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Borang frgs2 (khairil hizar) 2 Document Transcript

  • 1. (Diisi oleh RMC) One (1) copy of this form must be submitted to the Institution of Higher Education Excellence Planning Division, Department of Higher Education, Level 7, No. 2, Tower 2, Street P5/6, Precinct 5, 62200 Putrajaya. [Incomplete Form will be rejected] A TITLE OF PROPOSED RESEARCH: Tajuk penyelidikan yang dicadangkan : A NEW KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK FOR PUBLIC ORGANISATIONS MANAGING CONSTRUCTION INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS B DETAILS OF RESEARCHER / MAKLUMAT PENYELIDIK B(i) Name of Project Leader: IC / Passport Number: Nama Ketua Projek: No. Kad Pengenalan/ Pasport: Assoc. Prof. Sr. Dr. Padzil @ Fadzil bin Hassan 600524-01-5203 B(ii) Position (Please tick ( √ )): Jawatan (Sila tanda ( √ )): Professor Assoc. Prof. / Sen. Lect. Lecturer Profesor Prof. Madya / P. Kanan Pensyarah B(iii) Faculty/School/Centre/Unit (Please provide full address): Fakulti/Jabatan /Pusat/Unit (Sila nyatakan alamat penuh): Fakulti of Architecture, Planning and Surveying Universiti Teknologi MARA 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor B(iv) Office Telephone No.: 03 - 55211670 Handphone No.: 017 - 3708483 No. Telefon Pejabat: No. Telefon Bimbit: B(v) E-mail Address: padzil037@salam.uitm.edu.my Alamat e-mel: Kod Rujukan: √ a s d BORANG FRGS – A1 (R) SINGLE DISCIPLINARY PROJECT APPLICATION FORM FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH GRANT SCHEME (FRGS) Skim Geran Penyelidikan Fundamental (Pindaan 1/2012) JABATAN PENGAJIAN TINGGI KEMENTERIAN PENGAJIAN TINGGI
  • 2. B(vi) Date of first appointment with this University: 1.6.1989 Tarikh mula berkhidmat dengan Universiti ini: B(vii) Type of Service (Please tick ( √ )): Jenis Perkhidmatan (Sila tanda ( √ )): Permanent Contract (State contract expiry date): Tetap Kontrak (Nyatakan tarikh tamat kontrak): ____________________ C RESEARCH INFORMATION / MAKLUMAT PENYELIDIKAN C(i) Research Area (Please tick ( √ )): Bidang Penyelidikan (Sila tanda ( √ )): A. Pure Science (Sains Tulen) Chemistry Physic Biology (Kimia) (Fizik) (Biologi) Biochemistry Materials Science Mathematics and Statistics (Biokimia) (Sains Bahan) (Matematik dan Statistik) B. Applied Science (Sains Gunaan) Chemistry Physic Biology (Kimia) (Fizik) (Biologi) Mathematics and Statistics Computer Science Biotechnology (Matematik dan Statistik) (Sains Komputer) (Bioteknologi) Materials Science (Sains Bahan) C. Technology and Engineering (Teknologi dan Kejuruteraan) Mechanical & Manufacturing Electrical and Electronic Civil (Mekanikal dan Pembuatan) (Elektrikal dan Elektronik) (Awam) Material and Polymer Chemical Engineering Information and Communication (Bahan dan Polimer) (Kejuruteraan Kimia) Technology (Teknologi Komunikasi dan Informasi) Energy Transportation (Tenaga) (Pengangkutan)
  • 3. D. Clinical and Health Sciences (Sains Kesihatan dan Klinikal) Basic Medical Sciences Pharmacy Pharmacology (Sains Perubatan Asas) (Farmasi) (Farmakologi) Medical Microbiology Parasitology Pathology (Mikrobiologi Perubatan) (Parasitologi) (Pathologi) Community Medical Prevention Clinical Surgical Clinical Medical (Perubatan Pencegahan (Klinikal Surgikal) (Klinikal Medikal) Masyarakat) Associate Health Science Dental Nursing Science (Sains Kesihatan Bersekutu) (Pergigian) (Sains Kejururawatan) E. Social Sciences (Sains Sosial) Anthropology Psychology Sociology (Antropologi) (Psikologi) (Sosiologi) Political Science Business and Management Geography (Sains Politik) (Pengurusan dan Perniagaan) (Geografi) Economic Human Ecology Communication (Ekonomi) (Ekologi Manusia) (Komunikasi) F. Arts and Applied Arts (Sastera dan Sastera Ikhtisas) Language and Linguistic Literature Religion (Bahasa dan Linguistik) (Kesusasteraan) (Agama) Philosophy Civilization History (Falsafah) (Tamadun) (Sejarah) Art Culture Education (Seni) (Budaya) (Pendidikan) Principle and Law Built Environment Environment (Dasar dan Undang-undang) (Alam Bina- (Alam Sekitar- Aspek Kemanusiaan) Aspek Kemanusiaan) G. Natural Sciences and National Heritage (Sains Tabii dan Warisan Negara) Environment Forestry Agriculture (Alam Sekitar) (Perhutanan) (Pertanian) Marine Archaeology Geology (Marin) (Arkeologi) (Geologi) Ethnography Built Environment Culture (Etnografi) (Heritage Aspect) (Budaya) Alam Bina (Aspek Warisan) Biodiversity (Kepelbagaian Biologi)
