Nrl final report BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14


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Nrl final report BY Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14

  5. 5. 5ACKNOWLEDGEMENTWe, thanks to almighty ALLAH the mostmerciful. By His grace it made possible tocomplete the entire task.We would also like to thanks the staff oftraining center who had supported us a lot andby their great efforts it was made possible forus to get the working knowledge speciallyrespected Mr. Dr. M.Y.K Sanjarani, Mr. Bismillah,Mr. Bhatti who helped us sincerely in everyrespect.Now, we also mentioning the engineeringdepartment where we had been posted for fourweek. They also gave us their precious time andknowledge and made it easy for us to know theworking scenario overthere.We would like to thanks all the concernedworking staff of engineering department theirsincere help and guides made it possible to get2010
  6. 6. INTRODUCTIONNational Refinery Limited ( NRL ) was incorporated on August 19, 1963 as a public limitedcompany. Government of Pakistan took over the management of NRL under the EconomicReforms Order, 1972 under the Ministry of Production, which was exercising control through itsshareholding in State Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Corporation (PERAC).The Government of Pakistan had decided to place the National Refinery Limited under theadministrative control of Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Resources in November 1998.In June 2003 the Government of Pakistan decided to include NRL in its privatisationprogramme. The selling of 51% equity and transfer of management control to a strategicinvestor had been proposed accordingly, the due diligence process for the privatisation wasinitiated. After competitive bidding NRL was acquired by Attack Oil Group in July 2005.The Company has been privatised and the management handed over to the new owner (AttackOil Group) on July 7, 2005.NRL AT A GLANCEFirst Lube refinery 1966Fuel Refinery 1977Second Lube Refinery 1985LIST OF PRODUCTS• REGULATED– MOTOR GASOLINE– KEROSENE– JP-1– JP-8– LDO– HSD• DE-REGULATED– LUBE BASE OILS– ASPHALTS– SPECIALITY– LPG– NAPHTHA– FURNACE OIL6the task completed
  8. 8. S.No Contents1. Distillation2. Vaccum Distillation3. Boilers4. Pumps5. Compressors6. Furnace7. Valves8. Cooling towers9. Heat Exchangers8
  9. 9. DistillationDistillation is defined as:A process in which a liquid or vapour mixture of two or more substances isseparated into its component fractions of desired purity, by the application andremoval of heat.Distillation is based on the fact that the vapour of a boiling mixture will be richer in thecomponents that have lower boiling points.Therefore, when this vapour is cooled and condensed, the condensate will contain morevolatile components. At the same time, the original mixture will contain more of the lessvolatile material.Distillation columns are designed to achieve this separation efficiently.Although many people have a fair idea what “distillation” means, the important aspects thatseem to be missed from the manufacturing point of view are that:distillation is the most common separation techniqueit consumes enormous amounts of energy, both in terms of cooling and heatingrequirements9
  10. 10. it can contribute to more than 50% of plant operating costsThe best way to reduce operating costs of existing units, is to improve their efficiency andoperation via process optimisation and control. To achieve this improvement, a thoroughunderstanding of distillation principles and how distillation systems are designed is essential.The purpose of this set of notes is to expose you to the terminology used in distillation practiceand to give a very basic introduction to:TYPES OF DISTILLATION COLUMNSThere are many types of distillation columns, each designed to perform specific types ofseparations, and each design differs in terms of complexity.One way of classifying distillation column type is to look at how they are operated. Thus wehave:batch andcontinuous columns.Batch ColumnsIn batch operation, the feed to the column is introduced batch-wise. That is, the column ischarged with a batch and then the distillation process is carried out. When the desired task isachieved, a next batch of feed is introduced.Continuous ColumnsIn contrast, continuous columns process a continuous feed stream. No interruptions occurunless there is a problem with the column or surrounding process units. They are capable ofhandling high throughputs and are the most common of the two types. We shall concentrateonly on this class of columns.Types of Continuous ColumnsContinuous columns can be further classified according to:10
  11. 11. the nature of the feed that they are processing,binary column - feed contains only two componentsmulti-component column - feed contains more than two componentsthe number of product streams they havemulti-product column - column has more than two product streamswhere the extra feed exits when it is used to help with the separation,• extractive distillation - where the extra feed appears in the bottom product stream• azeotropic distillation - where the extra feed appears at the top product streamthe type of column internalstray column - where trays of various designs are used to hold up the liquid to provide bettercontact between vapour and liquid, hence better separationpacked column - where instead of trays, packings are used to enhance contact betweenvapour and liquid.BASIC DISTILLATION EQUIPMENT AND OPERATIONMain Components of Distillation Columns Distillation columns are made up of severalcomponents, each of which is used either to tranfer heat energy or enhance materail transfer.A typical distillation contains several major components:a vertical shell where the separation of liquid components is carried outcolumn internals such as trays/plates and/or packings which are used to enhancecomponent separationsa reboiler to provide the necessary vaporisation for the distillation process11
  12. 12. a condenser to cool and condense the vapour leaving the top of the columna reflux drum to hold the condensed vapour from the top of the column so that liquid(reflux) can be recycled back to the column The vertical shell houses the column internals andtogether with the condenser and reboiler, constitute a distillation column. A schematic of atypical distillation unit with a single feed and two product streams is shown below:Basic Operation and Terminology The liquid mixture that is to be processed is known as thefeed and this is introduced usually somewhere near the middle of the column to a tray knownas the feed tray. The feed tray divides the column into a top (enriching or rectification) sectionand a bottom (stripping) section. The feed flows down the column where it is collected at thebottom in the reboiler.Heat is supplied to the reboiler to generate vapour. The source of heat input can be anysuitable fluid, although in most chemical plants this is normally steam. In refineries, the heatingsource may be the output streams of other columns. The vapour raised in the reboiler is re-introduced into the unit at the bottom of the column. The liquid removed from the reboiler isknown as the bottoms product or simply, bottoms.12
