Air and Noise Pollution “Air and Noise Pollution Situation In Pakistan”• Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14
Air Pollution• Air pollution consists of substances present in the atmosphere in high enough levels to harm humans, other animals, plants, or materials. Air pollution can result from human activities such as driving cars.• Pollution caused by humans is now disturbing the delicate balance of nature on earth. Far from being a new problem, pollution has been around for centuries.• Much of the worlds population lives in areas where air pollution levels exceed World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines. In Asia, rapid urbanisation, with the associated growth in industry and vehicle use, has increased emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.
Air Pollution• Major Air Pollutants:-• Suspended Particulate Matter.• Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs).• Carbon Monoxide (CO).• Nitrogen Oxides (NOX).• Sulphur Oxides (SOX).• Lead & other heavy metals.• Ground Level Ozone.• Fuel wood.
Air Pollution• Sources of Air pollution:-• Motor vehicles.• Industry.• Municipal Solid Waste.• Smog.• Medical waste.• Developing countries.
Air Pollution• How does air pollution affect us?• Exposure to low levels of pollutants such as ozone, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and particulates, irritates eyes and causes inflammation of the respiratory tract.• Evidence exists that many air pollutants also suppress the immune system, increasing susceptibility to infection.• Exposure to air pollution during respiratory illnesses may result in people developing chronic respiratory diseases, such as emphysema and bronchitis as they get older.• Air pollution can also cause acidification of lakes and soils and impacts on crop productivity, forest growth, and biodiversity.• Some research indicates that the ozone and sulphur dioxide is reducing crop yields.• The potential for crop losses in Asia has been indicated by a study in Pakistan where a 40 per cent reduction in rice yields was linked to the presence of pollutants in the air.
Air Pollution• What can we do?• Encourage people to leave their car at home and walk or ride a bicycle to travel short distances.• Develop efficient public transport systems to help reduce dependence on private cars.• Provide Government subsidies to encourage the introduction of petrol with low sulphur and no lead.• Use smaller, more efficient cars as they consume less fuel and so produce fewer emissions.• Design cars so that combustion temperatures are lower and less nitrogen oxide is formed.• Fit smoke-stacks with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers, or other technologies to remove particulate matter.
Air Pollution• Pakistan Environmental Protection Act (PEPA), 1997• According to the PEPA, 1997, no person shall operate a motor vehicle, from which air or noise pollutants are being emitted in an excessive amount.• Quality Standards• According to the same Act, the function of the Federal Agency shall be to take all necessary measures for the protection, conservation, rehabilitation and improvement of the environment, prevention and control of pollution, and promotion of sustainable development.
Noise Pollution• Noise is an unwanted, unpleasant and annoying sound caused by vibration of the matter. Vibrations impinge on the ear drum of a human or animal and setup a nervous disturbance, which we call sound. When the effects of sound are undesirable that it may be termed as “Noise”.• Noise from industry, traffic, homes and recreation can cause annoyance, disturb sleep and affect health. Thus, sound is a potentially serious pollutant and threat to environmental health.• If a measurement of noise emission is required a sound level meter is used. A measure of the level of sound is called the decibel. The zero of the decibel scale is the hearing threshold. Sounds at 0–10 decibel are so quiet that they are almost impossible to hear, while at the top end of the scale, at around 150 decibel, it can damage your eardrums.
Noise Pollution• CLASSIFICATION OF NOISE:-• Community Noise/ Environmental Noise• Community noise (also called environmental noise, residential noise or domestic noise) is defined as noise emitted from all sources, except noise at the industrial workplace.• Occupational Noise• The many and varied sources of noise in industrial machinery and processes include: rotors, gears, turbulent fluid flow, impact processes, electrical machines, internal combustion engines, pneumatic equipment, drilling, crushing, blasting, pumps and compressors.
Noise Pollution• CONTINOUS NOISE• It is produced by machinery that operates without interruption in the same mode e.g. blowers, pumps and processing equipment.• INTERMITTENT NOISE• When machinery operates in cycles or when single vehicles or aeroplanes pass by the noise level increases and decreases rapidly.
Noise Pollution• EFFECT OF NOISE ON PUBLIC HEALTH• Globally, some 120 million people are estimated to have disabling hearing difficulties.• More than half citizens of Europe live in noisy surroundings; a third experience levels of noise at night that disturbs sleep.• In the USA in 1990 about 30 million people were daily exposed to a daily occupational noise level above 85 dB, compared with more than nine million people in 1981; these people mostly in the production and manufacturing industries.
Noise Pollution• NOISE STANDARDS IN PAKISTAN• In Pakistan, there is no legislation to deal with noise emanating from railway engines, aircrafts, airport or industrial or construction activities.• Public complaints on noise pollution are often received in the federal and provincial environmental protection agencies, but in the absence of national standards for noise, these agencies are handicapped to take any legal action.• Road Traffic Noise is another most widespread source of noise nuisance in the urban areas of Pakistan. The situation is getting alarming with increase in traffic density on city roads, particularly in Karachi.• STUDIES AND DATA FOR REMOVAL OF PRESSURE HORNS IN DIFFERENT CITIESOF PAKISTAN.