  • 4. C(ii) Location of Research: Tempat penyelidikan dijalankan: (Contoh / Example ) : Animal Experimental Unit, Animal Laboratory Center, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya, 50603 Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur 1. Centre for Construction Project and Infrastructure Management Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying Universiti Teknologi MARA 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor 2. Enterprise Content and Knowledge Management Unit Cawangan Projek Kompleks Ibu Pejabat Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia Jalan Sultan Salahuddin 50582 Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur C(iii) Duration of this research (Maximum 36 months): Tempoh masa penyelidikan ini (Maksimum 36 bulan): Duration: 24 bulan Tempoh : From : 1 Ogos 2013 Dari : To : 31 Julai 2015 Hingga : C(iv) Other Researchers: Ahli-ahli penyelidik yang lain: (Please include maximum 5 pages of curriculum vitae for each researcher) Bil Name Nama IC / Passport Number: No. Kad Pengenalan/ Pasport: Faculty/ School/ Centre/ Unit Fakulti/ P.Pengajian/ Pusat/Unit Academic Qualification/ Designation Tahap Kelayakan Akademik/Jawatan Signature Tandatangan 1 Dr Zulhabri Ismail 760923-03-5327 Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying/ Research Management Institute PhD in Built Environment/ Lecturer DM52 2
  • 5. C(v) Research projects that have been completed or ongoing by project leader for the last three years. Please provide title of research, grant’s name, position, duration, year commence and year ending. Sila sediakan maklumat termasuk termasuk tajuk, nama geran, peranan, tempoh, tahun mula dan tahun tamat bagi penyelidikan yang sedang/telah dijalankan oleh ketua penyelidik dalam tempoh tiga tahun terakhir. Title of Research Tajuk penyelidikan Grant’s Name Nama Geran Position / Role Jawatan / Peranan Duration Tempoh Start Date Tarikh mula End Date Tarikh tamat Preliminary Cost Estimate & Cost Planning JKR Principal Investigator 12 months August 2012 August 2013 Construction industry Development Board (CIDB)- University technology MARA (UiTM)-Salford University collaborative research to support the Construction Industry Master Plan (CIMP) CIDB Head of Project 60 months November 2009 November 2014 A Study on the Malaysiaa Legal Framework and Risk Management: Design Professionals FRGS Principal Investigator 12 months April 2009 April 2010 The Critical Assessment of SMM2 in Preparation for SMM3 The Institution of Surveyors Malaysia Co-Investigator 12 months March 2010 March 2011 Construction Disputes and Build Projects in Malaysia UiTM RMI Excellent Grant Principal Investigator 12 months June 2009 June 2010 Entry participant of Licensed Construction Professionals in Continuing Professional Development Activities FRGS Principal Investigator 12 months June 2008 June 2009 C(vi) Please provide information on academic publications that has been published by the project leader for the last five (5) years. (Example: Journals, Books, Chapters in books, etc) Sila kemukakan maklumat berkaitan penerbitan akademik yang telah diterbitkan oleh ketua penyelidik dalam tempoh lima (5) tahun terakhir. (Contoh: Jurnal, buku, bab dalam buku, dll) Title of publication Tajuk penerbitan Name of journals/books Nama jurnal/buku Year published Tahun diterbitkan Re-learning design and build implementation process in Malaysia: Findings from a workshop CHUSER 2012 - 2012 IEEE Colloquium on Humanities, Science and Engineering Research, pp. 314-318 2012 Soft Skills Implementation in Construction Management Program: A survey of Malaysian Public Universities. IEEE Symposium on Humanities, Science and Engineering Research, pp. 1533-1538 2012