  13. 13. The vapour moves up the column, and as it exits the top of the unit, it is cooled by a condenser.The condensed liquid is stored in a holding vessel known as the reflux drum. Some of this liquidis recycled back to the top of the column and this is called the reflux. The condensed liquid thatis removed from the system is known as the distillate or top product.Thus, there are internal flows of vapour and liquid within the column as well as external flowsof feeds and product streams, into and out of the column.COLUMN INTERNALSTrays and Plates The terms "trays" and "plates" are used interchangeably. There are manydesigns, but the most common ones are :Bubble cap traysA bubble cap tray has riser or chimney fitted over each hole, and a cap that covers theriser. The cap is mounted so that there is a space between riser and cap to allow thepassage of vapour. Vapour rises through the chimney and is directed downward by thecap, finally discharging through slots in the cap, and finally bubbling through the liquidon13
  14. 14. Valve traysIn valve trays, perforations are covered by liftable caps. Vapour flows lifts the caps, thusself creating a flow area for the passage of vapour. The lifting cap directs the vapour toflow horizontally into the liquid, thus providing better mixing than is possible in sievetrays.Sieve traysSieve trays are simply metal plates with holes in them. Vapour passes straight upwardthrough the liquid on the plate. The arrangement, number and size of the holes aredesign parameter.Because of their efficiency, wide operating range, ease of maintenance and cost factors, sieveand valve trays have replaced the once highly thought of bubble cap trays in many applications.14
  15. 15. Liquid and Vapour Flows in a Tray ColumnThe next few figures show the direction of vapour and liquid flow across a tray, and across acolumn.Each tray has 2 conduits, one on each side, called ‘downcomers’. Liquid falls through thedowncomers by gravity from one tray to the one below it. The flow across each plate is shownin the above diagram on the right.A weir on the tray ensures that there is always some liquid (holdup) on the tray and is designedsuch that the the holdup is at a suitable height, e.g. such that the bubble caps are covered byliquid.Being lighter, vapour flows up the column and is forced to pass through the liquid, via theopenings on each tray. The area allowed for the passage of vapour on each tray is called theactive tray area15
  16. 16. The picture on the left is a photograph of a section of a pilot scale column equiped with bubblecapped trays. The tops of the 4 bubble caps on the tray can just be seen. The down- comer inthis case is a pipe, and is shown on the right. The frothing of the liquid on the active tray area isdue to both passage of vapour from the tray below as well as boiling.As the hotter vapour passes through the liquid on the tray above, it transfers heat to the liquid.In doing so, some of the vapour condenses adding to the liquid on the tray. The condensate,however, is richer in the less volatile components than is in the vapour. Additionally, because ofthe heat input from the vapour, the liquid on the tray boils, generating more vapour. Thisvapour, which moves up to the next tray in the column, is richer in the more volatilecomponents. This continuous contacting between vapour and liquid occurs on each tray in thecolumn and brings about the separation between low boiling point components and those withhigher boiling points.Tray DesignsA tray essentially acts as a mini-column, each accomplishing a fraction of the separation task.From this we can deduce that the more trays there are, the better the degree of separation andthat overall separation efficiency will depend significantly on the design of the tray. Trays aredesigned to maximise vapour-liquid contact by considering the liquid distribution andvapour distribution on the tray. This is because better vapour-liquid contact means betterseparation at each tray, translating to better column performance. Less trays will be required toachieve the same degree of separation. Attendant benefits include less energy usage and lowerconstruction costs.16
  17. 17. PackingsThere is a clear trend to improve separations by supplementing the use of trays by additions ofpackings. Packings are passive devices that are designed to increase the interfacial area forvapour-liquid contact. The following pictures show 3 different types of packings.These strangely shaped pieces are supposed to impart good vapour-liquid contact when aparticular type is placed together in numbers, without causing excessive pressure-drop across apacked section. This is important because a high pressure drop would mean that more energy isrequired to drive the vapour up the distillation column.Packings versus TraysA tray column that is facing throughput problems may be de-bottlenecked by replacing asection of trays with packings. This is because:packings provide extra inter-facial area for liquid-vapour contactefficiency of separation is increased for the same column heightpacked columns are shorter than trayed columns Packed columns are called continuous-contact columns while trayed columns are called staged-contact columns because of themanner in which vapour and liquid are contacted.17
  18. 18. Vacuum distillationVacuum distillation is a method of distillation whereby the pressure above the liquid mixture tobe distilled is reduced to less than its vapor pressure (usually less than atmospheric pressure)causing evaporation of the most volatile liquid(s) (those with the lowest boiling points).[1]Thisdistillation method works on the principle that boiling occurs when the vapor pressure of aliquid exceeds the ambient pressure. Vacuum distillation is used with or without heating thesolution.Industrial-scale applicationsIndustrial-scale vacuum distillation[6]has several advantages. Close boiling mixtures may requiremany equilibrium stages to separate the key components. One tool to reduce the number ofstages needed is to utilize vacuum distillation.[7]Vacuum distillation columns (as depicted in thedrawing to the right) typically used in oil refineries have diameters ranging up to about 14metres (46 feet), heights ranging up to about 50 metres (164 feet), and feed rates ranging up toabout 25,400 cubic metres per day (160,000 barrels per day).Vacuum distillation increases the relative volatility of the key components in many applications.The higher the relative volatility, the more separable are the two components; this connotesfewer stages in a distillation column in order to effect the same separation between theoverhead and bottoms products. Lower pressures increase relative volatilities in most systems.A second advantage of vacuum distillation is the reduced temperature requirement at lowerpressures. For many systems, the products degrade or polymerize at elevated temperatures.Vacuum distillation can improve a separation by:• Prevention of product degradation or polymer formation because of reduced pressureleading to lower tower bottoms temperatures,• Reduction of product degradation or polymer formation because of reduced meanresidence time especially in columns using packing rather than trays.• Increasing capacity, yield, and purity.18
  19. 19. Another advantage of vacuum distillation is the reduced capital cost, at the expense of slightlymore operating cost. Utilizing vacuum distillation can reduce the height and diameter, and thusthe capital cost of a distillation column.19
