.F. Asekhame, D.O. Onaiwu and F.E Omofuma, 2011. Design of an Integrated Solid Waste Management Scheme: A Model Design for Igbinedion University Community.• Travel time for first pickup location (T1) = 0.1hr/day• Travel time from last pickup location (T2) = 0.3 hr/day• Off – route factor (w) = 0.15• At site time per trip (s) = 0.10hr/trip• Haul time constants; a = 0.01hr/trip, b = 0.02hr/mile. Appropriate empirical equations where then employed to compute the following collectionsparameters:• Pickup Time per Trip (Ptpt). This parameter was computed using the equation below : [ H (1 − w )] − [( T1 + T 2 )] (1)Ptpt = [ N d − ( s + a + bx )]Where:H = Nominal length of work day (8hrs)W = off route factor (0.15)T1 and T2 = Pickup time for first and last pickup location (0.1hrs and 0.3hrs respectively.Nt = Number of trips per day (3)X = Round trip haul distance (20miles)S = at – site time per trip (0.10hr/trip)a and b = Haul time constants (0.016hr/trips and 0.02hr/trip respectively) [8 (1 − 0 .15 )] − [( 0 .1 + 0 .3)]Ptpt = [3 − ( 0 .10 + 0 .016 + 0 .4 )] [ 6 .8 − 0 .4 ]= [ 3 − 0 .516 ] 6 .4= 2 .484= 2 .576= app ; 3hrs for 3 trips per location per day• Pickup time per pickup location: This was computed using the empirical equation shown below:PT = 0.72 + 0.18Cn (2)Where: Cn was taking as one i.e. average number of containers at each location.PT = 0.72 + (0.18 * 1)PT = 0.90 collector-min/location• Number of pickup location: The number of pickup location from which waste can be collected using three member crew was calculated using the empirical equation below:  6 * PTPT * n Np =   (3)  PT Where n is the number of collector (2) 6 * 3* 2NP = [ ] 0.9 36=[ ] 0.9= 40 locations/trip 134 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation, 1 (2): 125-138.
  11. 11. I.R. Ilaboya, E. Atikpo, F.F. Asekhame, D.O. Onaiwu and F.E Omofuma, 2011. Design of an Integrated Solid Waste Management Scheme: A Model Design for Igbinedion University Community.• Volume of waste generated: The volume of waste generated per pickup location was computed using the empirical equation shown below: R * N PPL * N d / wVPL = [ g ] (4) ρwWhere:Rg = Rate of solid waste generation (1.787kg/day)NPPL = Number of persons per pickup location (24 persons/pickup location)Nd/w = Number of days in a week (7days)ρw = Average density of solid waste (297)VPL = [1.787 *24 * 7] / [297]= 1.0108M3/location/week• Required truck volume: The required volume of truck was computed using the empirical equation as below: N *VVT = [ P PL ] (5) nVT = [(40 * 1.0108)/2]VT = 20.216m3• Capacity of transfer station: Using the design periods of (35 years), ultimate population of 26,090 persons, the ultimate weight of waste generated was computed using the empirical equation shown below:UTW = Rg * Ultimate Population (6)Where:UTW = ultimate total waste generatedAssumed that the waste was to spend 5 days in the transfer station before being disposed, then,the capacity of the transfer station was computed as shown below: CT / S = [ N d / s * Vw * Ultimate Population] (7)Where:Nd/s = Number of days waste will spent in the transfer stationVw = Computed volume of wasteCT/S = 5 * 0.00602 * 26,090CT/S = 785.309m2Assuming a transfer station of height 3m, then the floor area of the transfer station was computedas shown below: Capacity of Transfer Station FA = (8) Height of Transfer StationFA = (785.309) / (3)FA = 261.770m2Applying the design equation for the relationship between length and height of the form:L = 3BA = L*Btherefore : A = 3B * B = 3B 2 Capacity of Transfer Station3B 2 = Height of Transfer Station 1 Transfer Station CapacityB= ( ) 3 Height of transfer StationB = [(785.309) / (3 *3)] 1/2 135 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation, 1 (2): 125-138.