  • 6. The Criticality of Quality Management in Building Corporate Resilience in a Post Recession Period European Journal of Social Sciences, ISSN: 1450- 2267. Vol. 18, No 3 2011 Is Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Agenda Losing Momentum with Recession? International Bulletin Of Business Administration, Issue 10 ISSN: 1451-243x 2011 Bloom's Taxonomy in the Provision of Quantity Surveying Degree Programme Business, Symposium on Engineering and Industrial Applications (ISBEIA), pp.431 - 436 2011 An evaluation of the Competencies, Skills and Knowledge of Quantity Surveying Graduates in Consultant Quantity Surveying firms in Malaysia IEEE Colloquium on Humanities, Science and Engineering (CHUSER), pp. 228-232 2011 A Critical Assessment of the Challenges of Developing the Malaysian Construction Workforce through Training IEEE Colloquium on Humanities, Science and Engineering (CHUSER), pp. 223-227 2011 Tracking architectural defects in the Malaysian hospital projects IEEE Symposium on Business, Engineering and Industrial Applications (ISBEIA), pp. 298-302 2011 Fundamental elements of sustainable private financing initiative contracts IEEE Symposium on Business, Engineering and Industrial Applications, pp. 334-339 2011 Sustainable Private Financing Initiative Contracts IEEE Symposium on Business, Engineering and Industrial Applications (ISBEIA), pp. 452-457 2011 Green Campus Initiative Framework at UCSI University and Proposed Framework Business & Management Quarterly Review Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 14-27. 2010 Academic Enterpreneurship and Innovation in Higher Education: An Integrated Framework for Malaysian Universities 6th World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS) International Conference on Educational Technologies (EDUTE’ 10), pp. 30-35 2010 An Exploratory Study on Peer Learning Experiences in the Architectural Design Studio 6th World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS) International Conference on Educational Technologies (EDUTE’ 10), pp. 36-42 2010 Enhancing Employability of Graduates through Educational Collaboration with professional Institutions: The Experience of the Faculty of Built Environment, University of Malaya 6th World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS) International Conference on Educational Technologies (EDUTE’ 10), pp. 42-47 2010
  • 7. Technology transfer (TT) and technology exchange (TE) in Malaysia International Conference on Education and Management Technology (ICEMT), pp. 6-12 2010 Meanings and Interchangeability of Continuing Professional Development (CPD), Training and Education, and their Connection, and their Influence on Learning and Development in Built Environment Asean Journal of Teaching and Learning in the Higher Education (AJTLHE), Vol. 1, No.1, pp.1-7, 2010 Enhancing Employability of Graduates through Educational Collaboration with professional Institutions: The Experience of the Faculty of Built Environment, University of Malaya”, 6 th WSEAS/IASME International Conference on Educational Technologies 2010 Best Practice Framework for Construction Workforce Training 3rd WSEAS International Conference on Energy Planning, Energy Saving, Environmental Education (EPESE’09), pp. 191-195 2009 A Framework for Designing Training for Site Managers 3rd WSEAS International Conference on Energy Planning, Energy Saving, Environmental Education (EPESE’09), pp. 196-200 2009 Research Design and Data Collection Techniques for Investigating People-environment Behavior 3rd WSEAS International Conference on Energy Planning, Energy Saving, Environmental Education (EPESE’09), pp. 212-218 2009 Intangibles in the Built Environment: The Emerging Challenge Facing the Surveying Profession. The Professional Journal of The Institution of Surveyors, Vol. 44. No 3, pp.18-22 2009 Continuing Professional Development, Training and Education As Part of Technology For Learning Process in Built Environment”, 7th WSEAS International Conference on Education and Educational Technology (EDU’08), pp. 157-162 2008 “An Empirical Study on the Training Needs of Construction Site Managers” Association of Researchers in Construction Management, ARCOM 2005 - Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference 1 , pp. 95-104 2005 C(vii) Executive Summary of Research Proposal (maximum 300 words) (Please include the background of research, literature reviews, objectives, research methodology and expected outcomes from the research project) Ringkasan Cadangan Eksekutif Penyelidikan (maksimum 300 patah perkataan) (Meliputi latar belakang penyelidikan, kajian literatur, kaedah penyelidikan, objektif dan jangkaan hasil penyelidikan) The practice of knowledge management, driven by change to adopt of new technology and procurement systems in public organisations managing inforastucture projects has been recognised as one of the key enablers for achieving operational effectiveness. This has led to the consequent increase in the numbers of research in this area over the last two decades. The driving challenge has been to establish new knowledge management concepts which can be applied to public project management organisations. Various results have been recorded from the application of these concepts in practice. Some have found the concepts very successful whereas some have failed badly. Numerous follow up studies have been carried out to understand the shortcomings of the application of these concepts, and various strategies for moving forward have come to