  20. 20. Boiler:A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The heated or vaporized fluidexits the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications.Types:Boilers can be classified into the following configurations:• Fire-tube boiler.Here, water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume left above to accommodatethe steam (steam space). This is the type of boiler used in nearly all steam locomotives.The heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that has to be kept permanentlysurrounded by the water in order to maintain the temperature of the heating surfacejust below boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of a fire-tube whichlengthens the path of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating surface which can befurther increased by making the gases reverse direction through a second parallel tubeor a bundle of multiple tubes (two-pass or return flue boiler); alternatively the gasesmay be taken along the sides and then beneath the boiler through flues (3-pass boiler).In the case of a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel extends from the firebox and thehot gases pass through a bundle of fire tubes inside the barrel which greatly increasethe heating surface compared to a single tube and further improve heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers usually have a comparatively low rate of steam production, but high steamstorage capacity. Fire-tube boilers mostly burn solid fuels, but are readily adaptable tothose of the liquid or gas variety.20
  21. 21. • Water-tube boilerIn this type,the water tubes are arranged inside a furnace in a number of possibleconfigurations: often the water tubes connect large drums, the lower ones containingwater and the upper ones, steam and water; in other cases, such as a monotube boiler,water is circulated by a pump through a succession of coils. This type generally giveshigh steam production rates, but less storage capacity than the above. Water tubeboilers can be designed to exploit any heat source and are generally preferred in highpressure applications since the high pressure water/steam is contained within smalldiameter pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall.21
  22. 22. PumpsA pump is a device used to move fluids, such as gases, liquids or slurries. A pump displaces avolume by physical or mechanical action. One common misconception about pumps is thethought that they create pressure. Pumps alone do not create pressure; they only displace fluid,causing a flow. Adding resistance to flow causes pressure. Pumps fall into two major groups:positive displacement pumps and rotodynamic pumps. Their names describe the method formoving a fluid.POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPA positive displacement pump causes a fluid to move by trapping a fixed amount of it thenforcing (displacing) that trapped volume into the discharge pipe. A positive displacement pumpcan be further classified according to the mechanism used to move the fluid.Rotary-type, for example, the lobe, external gear, internal gear, screw, shuttle block, flexiblevane or sliding vane, helical twisted roots or liquid ring vacuum pumps.Reciprocating-type, for example, piston or diaphragm pumps.GEAR PUMPThis uses two meshed gears rotating in a closely fitted casing. Fluid is pumped around the outerperiphery by being trapped in the tooth spaces. It does not travel back on the meshed part,since the teeth mesh closely in the centre. Widely used on car engine oil pumps.22
  23. 23. PARISTALTIC PUMPA peristaltic pump is a type of positive displacement pump used for pumping a variety of fluids.The fluid is contained within a flexible tube fitted inside a circular pump casing (though linearperistaltic pumps have been made). A rotor with a number of "rollers", "shoes" or "wipers"attached to the external circumference compresses the flexible tube. As the rotor turns, thepart of tube under compression closes (or "occludes") thus forcing the fluid to be pumped tomove through the tube. Additionally, as the tube opens to its natural state after the passing ofthe cam ("restitution") fluid flow is induced to the pump.ROTARY PERISTALTIC PUMPCENTRIFUGAL PUMPA centrifugal pump is a rotodynamic pump that uses a rotating impeller to increase thepressure and flowrate of a fluid. Centrifugal pumps are the most common type of pump used tomove liquids through a piping system. The fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to therotating axis and is accelerated by the impeller, flowing radially outward or axially into adiffuser or volute chamber, from where it exits into the downstream piping system. Centrifugalpumps are typically used for large discharge through smaller heads.Centrifugal pumps are most often associated with the radial flow type. However, the term"centrifugal pump" can be used to describe all impeller type rotodynamic pumps[1]including theradial, axial and mixed flow variations.23
  24. 24. AXIAL FLOW PUMPAxial flow pumps differ from radial flow in that the fluid enters and exits along the samedirection parallel to the rotating shaft. The fluid is not accelerated but instead "lifted" by theaction of the impeller. They may be likened to a propeller spinning in a length of tube. Axialflow pumps operate at much lower pressures and higher flow rates than radial flow pumps.MIXED FLOW PUMPMixed flow pumps, as the name suggests, function as a compromise between radial and axialflow pumps, the fluid experiences both radial acceleration and lift and exits the impellersomewhere between 0-90 degrees from the axial direction. As a consequence mixed flowpumps operate at higher pressures than axial flow pumps while delivering higher dischargesthan radial flow pumps. The exit angle of the flow dictates the pressure head-dischargecharacteristic in relation to radial and mixed flow.CompressorA gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing itsvolume.Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transportthe fluid through a pipe. As gases are compressible, the compressor also reduces the volume ofa gas. Liquids are relatively incompressible, so the main action of a pump is to pressurize andtransport liquids.Types of compressorsThe main types of gas compressors are illustrated and discussed below:24
  25. 25. Centrifugal compressorsCentrifugal compressors use a rotating disk or impeller in a shaped housing to force the gas tothe rim of the impeller, increasing the velocity of the gas. A diffuser (divergent duct) sectionconverts the velocity energy to pressure energy. They are primarily used for continuous,stationary service in industries such as oil refineries, chemical and petrochemical plants andnatural gas processing plantsMany large snowmaking operations (like ski resorts) use this type of compressor. They are alsoused in internal combustion engines as superchargers and turbochargers. Centrifugalcompressors are used in small gas turbine engines or as the final compression stage of mediumsized gas turbines25
  26. 26. Diagonal or mixed-flow compressorsDiagonal or mixed-flow compressors are similar to centrifugal compressors, but have a radialand axial velocity component at the exit from the rotor. The diffuser is often used to turndiagonal flow .Axial-flow compressorsAxial-flow compressors are dynamic rotating compressors that use arrays of fan-like airfoils toprogressively compress the working fluid. They are used where there is a requirement for ahigh flow rate or a compact design.The arrays of airfoils are set in rows, usually as pairs: one rotating and one stationary. Therotating airfoils, also known as blades or rotors, accelerate the fluid. The stationary airfoils, alsoknown as stators or vanes, decelerate and redirect the flow direction of the fluid, preparing itfor the rotor blades of the next stage.[1]Axial compressors are almost always multi-staged, withthe cross-sectional area of the gas passage diminishing along the compressor to maintain anoptimum axial Mach number. Beyond about 5 stages or a 4:1 design pressure ratio, variablegeometry is normally used to improve operation.Reciprocating compressorsReciprocating compressors use pistons driven by a crankshaft. They can be either stationary orportable, can be single or multi-staged, and can be driven by electric motors or internalcombustion engines. Small reciprocating compressors from 5 to 30 horsepower (hp) arecommonly seen in automotive applications and are typically for intermittent duty. Largerreciprocating compressors well over 1,000 hp (750 kW) are commonly found in large industrialand petroleum applications. Discharge pressures can range from low pressure to very highpressure (>18000 psi or 180 MPa). In certain applications, such as air compression, multi-stagedouble-acting compressors are said to be the most efficient compressors available, and aretypically larger, and more costly than comparable rotary units26
