Microorganisms and Their Effects
on Living Things
1.1 The Classification of Microorganisms
Microorganisms

are tiny organisms
which can only be seen under a
microscope.

...
Virus

Algae

Protozoa
Microorganisms

Bacteria

Fungi
VIRUSES
 Viruses

are the smallest microorganisms
 Structure: consist of strands of nuclei acid
(DNA)
 They are 2 types...
 Viruses

do not make their own food.

 They

obtain food from animals, plants and some
bacteria

 They

are parasites
...
Bacteria
 Microscopic

organisms that can be found

everywhere
 Simplest single-celled organisms
 Bacteria are surround...
 Bacteria

have hundreds of pilli
 Pilli enable bacteria to stick to certain
surfaces
 Some bacteria also have a tail c...



Comma shape: vibrios
Spiral shape: spirilla

 Some

bacteria carry out photosynthesis,
some live as parasites and so...
Fungi
 Various

sizes
 Plant that do not have chlorophyll
 Various shapes such as filament and
sphere
 Reproduce throu...
 Live
 Can

as parasite or saprophytes
be found in dark and damp places
Protozoa
 Various

sizes ad shapes
 Unicellular animals
 Reproduce through binary fission
 Live as :




saprophytes...
Algae
 Various

sizes and shapes
 Unicellular or multicellular
 Reproduce through binary fission
 Live as autotrophs
...
Factors that affect the growth
of microorganisms
 Nutrition
 Temperature
 Humidity
 Light
 pH
Useful microorganisms
Digestion
animals
food
Making
antibiotics

Making
bread
Use of
microorgansm

Making
cheese

Purifyin...
Disease caused by bacteria
 Tuberculosis
 Cholera
 Gonorrhea
 syphilis
Tuberculosis





Caused by bacilli
bacteria
Affect other organ
such as lymph
nodes, bones and
joints
Symptoms: chest
p...
Gonorrhea




Sexual transmitted
disease caused by
cocci bacteria
(in 1 to 14 days after
infection) burning
sensation wh...
Disease caused by viruses
 Common

cold
 Dengue fever
 Hepatitis
 AIDS
Common cold
 Caused

by viral
infection of the
mucous membrane,
air passage or lungs.
 May spread to the
ears, sinuses a...
AIDS
 Caused

by HIV

viruses
 Symptoms:
tiredness, fever, loss
of appetite and
weight
 Infected by
pneumonia,
tubercul...
Disease caused by fungi
 Tinea
 Ringworm
Tinea
 White

spot on
facial, body, hand
and feet

Ringworm
 Red

area on the
body
 Skin become red
and scaly
Disease caused by protozoa
 Malaria






Caused by Plasmodium
Transmitted by female Anopheles mospuito
Fever with r...
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Chapter 1 form5
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Chapter 1 form5

  1. 1. Microorganisms and Their Effects on Living Things
  2. 2. 1.1 The Classification of Microorganisms Microorganisms are tiny organisms which can only be seen under a microscope. The characteristics include their appearance, shape, size, method of reproduction, nutrition and habitat
  3. 3. Virus Algae Protozoa Microorganisms Bacteria Fungi
  4. 4. VIRUSES  Viruses are the smallest microorganisms  Structure: consist of strands of nuclei acid (DNA)  They are 2 types of shape:   Helical Polyhedral
  5. 5.  Viruses do not make their own food.  They obtain food from animals, plants and some bacteria  They are parasites  They attached to host cell.
  6. 6. Bacteria  Microscopic organisms that can be found everywhere  Simplest single-celled organisms  Bacteria are surrounded by tough cell wall  Cell wall support the cell and maintains its shape
  7. 7.  Bacteria have hundreds of pilli  Pilli enable bacteria to stick to certain surfaces  Some bacteria also have a tail called flagellum that help them to remove  Shapes of bacteria  Spherical: cocci  Long chain: streptococci  Bunches of grapes: staphylococci
  8. 8.   Comma shape: vibrios Spiral shape: spirilla  Some bacteria carry out photosynthesis, some live as parasites and some live as saprotrophs  Reproduce   asexually: Binary fission budding
  9. 9. Fungi  Various sizes  Plant that do not have chlorophyll  Various shapes such as filament and sphere  Reproduce through:   budding – yeast Spore formation - mucor
  10. 10.  Live  Can as parasite or saprophytes be found in dark and damp places
  11. 11. Protozoa  Various sizes ad shapes  Unicellular animals  Reproduce through binary fission  Live as :   saprophytes : Amoeba and Paramecium Parasites : Plasmodium  Can be found in fresh water and damp places
  12. 12. Algae  Various sizes and shapes  Unicellular or multicellular  Reproduce through binary fission  Live as autotrophs  Can be found in damp areas that receive sunlight
  13. 13. Factors that affect the growth of microorganisms  Nutrition  Temperature  Humidity  Light  pH
  14. 14. Useful microorganisms Digestion animals food Making antibiotics Making bread Use of microorgansm Making cheese Purifying water
  15. 15. Disease caused by bacteria  Tuberculosis  Cholera  Gonorrhea  syphilis
  16. 16. Tuberculosis    Caused by bacilli bacteria Affect other organ such as lymph nodes, bones and joints Symptoms: chest pain, fever, sweating at night, weight loss Cholera    Caused by vibrios bacteria Transmitted by water or food that has been contaminated with the faeces Symptoms: diarrhoea, vomitting and fatigue
  17. 17. Gonorrhea   Sexual transmitted disease caused by cocci bacteria (in 1 to 14 days after infection) burning sensation when urinating accompanied by some discharge Syphilis  Sexual transmitted disease caused by spirilla bacteria  Red pimples, rashes, fever, headache, hair loss.
  18. 18. Disease caused by viruses  Common cold  Dengue fever  Hepatitis  AIDS
  19. 19. Common cold  Caused by viral infection of the mucous membrane, air passage or lungs.  May spread to the ears, sinuses and eyes  Spread to the lung that cause bronchitis and pneumonia Dengue fever  Caused by distinct virus carried by mosquitoes  Causes fever, efes aches, pain in the muscle and joints  Sometime causes very low blood pressure and weak pulse
  20. 20. AIDS  Caused by HIV viruses  Symptoms: tiredness, fever, loss of appetite and weight  Infected by pneumonia, tuberculosis, Kaposi’s sarcoma Hepatitis  Disease of the liver  Caused by alcohol and drugs  Symptoms: urine become dark, jaundice.  Live failed to function
  21. 21. Disease caused by fungi  Tinea  Ringworm
  22. 22. Tinea  White spot on facial, body, hand and feet Ringworm  Red area on the body  Skin become red and scaly
  23. 23. Disease caused by protozoa  Malaria      Caused by Plasmodium Transmitted by female Anopheles mospuito Fever with reach 410C Attack in 2 or more hours Symptoms: headache, muscle pain, nausea and feeling chill

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