  • 8. the fore. The application of knowledge management in public project management organisations is relatively new and is evolving dynamically. Many suggestions have been proposed. These can be exemplified amongst others from concepts that link the knowledge management to strategic management (Davenport and Prusak, 2000; Wong and Aspinwall, 2005), knowledge management to communities of practice (Schenkel and Teigland, 2008; Wenger and Snyder, 2000), knowledge manahgement fo organizational learning (Argyris and Schön,1978; Yang, 2007) and knowledge management to innovation (Egbu, 2004; Nonaka and Takeuchi,1995). While there has been much support for application of these concepts, equally there has been much critic that argues their limitations and in their effective application in the project management for public organisations. Central to most of the critics are that these concepts are too theoretical, too rigid and are not holistic enough to be applicable to organisations in variable project settings. Preliminary studies undertaken by this proposal suggest that the development of a knowledgement framework which is able to incorporate the eco-systems and variables within and surrounding the public project management organisation is possible. To date there has been a dearth of research that specifically study these integration and linkages, and the impact of the variable elements of the public project organisations within their eco-systems. It is the aim of this research to bridge this knowledge gap by developing a new knowledge management framework that integrates all the key elements that impact knowledge management in public project management organisations. It is envisages that with this framework, it is envisaged that the framework will be able to offer a more holistic conception of the internal and external factors which impact the design and implementation of knowledge management within these organisations. C(viii) Detailed proposal of research project: Cadangan maklumat penyelidikan secara terperinci: (a) Research background including Hypothesis /Research Questions and Literature Reviews. Keterangan latar belakang penyelidikan termasuk kenyataan hipotesis / persoalan penyelidikan dan kajian literatur. Background to the research The conceptual framework drawn to structure the research theoretical framework and the establishment of the research problem statement is shown in Figure 1. The Theoretical Framework Knowledge management Why knowledge mangement? The emergence of knowledge management as one of the latest strategic management approaches in recent years have evolved from the need for a better and systematic way of managing organisational knowledge in order to propel organisations toward superior business growth and competitive advantage, achievable by leveraging their knowledge assets. Prior to the introduction of knowledge management, organisations have been managing knowledge arbitrarily and in an unstructured manner, often with the absence of any proper strategy as guidance. However, due to the pressure of global competition and changes in market condition, this approach is deemed no longer relevant to ensure effective adaptation to the changing landscape. Fig. 1