  27. 27. FurnaceA furnace is a device used for heating. The name derives from Latin fornax, oven. The earliestfurnace was excavated at Balakot, a site of the Indus Valley Civilization, dating back to itsmature phase (c. 2500-1900 BC). The furnace was most likely used for the manufacturing ofceramicIndustrial process furnacesAn industrial furnace or direct fired heater, is an equipment used to provide heat for a processor can serve as reactor which provides heats of reaction. Furnace designs vary as to its function,heating duty, type of fuel and method of introducing combustion air. However, most processfurnaces have some common features.Fuel flows into the burner and is burnt with air provided from an air blower. There can be morethan one burner in a particular furnace which can be arranged in cells which heat a particularset of tubes. Burners can also be floor mounted, wall mounted or roof mounted depending ondesign. The flames heat up the tubes, which in turn heat the fluid inside in the first part of thefurnace known as the radiant section or firebox. In this chamber where combustion takes place,the heat is transferred mainly by radiation to tubes around the fire in the chamber. The heatingfluid passes through the tubes and is thus heated to the desired temperature. The gases fromthe combustion are known as flue gas. After the flue gas leaves the firebox, most furnacedesigns include a convection section where more heat is recovered before venting to theatmosphere through the flue gas stack. (HTF=Heat Transfer Fluid. Industries commonly usetheir furnaces to heat a secondary fluid with special additives like anti-rust and high heattransfer efficiency. This heated fluid is then circulated round the whole plant to heatexchangers to be used wherever heat is needed instead of directly heating the product line asthe product or material may be volatile or prone to cracking at the furnace temperature.)27
  28. 28. Radiant sectionMiddle of radiant sectionThe radiant section is where the tubes receive almost all its heat by radiation from the flame. Ina vertical, cylindrical furnace, the tubes are vertical. Tubes can be vertical or horizontal, placedalong the refractory wall, in the middle, etc., or arranged in cells. Studs are used to hold theinsulation together and on the wall of the furnace. They are placed about 1 ft (300 mm) apart inthis picture of the inside of a furnace. The tubes, shown below, which are reddish brown fromcorrosion, are carbon steel tubes and run the height of the radiant section. The tubes are adistance away from the insulation so radiation can be reflected to the back of the tubes tomaintain a uniform tube wall temperature. Tube guides at the top, middle and bottom hold thetubes in place.Convection sectionConvection section28
  29. 29. The convection section is located above the radiant section where it is cooler to recoveradditional heat. Heat transfer takes place by convection here, and the tubes are finned toincrease heat transfer. The first two tube rows in the bottom of the convection section and atthe top of the radiant section is an area of bare tubes (without fins) and are known as the shieldsection, so named because they are still exposed to plenty of radiation from the firebox andthey also act to shield the convection section tubes, which are normally of less resistantmaterial from the high temperatures in the firebox. The area of the radiant section just beforeflue gas enters the shield section and into the convection section called the bridgezone.Crossover is the term used to describe the tube that connects from the convection sectionoutlet to the radiant section inlet. The crossover piping is normally located outside so that thetemperature can be monitored and the efficiency of the convection section can be calculated.The sightglass at the top allows personnel to see the flame shape and pattern from above andvisually inspect if flame impingement is occurring. Flame impingement happens when the flametouches the tubes and causes small isolated spots of very high temperature.BurnerThe burner in the vertical, cylindrical furnace as above, is located in the floor and fires upward.Some furnaces have side fired burners, such as in train locomotives. The burner tile is made ofhigh temperature refractory and is where the flame is contained in. Air registers located belowthe burner and at the outlet of the air blower are devices with movable flaps or vanes thatcontrol the shape and pattern of the flame, whether it spreads out or even swirls around.Flames should not spread out too much, as this will cause flame impingement. Air registers canbe classified as primary, secondary and if applicable, tertiary, depending on when their air isintroduced. The primary air register supplies primary air, which is the first to be introduced inthe burner. Secondary air is added to supplement primary air. Burners may include a premixerto mix the air and fuel for better combustion before introducing into the burner. Some burnerseven use steam as premix to preheat the air and create better mixing of the fuel and heated air.29
  30. 30. The floor of the furnace is mostly made of a different material from that of the wall, typicallyhard castable refractory to allow technicians to walk on its floor during maintenance.SootblowerSootblowers are found in the convection section. As this section is above the radiant sectionand air movement is slower because of the fins, soot tends to accumulate here. Sootblowing isnormally done when the efficiency of the convection section is decreased. This can becalculated by looking at the temperature change from the crossover piping and at theconvection section exit. Sootblowers utilize flowing media such as water, air or steam toremove deposits from the tubes. This is typically done during maintenance with the air blowerturned on. There are several different types of sootblowers used..StackStack damperThe flue gas stack is a cylindrical structure at the top of all the heat transfer chambers. Thebreeching directly below it collects the flue gas and brings it up high into the atmosphere whereit will not endanger personnel.30
