Ecosystem Services: Benefits Supplied to Human Societies by Natural Ecosystems. Issues in Ecology . No. 2, Spring 1997.
Environement by MUHAMMAD FAHAD ANSARI 12IEEM 14
What is Environment? MUHAMMAD FAHAD ANSARI 12IEEM 14
What is Environment?Environment includes all theconditions, circumstances andinfluences surrounding andaffecting the total organizationor any of its parts.
Environment is surrounding atmosphere/ condition for existence“. "Environment is an essential natural process or an outcome of occurrence“. "Environment is of two types, one is negative and the other is positive”.
Continue Environment…… Environment is generator: creation of life form is because of environment. Sun or moon, sea or earth, hot or cold and forests or desert etc. they together made an environment that is fit for our existence. There are two different environments one is positive and the other one is negative, life forms in both namely, pests, insects and others are cold blooded have different conditions which suits them to survive that may not be suitable to us, both have own identities. Most important factor is that negative positive factors have to join together to form an environment for example mother or father for birth of a child, negative or positive of energy for electricity. In the system of environment, both have integral role to play.
What is an ecosystem? System = regularly interacting and interdependent components forming a unified whole Ecosystem = an ecological system; = a community and its physical environment treated together as a functional system
Ecosystem Services The human economy depends upon the services performed for free by ecosystems. The ecosystem services supplied annually are worth many trillions of dollars. Economic development that destroys habitats and impairs services can create costs to humanity over the long term that may greatly exceed the short-term economic benefits of the development. These costs are generally hidden from traditional economic accounting, but are nonetheless real and are usually borne by society at large.
Ecosystems: Fundamental Characteristics Structure: ◦ Living (biotic) ◦ Nonliving (abiotic) Process: ◦ Energy flow ◦ Cycling of matter ◦ (chemicals) Change: ◦ Dynamic (not static) ◦ Succession, etc.
Abiotic components: ABIOTIC components: Solar energy provides practically all the energy for ecosystems. Inorganic substances, e.g., sulfur, boron, tend to cycle through ecosystems. Organic compounds, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and other complex molecules, form a link between biotic and abiotic components of the system.
BIOTIC components The biotic components of an ecosystem can be classified according to their mode of energy acquisition. In this type of classification, there are: Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Organisms that produce their own food from an energy source, such as the sun, and inorganic compounds. Organisms that consume other organisms as a food source.