  • 9. The survival of organisations in today’s uncertain economic times is very much dependent upon their ability to adapt and acclimate successfully to the changing climate (Chan and Scott-Ladd, 2004; Loermans, 2002). Failure to act in a timely manner will only lead these organisations to a greater risk of becoming irrelevant. Thus, the necessity for organisations to continuously adapt and innovate in order to remain competitive and viable in the new environment is of highly significant. Over the last two decades, knowledge has been regarded as among the most critical strategic resources of an organisation for sustained competitive advantage and innovation. This necessitates knowledge in organisations to be effectively and systematically managed before wealth generation, sustainable growth and competitive advantage can be achieved (Durst and Edvardsson, 2012). Approaches to knowledge management Generally, there are two commonly adopted approaches to knowledge management; the codification and the personalization (Jasimuddin, 2008). The former focuses on making knowledge more explicit, by viewing knowledge as an object which can be manipulated, transferred and stored (Alavi & Leidner, 2001). In this approach, technology especially ICT plays an important role in capturing and disseminating the knowledge. Technology is used extensively to expedite the diffusion of knowledge through intranet, groupware and email. In fact, many acknowledged that the explosion of knowledge management was attributed to the advent of technology. Hence, it would unthinkable nowadays to carry out proper knowledge management activities without having in place the appropriate technology. However, it must be noted that technology is not knowledge management; instead it should be considered to be one of the key enablers in the implementation (Loermans, 2002; Secton and Senaratne, 2008). On the other hand, the personalization approach is more concerned with connecting people, taking the more traditional route of sharing individual and organisational knowledge between individuals. This approach focuses on extracting and exploiting tacit knowledge, the type of knowledge that is highly contextual and is obtained through experience, observation and reflection that resides largely in human minds (Davenport & Prusak, 2000; Quintas, 2005). Techniques such as Communities of Practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991), After Action Review and Knowledge Networks (Alavi & Leidner, 2001) provide appropriate means of humanized approaches toward individuals with a common interest and shared understanding to interact with each others in the most appropriate and conducive environment for sharing knowledge (O'Dell & Hubert, 2011). It must be noted that in knowledge management, it would be premature to focus on just one approach while neglecting the other as it would jeopardize the overall effectiveness of the knowledge management process. For instance, too much emphasis on the use of technology in capturing and managing explicit knowledge may lead to the loss of opportunity for organisations to unearth the valuable tacit knowledge that resides in the minds of employees. In contrary, by putting too much effort and time on capturing tacit knowledge, the advantage offered by technology in terms of expediting communications and effective knowledge transfer would come to waste. Challenge of integrating variables in knowledge management Thus, it would require a concerted effort by the organisation to continuously finding suitable ways to take full advantage of both approaches in an integrated manner (Tan et al., 2012). A study by Oluikpe (2012) which explores the development of knowledge management strategy in a financial instruction fittingly demonstrates the benefit gained by the organisation in striking a balance between the utilization of technology and people approach through communities of practice and a functional portal which together successfully drove the implementation and managed to increase the knowledge flows across the organisation. Public project management organisations Knowledge management and the Construction Industry Master Plan (CIMP) The importance of knowledge management to project management organisations has been highlighted in the Construction Industry Master Plan (CIMP), a 10-year strategic transformation plan (2006 – 2015) to reform the construction industry. This can be exemplified from the CIMP Strategic Thrust No 6: To leverage on Information Communication Technology (ICT) in the construction industry. Underpinning thie structegic thrust is the need for the industry to adopt knowledge sharing through nurturing continuous improvement practices by sharing information such as standards and regulations, best practices and job opportunities (CIDB, 2006).