  31. 31. The stack damper contained within works like a butterfly valve and regulates draft (pressuredifference between air intake and air exit)in the furnace, which is what pulls the flue gasthrough the convection section. The stack damper also regulates the heat lost through thestack. As the damper closes, the amount of heat escaping the furnace through the stackdecreases, but the pressure or draft in the furnace increases which poses risks to those workingaround it if there are air leakages in the furnace, the flames can then escape out of the fireboxor even explode if the pressure is too great.InsulationInsulation is an important part of the furnace because it prevents excessive heat loss.Refractory materials such as firebrick, castable refractories and ceramic fibre, are used forinsulation. The floor of the furnace are normally castable type refractories while those on thewalls are nailed or glued in place. Ceramic fibre is commonly used for the roof and wall of thefurnace and is graded by its density and then its maximum temperature rating. For eg: 8#2,300°F means 8 lb/ft3density with a maximum temperature rating of 2,300°F. An example of acastable composition is kastolite.31
  32. 32. ValvesA valve is a device that regulates the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries)by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are technically pipefittings, but are usually discussed as a separate category. In an open valve, fluid flows in adirection from higher pressure to lower pressure.TypesValves are quite diverse and may be classified into a number of basic types. Valves may also beclassified by how they are actuated:• Hydraulic• Pneumatic• Manual• Solenoid• MotorBasic typesValves can be categorized into the following basic types:• Ball valve, for on/off control without pressure drop, and ideal for quick shut-off since a90º turn offers complete shut-off angle, compared to multiple turns required on mostmanual valves.• Butterfly valve, for flow regulation in large pipe diameters.32
  33. 33. • Choke valve, a valve that raises or lowers a solid cylinder which is placed around orinside another cylinder which has holes or slots. Used for high pressure drops found inoil and gas wellheads.• Check valve or non-return valve, allows the fluid to pass in one direction only• Diaphragm valve, some are sanitary predominantly used in the pharmaceutical andfoodstuff industry.• Ceramic Disc valve, used mainly in high duty cycle applications or on abrasive fluids.Ceramic disc can also provide Class IV seat leakage• Gate valve, mainly for on/off control, with low pressure drop.Stainless steel gate valve• Globe valve, good for regulating flow.• Knife valve, for slurries or powders on/off control.• Needle valve for accurate flow control.• Piston valve, for regulating fluids that carry solids in suspension.• Pinch valve, for slurry flow regulation.• Plug valve, slim valve for on/off control but with some pressure drop.• Spool valve, for hydraulic control• Thermal expansion valve, used in refrigeration and air conditioning systems.33
  34. 34. COOLING TOWERSA cooling tower is a heat rejection device, which extracts waste heat to the atmosphere thoughthe cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature. The type of heat rejection in a coolingtower is termed "evaporative" in that it allows a small portion of the water being cooled toevaporate into a moving air stream to provide significant cooling to the rest of that waterstream. The heat from the water stream transferred to the air stream raises the airstemperature and its relative humidity to 100%, and this air is discharged to the atmosphere.Evaporative heat rejection devices such as cooling towers are commonly used to providesignificantly lower water temperatures than achievable with "air cooled" or "dry" heat rejectiondevices, like the radiator in a car, thereby achieving more cost-effective and energy efficientoperation of systems in need of cooling. Think of the times youve seen something hot berapidly cooled by putting water on it, which evaporates, cooling rapidly, such as an overheatedcar radiator. The cooling potential of a wet surface is much better than a dry one.Heat transfer methodWith respect to the heat transfer mechanism employed, the main types are:• Wet cooling towers or simply cooling towers operate on the principle of evaporation.The working fluid and the evaporated fluid (usually H2O) are one and the same.• Dry coolers operate by heat transfer through a surface that separates the working fluidfrom ambient air, such as in a heat exchanger, utilizing convective heat transfer. They donot use evaporation.• Fluid coolers are hybrids that pass the working fluid through a tube bundle, upon whichclean water is sprayed and a fan-induced draft applied. The resulting heat transferperformance is much closer to that of a wet cooling tower, with the advantage providedby a dry cooler of protecting the working fluid from environmental exposure•34
  35. 35. Types of Cooling TowersThere are 2 types of towers - mechanical draft and natural draftMechanical Draft TowersMechanical draft CoolingTowers have long piping runsthat spray the water downward.Large fans pull air across thedropping water to remove theheat. As the water dropsdownward onto the "fill" orslats in the cooling tower, thedrops break up into a finerspray. On colder days, tallplumes of condensation can beseen. On warmer days, onlysmall condensation plumes willbe seen.Natural Draft Towers35
  36. 36. This photo shows a single natural draftcooling tower as used at a European plant.Natural draft towers are typically about 400 ft(120 m) high, depending on the differentialpressure between the cold outside air and thehot humid air on the inside of the tower asthe driving force. No fans are used.Whether the natural or mechanical drafttowers are used depends on climatic andoperating requirement conditionCategorization by air-to-water flowCrossflowCrossflow is a design in which the air flow is directed perpendicular to the water flow (seediagram below). Air flow enters one or more vertical faces of the cooling tower to meetthe fill material. Water flows (perpendicular to the air) through the fill by gravity. The aircontinues through the fill and thus past the water flow into an open plenum area. Adistribution or hot water basin consisting of a deep pan with holes or nozzles in thebottom is utilized in a crossflow tower. Gravity distributes the water through the nozzlesuniformly across the fill material.36
  37. 37. CounterflowIn a counterflow design the air flow is directly opposite to the water flow (see diagram below).Air flow first enters an open area beneath the fill media and is then drawn up vertically. Thewater is sprayed through pressurized nozzles and flows downward through the fill, opposite tothe air flow.Common to both designs:• The interaction of the air and water flow allow a partial equalization and evaporation ofwater.• The air, now saturated with water vapor, is discharged from the cooling tower.• A collection or cold water basin is used to contain the water after its interaction with theair flow.Both crossflow and counterflow designs can be used in natural draft and mechanical draftcooling towers.37