  12. 12. I.R. Ilaboya, E. Atikpo, F.F. Asekhame, D.O. Onaiwu and F.E Omofuma, 2011. Design of an Integrated Solid Waste Management Scheme: A Model Design for Igbinedion University Community.B = (87.257)1/2B = 9.34mTherefore, length of transfer station was computed as 3 * 9.34 = 28.02m. Finally, the storagecapacity of the transfer station was computed as 28m * 9m * 3m. The transfer station will consistof a steel portal frame construction, gladded in concrete block work to the eaves. It will containinlet for waste deposition, and a chamber for waste sorting before been transported to locationsdesigned for effective waste disposal. Design of integrated waste disposal system: Owing to the available land within the studyarea, a sanitary landfill method was chosen as the best waste disposal method for the areaunderstudy. It was proposed that each location will have its own waste disposal facility foreffective management of the different waste since a uniformly flat land is available at eachlocation. A regional waste disposal system was also proposed; optimization modeling will beneeded in this regard to choose between individual waste management systems at eachlocations or a regional waste disposal system at a central location. On the whole, the followingdesign computation was done to calculate the required dimensions of the proposed wastedisposal systems. Design criteria for sanitary landfillUltimate Population = 26,090Design Period = 35 yearsWaste generation rate = 1.787kg/dayVolume of waste generated = 0.00602m3Average compaction ration = 3.5Density of uncompacted waste = 297kg/m3 Design computation for sanitary landfill• Waste generated per dayWaste generated per day was computed as follows:Ultimate population * Rate of generation26,090 * 1.787 = 46,622.83kg/day• Density of compacted fillThe density of the compacted fill was calculated as follows:Compaction Ration * Average Density3.5 * 297 = 1039.5kg/m3• Volume of waste per dayThe volume of waste per day was computed as shown below:(Waste generated per day) / (Density of compacted fills)(46,622.83) / (1039.5) = 44.85m3/dayAssuming an average depth of compacted solid waste plus cover to be 0.75m• Area of land required per year(44.85 * 365) / (0.75) = 21827m2/yearFor a cover of 1 to 4, the capacity of the proposed landfill(4 * 21827) / (5) = 17461.6m2/yearTherefore for 35 years design period, the required area of land is 17461.6 * 35 = 611,156m2.For the construction of the land fill, the following basic steps must be adhered to:• Existing site drainage if any must be modified to route any runoff away from the intended land fill area.• Construction of access roads, purchase/use of weighing facilities and installation of fences. 136 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation, 1 (2): 125-138.
  13. 13. I.R. Ilaboya, E. Atikpo, F.F. Asekhame, D.O. Onaiwu and F.E Omofuma, 2011. Design of an Integrated Solid Waste Management Scheme: A Model Design for Igbinedion University Community.• Excavation and preparation of the land fill bottom and subsurface sides. The land fill bottom must be shaped to allow effective drainage of leachate.• A low permeability liner (plastics or clay materials) is needed to be placed at the bottom and the sides of the land fill• Leachate collection and extraction facilities must be properly design for the land fill area and must be incorporated round the land fill.• Horizontal gas recovery trenches must be installed at the bottom and within the body of the land fill.• Standard height of waste to low permeability liner of 0.6m to 0.15m must be maintained• Overall surface of the landfill must be curved to allow drainage of collected precipitation.• Heavy structures are not to be built on land fill area.Table 11: Design Parameters and their computed valuesS/No Parameter Computed Value 1 Design Period 35 years 2 Ultimate Population 26,090 3 Amount of Waste generated 22828.75kg/capital/day 4 Rate of waste generation 1.787kg/day 5 Volume of waste generated 157m3/day 6 Volume of storage containers 60 liters per room 7 Number of trips per collection vehicles 3 trips per vehicle 8 Number of crew 3 member crew 9 Type of collection system adopted (SCS): Stationary Collection System 10 Pickup time per trip 3 hours per 3 trip per location 11 Pickup time per location 0.90 collector-min/location 12 Number of pickup location 40 