  • 10. However, despite all the initiatives and promotions there has be little to show that the initiatives have been successful (Hassan, 2011). Due to the inherent characteristic of the construction industry that is extremely fragmented and transient in nature, this creates an environment that inhibits knowledge sharing and continous learning activities to take place (Bishop, Bouchlaghem, Glass, & Matsumoto, 2008). In Malaysia there are many public organisations that are tasked with the responsibility to manage infrastructure projects. This includes the including Public Works Department (PWD), Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID), Highway Authority, city and municipality councils, and in-house project management departments of ministries and semi-government agencies. As the nation’s leading public project implementation organizations, these organisations play important roles in the growth of country’s construction industry and the overall economy as a whole and are committed in their mission to meet stakeholders’ expectation by providing the best possible services through successful project delivery undertaken by them completed within the stipulated quality, timeframe and cost parameters (JKR, 2010b). As one of the key players in the construction industry, these public project management organisations relies heavily on information and knowledge to ensure the effective and efficient planning, construction and delivery of infrastructure projects. Therefore, the need to manage project tacit and explicit knowledge is seen as highly critical and crucial. Only by having proper knowledge management techniques in place, construction organisations will be able to leverage on intellectual capital, which resulted in avoiding repetiting costly mistakes and minimising time wastage by reinventing the wheels (Hassan, 2011). Knowledge Management in the Public Project Management Organisations Drivers As calls for better and improved public service delivery continue to be demanded by the public in recent years, this has left the public organisations including public project management organisations with no other options but to move forward in finding innovative ways to meet the ever growing expectations (Luen & Al- Hawamdeh, 2001). Moreover, continual public pressure for the public sector to demonstrate greater accountability and transparency in delivering public policy at the expense of fewer resources requires the public sector to conduct a critical evaluation of their current procedures and policies (Riege & Lindsay, 2006). Taken this into consideration, one of the approaches that have been taken under public sector transformation programs is to harness the organisational collective intelligence along with external knowledge resources which underline the need to institutionalize knowledge management in the public sector. According to the Wiig (2002), a successful implementation of a comprehensive knowledge management can deliver broad and significant benefits to the public sector and the nation as a whole as it helps to develop competent and effective public services to ensure that public interests and agendas are pursued appropriately, prepare the public to become effective policy partners who participate in public decision making, build and leverage public and private intellectual capital which will then lead to pursuing priority initiatives that improve performance and competitiveness and developing capable knowledge workers that are able to perform skilled and knowledge-intensive tasks. In the same vein, Riege & Lindsay (2006) highlight the critical role plays by knowledge management especially the knowledge sharing process in facilitating two way transfers of scientific and socially-based knowledge between the public sector and the stakeholders towards the development of better public policy. Similar to Wiig (2002), the authors highlight four main reasons why knowledge management is getting increased attention from the public sector as follows: i. To drive efficiencies across all public services by connecting silos of information ii. To develop new or consolidating outdated systems to improve overall performance iii. To improve accountability and mitigating risk by making informed decisions and resole issued faster iv. To deliver better and more cost-effective constituent services such as enhancing partnerships with, and responsiveness to, the public Vexing issues of knowledge management implementation Nonetheless, despites many realizing the benefits offered by the knowledge management, studies found that the uptake among public organisations in implementing knowledge management is still low as compared to the private organisations (Butler and Murphy, 2007; Cong & Pandya, 2003; Sandhu, Jain, and Ahmad, 2011; Yang 2007). Among the research that has been done to examine the practice of knowledge management in public organisations includes studies in accounting (Chong, Salleh, Ahmad and Syed-Ikhsan, 2011), agriculture (Talisayon, 2013) and police work (Biygautane & Al-Yahya, 2011; Luen & Al-Hawamdeh, 2001; Seba & Rowley, 2010). Tol date, there has not been any study addressing knowledge management
  • 11. implementation in public project management organisations. The main reason for the slow adoption of knowledge management among public organisations can be attributed primarily to the underlying differences in visions, missions, procedures and culture between the two sectors (Chawla & Joshi, 2010; Cong, Li-Hua, & Stonehouse, 2007; Cong & Pandya, 2003). Whilst the public sector is mostly driven by a set policy and politics, which place strong emphasis on providing quality public service delivery to the stakeholders, the profit oriented private sector is predominantly driven by its strategy, structure and culture to serve its shareholders (Abdullah & Date, 2009; Chong, Salleh, Ahmad, & Sharifuddin, 2011). As the private sector is constantly exploring new and innovative approaches to remain relevant and competitive, the lack of competitive edge in the public sector has led to the lack of interest and