Composition and structure of       ATMOSPHERE
Intro of the      ATMOSPHEREComposition of the atmosphereVertical temperature structure
Composition of AirAir is a mechanical mixture of gases -not a chemical compound  Constituent            % by Volume Nitro...
Composition of Air (dry)Constituent                            % by Volume Nitrogen (N2)                  78.08 Oxygen (...
COMPOSITION OF THEATMOSPHERE GASES WATER VAPOUR DUST PARTICLES
THREE CATEGORIES OF ATMOSPHERIC COMPONENTS1) Constant gases       Nitrogen,       Oxygen                        Three Cate...
Particulate Matter   PM10, PM2.5, PM1, TSP, UFP   "Inhalable coarse particles" such as those found    near roadways and ...
We’ve now covered atmosphericcomposition… now a look at thestructure of the atmosphere…
Vertical Temperature Structure of          the Atmosphere   4 layers    Troposphere    (sfc - ~ 10 km)    Stratosphere ...
The Troposphere   sfc - ~10 km Height varies withlatitude and season(Why?) 70 - 80% of thetotal mass of theEarths atmos...
The Stratosphere   Stratified in temperature, with    warmer layers higher up and cooler    layers farther down   Heated...
The Mesosphere   Rarity of ozone   Rapid decrease in    temperature   Mesopause is the    coldest part of the    atmosp...
The Thermosphere   Includes the ionosphere (to    around 600 km) and    exosphere (to around 10 000    km)      Auroras ...
Aurorae or Polar Lights
THANK YOU
Structure of atmosphere by Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14
Structure of atmosphere by Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14
Structure of atmosphere by Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14
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Structure of atmosphere by Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14

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Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14

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Structure of atmosphere by Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14

  1. 1. Composition and structure of ATMOSPHERE
  2. 2. Intro of the ATMOSPHEREComposition of the atmosphereVertical temperature structure
  3. 3. Composition of AirAir is a mechanical mixture of gases -not a chemical compound Constituent % by Volume Nitrogen (N2) 78.08 Oxygen (O2) 20.95 Argon (Ar) 0.93 Carbon dioxide (CO2) 0.0325Comprise 99.98% of total.
  4. 4. Composition of Air (dry)Constituent % by Volume Nitrogen (N2) 78.08 Oxygen (O2) 20.95 Argon (Ar) 0.93 Carbon dioxide (CO2) 0.0325 Neon (Ne) 0.0018 Helium (He) 0.0005 Krypton (Kr) 0.0001 Ozone (O3) 0.0006 Hydrogen (H2) 0.00005 Trace gases are those with a concentration of <0.1%. Important for life on earth.
  5. 5. COMPOSITION OF THEATMOSPHERE GASES WATER VAPOUR DUST PARTICLES
  6. 6. THREE CATEGORIES OF ATMOSPHERIC COMPONENTS1) Constant gases Nitrogen, Oxygen Three Categories Argon Carbon dioxide •Constant gases Neon •Variable gases Helium •Particulates Krypton Hydrogen Ozone2) Variable gases introduced by biological and industrial activities(NO2, NO, SO2, etc.)  Water vapour is a variable gas. Varies between 1-4%.3) Particulates are suspended particles of sea salt, dust, smokeetc.
  7. 7. Particulate Matter PM10, PM2.5, PM1, TSP, UFP "Inhalable coarse particles" such as those found near roadways and dusty industries, are larger than 2.5 micrometers and smaller than 10 micrometers in diameter. Deposited in the lungs – breathing difficulties, trigger of asthma "Respirable Fine particles," such as those found in smoke and haze, are 2.5 micrometers in diameter and smaller. These particles can be directly emitted from sources such as forest fires, or they can form when gases emitted from power plants, industries and automobiles react in the air. Enter the bloodstream – laid down as plaques in the cardiovascular system
  8. 8. We’ve now covered atmosphericcomposition… now a look at thestructure of the atmosphere…
  9. 9. Vertical Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere 4 layers Troposphere (sfc - ~ 10 km) Stratosphere (10 - 50 km) Mesosphere (50 - 80 km) Thermosphere (80 km ⇒)
  10. 10. The Troposphere sfc - ~10 km Height varies withlatitude and season(Why?) 70 - 80% of thetotal mass of theEarths atmosphere and 99% of water vapour.
  11. 11. The Stratosphere Stratified in temperature, with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down Heated from above  Conduction to below  Stability No water vapour Ozone layer – peak concentration of ozone at approximately 25 km.  >90% of earth’s ozone  Filters all UV-A and much UV-B Temperature maximises at ~50 km  Ozone begins to decrease rapidly
  12. 12. The Mesosphere Rarity of ozone Rapid decrease in temperature Mesopause is the coldest part of the atmosphere
  13. 13. The Thermosphere Includes the ionosphere (to around 600 km) and exosphere (to around 10 000 km)  Auroras in the ionosphere  Exobase at top of ionosphere (base of exosphere) – above which particle collisions are negligible Air molecules are rare in this layer Temperature can theoretically rise to enormous levels. BUT it would feel freezing.
  14. 14. Aurorae or Polar Lights
  15. 15. THANK YOU

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