  38. 38. Some commonly used terms in the cooling tower industry• Drift - Water droplets that are carried out of the cooling tower with the exhaust air.Drift droplets have the same concentration of impurities as the water entering thetower. The drift rate is typically reduced by employing baffle-like devices, called drifteliminators, through which the air must travel after leaving the fill and spray zones ofthe tower.• Blow-out - Water droplets blown out of the cooling tower by wind, generally at the airinlet openings. Water may also be lost, in the absence of wind, through splashing ormisting. Devices such as wind screens, louvers, splash deflectors and water diverters areused to limit these losses.• Plume - The stream of saturated exhaust air leaving the cooling tower. The plume isvisible when water vapor it contains condenses in contact with cooler ambient air, likethe saturated air in ones breath fogs on a cold day. Under certain conditions, a coolingtower plume may present fogging or icing hazards to its surroundings. Note that thewater evaporated in the cooling process is "pure" water.• Blow-down - The portion of the circulating water flow that is removed in order tomaintain the amount of dissolved solids and other impurities at an acceptable level. Itmay be noted that higher TDS (total dissolved solids) concentration in solution results ingreater potential cooling tower efficiency. However the higher the TDS concentration,the greater the risk of scale, biological growth and corrosion.• Leaching - The loss of wood preservative chemicals by the washing action of the waterflowing through a wood structure cooling tower.• Noise - Sound energy emitted by a cooling tower and heard (recorded) at a givendistance and direction. The sound is generated by the impact of falling water, by themovement of air by fans, the fan blades moving in the structure, and the motors,gearboxes or drive belts.• Approach - The approach is the difference in temperature between the cooled-watertemperature and the entering-air wet bulb temperature (twb). Since the cooling towersare based on the principles of evaporative cooling, the maximum cooling towerefficiency depends on the wet bulb temperature of the air.• Range - The range is the temperature difference between the water inlet and water exit.Heat Exchangers38
  39. 39. “ Heat exchangers are devices built for efficient heat transfer from one fluid toanother and are widely used in engineering processes ”HEAT EXCHANGERS FUNCTIONS Heating / Cooling / Evaporation Cooling of lubricants Heating of boiler feed water Condensing steam for re-use PreheatingTypes of heat exchangersShell and tube heat exchangerShell and tube heat exchangers consist of a series of tubes. One set of these tubes contains thefluid that must be either heated or cooled. The second fluid runs over the tubes that are beingheated or cooled so that it can either provide the heat or absorb the heat required. A set oftubes is called the tube bundle and can be made up of several types of tubes: plain,longitudinally finned, etc. Shell and Tube heat exchangers are typically used for high pressureapplications (with pressures greater than 30 bar and temperatures greater than 260°C).[2]This isbecause the shell and tube heat exchangers are robust due to their shape.39
  40. 40. Plate heat exchangerAnother type of heat exchanger is the plate heat exchanger. One is composed of multiple, thin,slightly-separated plates that have very large surface areas and fluid flow passages for heattransfer. This stacked-plate arrangement can be more effective, in a given space, than the shelland tube heat exchanger.40
  41. 41. Adiabatic wheel heat exchangerA fourth type of heat exchanger uses an intermediate fluid or solid store to hold heat, which isthen moved to the other side of the heat exchanger to be released. Two examples of this areadiabatic wheels, which consist of a large wheel with fine threads rotating through the hot andcold fluids, and fluid heat exchangers.Plate fin heat exchangerThis type of heat exchanger uses "sandwiched" passages containing fins to increase theeffectivity of the unit. The designs include crossflow and counterflow coupled with various finconfigurations such as straight fins, offset fins and wavy fins.Plate and fin heat exchangers are usually made of aluminium alloys which provide higher heattransfer efficiency. The material enables the system to operate at a lower temperature andreduce the weight of the equipment. Plate and fin heat exchangers are mostly used for lowtemperature services such as natural gas, helium and oxygen liquefaction plants, air separationplants and transport industries such as motor and aircraft engines.Advantages of plate and fin heat exchangers:• High heat transfer efficiency especially in gas treatment• Larger heat transfer area• Approximately 5 times lighter in weight than that of shell and tube heat exchanger• Able to withstand high pressureDisadvantages of plate and fin heat exchangers:• Might cause clogging as the pathways are very narrow• Difficult to clean the pathways41
  42. 42. Fluid heat exchangersThis is a heat exchanger with a gas passing upwards through a shower of fluid (often water),and the fluid is then taken elsewhere before being cooled. This is commonly used for coolinggases whilst also removing certain impurities, thus solving two problems at once. It is widelyused in espresso machines as an energy-saving method of cooling super-heated water to beused in the extraction of espresso.Phase-change heat exchangersIn addition to heating up or cooling down fluids in just a single phase, heat exchangers can beused either to heat a liquid to evaporate (or boil) it or used as condensers to cool a vapor andcondense it to a liquid. In chemical plants and refineries, reboilers used to heat incoming feedfor distillation towers are often heat exchangers42
  43. 43. FUEL REFINERYS.No Units1. Crude distillation unit2. Naphtha Hydrobon unit3. Platforming unit4. Kero Hydrobon unit5. L.P.G Naphtha and Kerosene Sweetening Units6. Propane Recovery Unit7. B.T.X UnitCRUDE DISTILLATION UNIT43
  44. 44. In all refineries, crude distillation is the starting point of the refining operations. The overheadproduct of distillation column is Straight Run Naphtha. This is passed through a stabilizercolumn to recover LPG. The stabilized Naphtha enters into a splitter column, Light Naphtha isobtained from the top and Heavy Naphtha from the bottom of the splitter column. LightNaphtha is used for Gasoline blending whereas major part of Heavy Naphtha is upgraded at Platforming unit. Naphtha is also exported as feedstock for petrochemical plants.This Crude Distillation Unit has been revamped for capacity enhancement by about 45% inwhich a pre-flash unit was added and the heat exchanger scheme was optimized. This way thecapacity enhancement was made possible without additional fuel oil consumption.After the revamp ;the pre-heated crude feed is now pre-flashed in a column to recovermaximum of its Naphtha. The pre-flashed crude then follows the conventional flow scheme asnarrated above.NAPHTHA HYDRO ON UNITThis unit is designed to hydro treat the Heavy Naphtha fraction produced in Crude DistillationUnits of the Lube and Fuel refineries. Sulphur and Nitrogen are poisons for reforming catalysthence removed by Hydro treating Naphtha.This is a high severity process operated in the presence of a catalyst and hydrogen.PLATFORMING UNITThe term “Platforming” is applied to catalytic reforming process where chemical conversion ofthe hydrocarbon feed is achieved on a bed of platinum based catalyst under extreme conditionsof pressure and temperature. Hydrotreated Naphtha is the feed to this unit which is convertedinto high Octane Motor Gasoline.44
  45. 45. As part of the Balancing & Modernization Project, the Platforming Unit has also been revampedfor capacity enhancement by 72% of design. Adoption of Radial Flow Reactors and newimproved catalyst has further enhanced the performance and operating cycle of the unit.KERO HYDROBON UNITEssentially similar to the Naphtha hydrotreating process; this unit further refines Sour Kerosenefeedstock into the commercial Aviation Turbine Fuel, JP-1 by catalytic hydro treating. The fuelused in the Military Air Crafts JP-4 is also produced at Fuel Refinery by blending JP-1 andNaphtha. Currently not in operation.FUEL PRODUCTS Motor Gasoline (MOGAS) Kerosene (SKO) JP1 P4 High Speed diesel Oil (HSD) Light diesel oil (LDO) Furnace Oil (F.O) Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Naphtha45