slow adoption of knowledge management within the sector (Cong & Pandya, 2003; Sandhu, Jain, & Ahmad, 2011; Yao, Kam, & Chan, 2007). MAMPU (2010) in its study of knowledge management implementation in Malaysia reveals that out of 94 government agencies being reviewed in 2010; only 12% of them have a knowledge management strategy. This worrying trend is causing lots of concern to the stakeholders on whether the civil servants are fully equipped with the right knowledge and competence in facilitating them in making informed decisions and formulating public policies for the betterment of all. Realizing this predicament and the loss of opportunities to better enhance public service delivery, various efforts have been taken by the governments in promoting and encouraging the adoption of knowledge management in the public sector including organizing awareness programs such seminars, trainings and workshops on the discipline (Biygautane & Al-Yahya, 2011). However, due to its inherent characteristics that are traditionally rigid, hierarchical and bureaucratic along with other broad range of issues and challenges unique to the public sector, the process can be much more challenging as compared to the private sector (Chong et al., 2011). Unless these issues and challenges are addressed accordingly in a timely manner, they will adversely impact the effectiveness of knowledge management implementation in the public sector. The challenge to contextualise knowledge management knowledge management in public project management organisations The implementation of knowledge management in public project management public organisations is not a straightforward task. There can be no one-size-fits-all knowledge management solution that can simply be adopted. Knowledge management itself is highly contextual and unique for every organisation. Public project management organisations are inevitably confronted with a range issues that will have adverse impact on the knowledge management initiative and it is agreat challenge is to contend with the spectrum of elements which are inherent to the project organisation. The variables can range from the organisational strategic management system, the organisational structure, knowledge gaps, operational procedures to people issues. These are exacerbated further by the differing project size, location, procurement systems and contractual settings which these organisations undertake. Some of the issues are salient and can only be presented by a list of vaguely and briefly defined factors. Often, these leads to a lot of confusion and misunderstanding, especially in the endeavour design and operate to a knowledge management system that works. Inability to contend with this issues often leads to unwanted failure. (Chua & Lam, 2005; Conley and Wei, 2009). In their studies, Akhavan, Jafari, & Fathian (2005) found that the failure rate knowledge management projects in organisations are between 50% and 70%. There is no assurance of knowledge management success, regardless of the amount of investment being made. A key pre-requisite to potentially successful knowledge management initiative is the ability to address these variable issues (Riege, 2005). In the effort to circumvent these issues, various knowledge management concepts have emerged from research to propose the way forward for the implementation of knowledge management in organisations, public and private alike. While there has been much support for these concepts, equally there has been much critic that argues their practical applicability in the actual implementation. The central theme to most of the critiques are that the frameworks are too theoretical, high-level and are not flexible enough to be applicable to organisations in organisational settings. Preliminary studies undertaken by this research proposal suggest that this variability are influenced by the contextual uniqueness of the organisation itself and the ecosystem within which it evolves. However, there has been a paucity of research that have been successful in integrating all these elements together. The main findings emerging from the preliminary study of these concepts are the significance of the critical elements which needs to integrated. This includes the organisational strategy and governance, the element of community, organisational learning, innovation, the impact of information technology and the embodiment of common shared values and accordingly the interrelationships between all these elements to knowledge management. This proposal posits that an integrated framework which can link all the existing variable
  • 12. elements of the frameworks can possibly be developed to offer a holistic conception of the adoption of knowledge management in public project management organisations. Issues and challenges in implementing Knowledge Management in public project management organisations While there have been many literatures which highlight the issues and challenges faced by the private sector in implementing knowledge management, unfortunately there is a paucity of research conducted in addressing the factors that inhibit knowledge management within the public project management organisations. Based on a preliminary critical review conducted on the literature pertaining to the problems faced by public organisations in implementing knowledge management, the proposal found the list of barriers which confront the application of knowledge management which can be adapted to public project management organisations as follows: A. Individual Lack of awareness and understanding Several researches suggest that employees’ lack of awareness and understanding of knowledge management as one of the main reasons that is causing the organisation within the public sector to continue to struggle in implementing the initiative (Biygautane & Al-Yahya, 2011; Cong et al., 2007; Cong & Pandya, 2003; Yuen, 2007). As a relatively new discipline especially in the public sector, the majority of the civil servants is still not aware of the concept of knowledge management, the activities involved in the