locations/ trip 13 Volume of waste generated per pickup location 1.0108M3/location/wk 14 Volume of Truck 20.216m3 15 Capacity of Transfer Station 785.309m3 16 Transfer Station Floor Area 261.770m2 17 Dimensions Of Transfer Station 28m * 9m * 3m 18 Density of Compacted Fill 1039.5kg/m3 19 Required Land Area For Landfill (17461.6 * 35)m2 20 Density of Uncompacted Solid Waste 297kg/m3CONCLUSION Integrated solid waste management is a complex task and must involve various disciplines.A successful program must include both short-term and long-term goals. It must also provide abalance between three main factors: environmental regulation cost of running the program andcommunity needs. To develop a program one needs to comprehend the basic principles involvedin managing each component and their effect on one another. For instance, if the ash generatedby incineration of municipal waste tests out to be hazardous, then either the ash must bedetoxified or it must be disposed in a specially designed landfill/landfill cell. Therefore, prior toincluding incineration in the program, one needs to ascertain the characteristics of the incineratorash so that correct disposal practice is included in the program. On a local or community level,integrated solid waste management programs essentially consist of the following five steps: 137 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation, 1 (2): 125-138.
  14. 14. I.R. Ilaboya, E. Atikpo, F.F. Asekhame, D.O. Onaiwu and F.E Omofuma, 2011. Design of an Integrated Solid Waste Management Scheme: A Model Design for Igbinedion University Community.1. Waste source identification and characterization; 2. Efficient waste collection; 3. Reduction ofvolume and toxicity of the waste to be discarded; 4. Land disposal or incineration of the waste; 5.Optimization of the first four steps to reduce cost and environmental impact.References1. Howard .S. Peavy, Donald R. Rowe, George Tchobanoglous, (2008), Environmental Engineering, prentice – hall of India private limited, New Delhi. Pgs: 56 – 78.2. Arcadio.P. Sincero and Gregoria .A. Sincero, (2006), Environmental engineering; a design Approach, prentice – hall of India private limited, New Delhi, Pgs: 67 – 120.3. P. Venugopala Rao, (2004), Text book of Environmental engineering, prentice – hall of India private limited, New Delhi, Pgs: 86 – 88.4. Agori, John Ebipuakebina, (2003), “Urban Solid Waste Management; A case study of patani” Masters Thesis, Submitted to the department of Civil Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City. Pgs 132 – 158.5. Ludwig H.F. and Black R.J. (1968) Report on the solid waste problem. Journal of Sanitary Engineering Div., 94(2), 355-370.6. Ayanta B.U, (2001), “Solid Waste Management lecture Note” pgs 45 – 98. (Unpublished)7. Egunjobi T.O, (1983), “Problems of solid waste management in Nigerian urban centers”, paper presented at the National Conference on Development and the Environment. Organized by NISER, University of Ibadan Nigeria8. Brunner D.R and Kelly D.J, (1972), “Sanitary Land Fill Design and Operation”, publication SW-65ts, U.S Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C9. Frank Fluntoff, (1969), “Solid Waste management in Developing Countries”, World Health Organization10. George Tchobanoglous, Hilary Theisen and Samuel A. Vigil, (1993), “Integrated Solid Waste Management; Engineering Principles and Management Issues”, McGraw Hill International Edition, pgs 23 – 24611. Developing Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan. A Training Manual Compiled by United Nations Environmental Programme Division of Technology, Industry and Economics International Environmental Technology Centre Osaka/Shiga, Japan12. Environmental Assessment of Municipal Waste Management Scenarios: Part II – Detailed Life Cycle Assessments; European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for Environment and Sustainability13. Environmental Impact Assessment for the Construction of Solid Waste Transfer Station by the Rehabilitation of the Existing Solid Waste Dumping Site in Feroun –Tulkarem City: Outline and Preliminary analysis; House of Water and Environment (HWE) May, 2009.14. ISO 14000/14001, “Environmental Management Standards (EM S)” 138 Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation, 1 (2): 125-138.

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