  46. 46. LUBE REFINERYS.No Units1. Atmospheric and Vaccum Distillation Unit2. Propane Deasphalting Unit3. Furfural Extraction Unit4. M.E.K Dewaxing Unit5. Hydro finishing Unit6. Asphalt Air Blowing Unit46
  47. 47. LUBE-I REFINERYThe primary process unit of the Lube-I Refinery is distillation of electrically Desalted Crude Oil intwo stages. In the first stage, the atmospheric distillation; the relatively light fuel components,Gases, Naphtha, Kerosene and Light Diesel Oil are separated from the parent Crude Oil. Theremaining reduced crude (Furnace Oil) is then processed under vacuum in the seconddistillation stage to produce Gas Oil (Diesel), Lubricating Oil Distillates and Vacuum Residue.Vaccum DiatillationProcess Description:For the ease of operating condition and control, the unit is divided into thefollowing sections:1. Reduced Crude Preheat And Vacuum Heater Section2. Vacuum Distillation Section1.Reduced Crude Preheat And Vacuum Heater SectionReduced crude is brought in the VACUUM DISTILLATION UNIT via suction line from the unit feedtanks OSBL. Feed pump discharge the material through charge preheat exchanger train, whereheat is picked up in each successive exchangers. Preheat exchanger train consist of sevendifferent heat exchangers. Reduced Crude enters the first preheat exchanger at about 1100Cand leaves the last preheat exchanger at 3000C. The preheated feed then goes to the VACUUMHEATER, which raises Reduced Crude temperature from 3000C to 3950C. The charge is fed to theheater through four coils. The preheated Reduced Crude enters first in the CONVECTIVESECTION of the VACUUM HEATER and after absorbing heat Reduced Crude enters the RADIANTSECTION in four different parts, where it attains the desired temperature. SHS steam is injectionin each coil, at the rate of 1756.5 kg/hr at 3700C.47
  48. 48. 2.Vacuum Distillation Section:Partially Flashed Reduced Crude leaves the VACUUM HEATER and enters in the FLASH ZONE ofVACUUM TOWER.TOWER DETAIL:It consists of 33 trays.It has 3 chimney trays.It has 2 demister pads.Operated at a pressure of about 94 Kpa..The overall temperature gradient is controlled by the following three REFLUXES:1. Top Pump Around2. Middle Pump Around3. Bottom Pump AroundTOP PUMP AROUND:This reflux controls the Vacuum Tower top temperature. It is drawn from the TOP CHIMNEYTRAY which is fitted between TRAY NO 1 & TRAY NO 2. Hot LVGO is returned to VACUUMTOWER at TRAY NO 3 without cooling as TOP REFLUX. Rest of the stream is cooled in AIRCOOLER. The stream is again splitted, part is sent to the 1st TRAY as TOP PUMP AROUND.Balance of this stream is cooled in HEAT EXCHANGER and sent to the storage tank.MIDDLE PUMP AROUND:The purpose of this pump around is to provide liquid for cooling down the up going vapors fromthe middle section of Vacuum Tower. It is drawn from TRAY NO. 9, cooled in differentexchangers and finally returned to TRAY NO. 6 of VACUUM TOWER.BOTTOM PUMP AROUND:The purpose of this pump around is to provide liquid for cooling the vapors going towards theFRACTIONATION section of the tower. It is drawn from TRAY NO. 21 passed through differentexchangers and finally returned to TRAY NO. 18 of VACUUM TOWER48
  49. 49. Vaccum steamThe steam and overhead vapors leaving the tower enter the vacuum overhead precondenserwhere condensation occurs. The vacuum is maintained with the help of STEAM EJECTORS.Vapors pass through the shell side and are condensed by circuating cooling water in tube of thecondensers. MP steam is supplied to ejectors. Normally one set of ejectors is kept in service.Liquid hydrocarbon and condensate from condensers are collected in overhead condensatereceiver. The steam condensate and liquid hydrocarbon is separated in condensate receiver.The sour water flows by gravity to the sewer and hydrocarbon which separates out is pumpedto slop tank.PROPANE DEASPHALTING UNITSINTRODUCTION:The Propane Deasphalting is a process for producing high viscosity deasphalting oil from thebottom of Vacuum Distillation tower. This is achieved by liquid-liquid extraction of VacuumBottom (Residue) and Propane in a extractor under controlled conditions of temperature &pressure.The removal of ASPHALTENES and RESINS is accomplished in Propane De-Asphalting unit beforeundergoing solvent extraction processes.Primary objective of Propane De-Asphalting unit is to prepare Bright Feed stocks to other toRefining and Finishing units i.e. Furfural Extraction unit and Methyl Ethyl Ketone units).FEED TO PROPANE DE-ASPHALTING UNIT:Feed to Propane De-asphalting unit may be either the bottom stream of AtmosphericDistillation tower or the Vacuum Distillation tower. Some times the highest boiling distillatestream may also contain sufficient asphaltenes and resins to justify DE-ASPHATING.PROPANE DE-ASPHALTING produce two products:DAO i.e. De-Asphalted Oil (Bright stock)RESID or Propane De-Asphalted Tar49
  50. 50. PROCESS DESCRIPTION:In Propane Deasphalting unit, Vacuum Residue is contacted counter currently with liquidPropane in the Extractor which gives overhead fraction of Deasphalted oil mixed with propaneand bottom fraction of Asphalt mixed with propane.Propane is recovered from both streams in DAO & Resid recovery sections and is thenrecycled to the Extractor.The Propane Deasphalting Unit is divided into following section1. Feed and Extraction SectionFeed temperature at unit feed tank is approximately 110°C. Since Vacuum bottom isvery thick and viscous so positive displacement screw pumps are used to handle thefeed. The feed temperature is lowered by passing through shell side of Heat Exchangers.The feed is fed to the Extractor at two different points.2. Deasphalted Oil Recovery SectionPropane from DAO mix is recovered by triple effect evaporation, which is achieved inlow pressure, medium pressure and high pressure flash towers. Remaining propane isstripped out in DAO stripper with stripping steam.3. Resid Recovery SectionPropane from the Resid-mix is recovered by single stage flash distillation followed bysteam stripping. The bottom stream from the extractor is 50:50 mixture of propane andResid. The Pressure in the flash vessel is about 18.0 bar. The residmix from the bottomof flash tower flows to the stripper The stripper has ten shower trays. Superheatedsteam is injected to strip out the propane. The resid product is made rundown afterheat exchanging in heat exchangers to the respective tanks4. Propane Distribution & Recovery SectionPropane vapors from DAO LP flash tower passes through fin fan condenser where ispartially condensed and are then joined with the overhead vapors of Redid flash vesseland then passed through propane condenser. Condensed propane then goes topropane vessel at about 52oC50
  51. 51. FURFURAL EXTRACTION UNITSLubricating oils distillates from Two-Stage Unit and from Propane Deasphalting Unit areprocessed here turn by turn, for extraction of undesirable hydrocarbons with furfural solvent.This improves the colour of the oils and enhances their ability to maintain their lubricatingproperties under varying temperature conditions. Nine intermediate lube base oils areproduced at this unit, which are called Raffinates. The ‘undesirables’ for lubes called Extractsare sent to the refinery asphalt production unit or sold as Speciality Oil.The Furfural Extraction Unit installed in second Lube Refinery, employs advanced techniquesensuring better solvent recovery and energy conservation.M.E.K. DEWAXING UNITSINTRODUCTION:The solvent dewaxing process involves the removal of naturally occurring waxes frompetroleum fractions by means of suitable solvents at low temperatures. It has been foundthat the solubility characteristics of single solvent with respect to both oil and wax are notsuited for dewaxing purposes as blends of two SOLVENTSThe MEK Dewaxing process employs a mixed solvent consisting of an oil solvent, Toluene,which ensures complete solubility of the oil at the filtering temperature without excessivesolvent action upon the wax, and a wax anti solvent, MEK, which ensures precipitation ofthe wax necessary to obtain the desirable pour point of the oil.FEED TO MEK DEWAXING UNIT:The MEK Dewaxing unit is designed to dewax in blocked operation, various grades ofFurfural extraction unit Raffinates derived from Arabian Light Vacuum distillate andDeasphalted oilPROCESSIn this unit, the wax content in Raffinates coming from Furfural Extraction Units is removed byprocess of extraction with a mixture of Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) & Toluene solvent mixture.Subsequent filtration at very low temperature is achieved by a process of Propane refrigeration.51
  52. 52. All the nine lube intermediates from the Furfural Extraction Unit are subjected, in blocked-outoperation to this dewaxing process. This process improves pour point or cold flow properties oflubricating oil. The wax separated in the process is also marketed as a product called Slack Wax.At M..E.K. Dewaxing Unit of Lube-II Refinery, the process has been improved which has resultedin higher yields and has considerably reduced solvent losses. Provisions have also been made inthe process for the maximum heat recovery thereby improving the efficiency.HYDROFINISHING UNITIn this final processing stage, the lube base oils are stabilized and their colour is furtherimproved by hydrogenation under severe operating conditions in the presence of a catalyst.The hydrofinished lube oils are dispatched to refinery storage tanks for distribution to OilMarketing/Lube Oil Blending Companies.ASPHALT AIR BLOWING UNITThe residual effluents from the two Propane De-Asphalting and Furfural Extraction Units areblended and oxidized with air for the production of paving and industrial grade asphalts.52
  53. 53. LUBE-II REFINERYThe construction work of 2nd lube refinery was started in 1983 the refinery came intoproduction in 1985 with production capacity of 100,000 M tons/annum of various grades ofLube base oil and 100,000 M tons of asphalt per annum. Refinery was designed by TEXACO andwas installed by EI(Industrial Export Import) ROMANIA with a project cost of 1416 million Rs.originally Lube-II Refinery was designed on Replup mode but since long Arabian light crude isbeing processed due to more suitability for making lube base oil.The second Lube Refinery starts with a vacuum distillation unit. The feedstock (Reduced Crude)obtained from Fuel Refinery is converted into High Speed Diesel Oil, Light Diesel Oil, LubricatingOil Distillates and Vacuum Residue.LUBE BASE OILS PRODUCTS• HVI GRADES• 65N - HVI• 100N - HVI• 150N - HVI• 400N - HVI• 500N - HVI• BS – HVI• MVI GRADES• 100N - MVI• 650N – MVI• BS - MVI• OUR SPECIALITY PRODUCTS INCLUDE :• BENZOL• TOLUOL• XYLOL• SLACK WAX• LOW MELT• MEDIUM MELT• JBO• RPO53
  54. 54. UTILITIESNational Refinery utilizes a large Number of utilities to support the manufacturing at productionunits. The supply of water, steam, fuel and air is the assignment of Utilities Department. Acomprehensive utilities complex exists to meet the refinery’s requirements of utilities, steam,condensate, cooling water, instrument/plant air and fuels. This consists of three Demin / WaterTreatment plants, three condensate recovery plants, five high pressure steam boilers, fourinduced draft cooling towers, a number of instrumentation/plant air compressors and two unitsfor refinery fuel gas and fuel oil system.POWER GENERATIONRecently, National Refinery has completed its project of Self-Power Generation. Self-PowerGeneration plant has a 7.5 MW steam turbo-generator and a 4.0 MW Diesel-Fuel Oil EnginePower Generator.The self-power generation is meant for continuous uninterrupted power supply and to avoidplant shut-down and production loss due to power break- down.OIL MOVEMENT AND SHIPPINGHuge quantity and variety of crude oils, about 3 million ton per annum and about equaltonnage distributed in about thirty products are handled at NRL. For this, elaborate system ofpumping stations, pipelines, tankage and loading gantries are maintained. The inventory ofcrude oil and products stored at refinery tankage has enormous monetary value. This operationinvolves receipt and transfer of crude oil from port terminal, inland domestic crude oil receipts,transfer to and receipts from processing units, product transfer to Oil Marketing Companies,product shipment through tank lorry filling gantries.A whole maze of pipelines and over one hundred and fifty crude oil and product storage tanksare utilized for this purpose. Shipping Department works side-by-side with Oil Movement tofacilitate documentations and coordination with Excise Authorities.54
  55. 55. QUALITY CONTROLAll raw material entering NRL are tested to ensure that they meet contractual specifications.At Input stage testing is performed on• Crude Oil (Imported / Local)• Condensates• Additives• ChemicalsTest Methods• ASTM Test Methods• IP Test Methods• UOP Test Methods• APHA Test MethodsImportant Fuel Test• Color ASTM D- 156 / 1500• Specific Gravity ASTM D-1298• Distillation ASTM D- 86• Viscosity ASTM D- 445• RVP ASTM D- 323• Flash Point IP 170 / D- 93• Pour Point ASTM D- 9755
  56. 56. • Sulphur ASTM D-4294• Mercapten ASTM D-3227• Copper Corrosion ASTM D- 130• Octane Number ASTM D-2699• Con Carbon ASTM D- 189• WSIM ASTM D-3948• JFTOT ASTM D-3241Color ASTM D- 156 / 1500Determination of the color of petroleum products is used mainly for manufacturing controlpurposes and is an important quality characteristic since color is readily observed by the user ofthe product.Specific Gravity ASTM D-1298Accurate determination of the density, relative density (specific gravity), or API gravity ofpetroleum and its products is necessary for the conversion of measured volumes to volumes ormasses, or both, at the standard reference temperatures during custody transfer.Distillation ASTM D – 86 The distillation (volatility) characteristics of hydrocarbons have an important effect ontheir safety and performance, especially in the case of fuels and solvents. The boiling range gives information on the composition, the properties, and the behavior of the fuel during storage and use56
  57. 57. Viscosity ASTM D - 445the viscosity of many petroleum fuels is important for the estimation of optimum storage,handling, and operational conditionsRVP ASTM D- 323Vapor pressure is critically important for both automotive and aviation gasolines,affecting starting, warm up, and tendency to vapor lock with high operatingtemperatures or high altitudes. Maximum vapor pressure limits for gasoline are legallymandated in some areas as a measure of air pollution control.Flash Point IP 170 / 3D- 9The flash point temperature is one measure of the tendency of the test specimen to form aflammable mixture with air under controlled laboratory conditions. It is only one of anumber of properties which must be considered in assessing the overall flammability hazardof a materials.Viscosity Index (VI) ASTM D - 2270The viscosity index is a widely used and accepted measure of the variation in kinematicviscosity due to changes in the temperature of a petroleum product between 40 and 100 oC.Important Asphalt test• Flash Point ASTM D - 92• Penetration ASTM D - 05• Softening Point ASTM D - 3657