processes and the benefits it brings to individual and organisation (Cong et al., 2007). The inadequacy of information leads to a widespread confusion and misunderstanding among employees especially those from the lower levels with regards to their expected roles and responsibilities. As a result, many are reluctant to take part actively in the knowledge-based activities organized by the organisations as they perceive the activities to be secondary and trivial in nature which are of no real value to them in particular. Lack of values for knowledge sharing Knowledge sharing is considered as the cornerstone of knowledge management, without which, the success of the initiative is far from. Unfortunately, the lack of knowledge sharing is pretty much prevalent in the public sector (Cong et al., 2007; Salleh & Ahmad, 2009; Syed-Ikhsan & Rowland, 2004a; Talisayon, 2013). This predicament can be attributed to a number of reasons. For instance, employees, generally, view the knowledge they possess as a source of power. Therefore they are unwilling to share their knowledge other out of fear that by doing so, it may risk their value to the organisations and jeopardize any career advancement opportunities as well as endangered their job security (Al-Athari & Zairi, 2001). Poor communication and interpersonal skills The success of knowledge management is very much dependent on the employees’ abilities and skills to communicate and interact effectively with others. Employees who possess these traits would have the ability to connect with others in social settings such as knowledge sharing sessions without many difficulties. On the other hand, for those who are lacking in such skills would find themselves unable to contribute or gain any significant benefits from the knowledge related activities and may eventually lead to poor performance. Sandhu et al. (2011) in their study of assessing the public sector employees perception towards the knowledge management in Malaysia posit poor of verbal and interpersonal skills as one of the main individual barriers apart from lack of time and lack of interaction that resulted in their low engagement in knowledge sharing activities. B. Organisation Rigid and hierarchical organisation structure Public sector in general is well renowned for its traditional rigid and hierarchical organisation structure which is regulated by a set of rules and procedures. This type of mechanistic structure is useful for large organisations such as public organisations as it helps to ensure smooth operations with a clearly defined job scope and responsibilities, a strong chain of commands and a rapid decision making process. Nevertheless, with such inflexibility, it would have resulted in
  • 13. units and groups to operate in isolation, invisible and unreachable of each other. This segmented structure will inevitably lead to the development of knowledge silos which are commonly responsible for unnecessary duplication of knowledge, reinventing the wheel or repeating similar mistakes in organisations (Cong et al., 2007; Conley & Wei, 2009). Lack of a clear and concise knowledge management strategy It is an acknowledged fact that the success of any initiatives in organisations is very much dependent on the types of strategies being adopted and knowledge management is likewise. The strategy will determine the overall approach and directions taken by the organisations in which goals and objectives will be met. Therefore due to the absence of a comprehensive knowledge management strategy, which consists of policies, procedures and activities for managing organisational knowledge assets, the implementation is at risk. Yet, while many recognized the importance of having a well-defined strategy to provide the basis to move forward (Oluikpe, 2012), surprisingly, findings from a number of empirical studies reveal that there are still organisations out there that do not have a knowledge management strategy in place (MAMPU, 2010). Misalignment between knowledge management strategy and business strategy Establishing an alignment between knowledge management and business strategy is essential to ensure successful implementation of the initiative. This is critical to ensure the initiative will be able to contribute effectively towards organisations growth and performance by taking into consideration the organisation’s goals, objectives and others strategic related matters during the development and deployment of knowledge management initiative. In the absence of a clear association between both elements, which has been widely ignored in practice, the impact of knowledge management in demonstrating the strategic importance will be minimal and this will eventually affect employees’ perception and their further commitment in the initiative (Abdullah & Date, 2009). Dysfunctional organisational culture Organisational culture, considered as the glue that binds the organisation together greatly influences the process and outcomes of knowledge management within organisations. Thus, dysfunctional organisational culture including over reliance on individual performance than team efforts, minimum tolerance towards mistakes where mistakes are viewed negatively, a prevailing blame culture and lack of innovation mindset are more likely to cause more harm than good and serve as a major barrier to the organisation's continuous efforts in fostering an environment of openness and cooperation for knowledge management to truly thrive (Sandhu et al., 2011; Yuen, 2007). Lack of top management support and commitment One of the key elements for long-term success in any new initiatives would be a visible and continuous support and sponsorship by the top management and knowledge management in no different (Bartczak, Rainer, Boulton, Oswald, & Malley, 2010). Nevertheless, due to some concern purported by some critics that knowledge management as just another management fad and other concurrently pressing organisational matters that require the immediate attention of the top management, these issues will at times affect their commitment to the initiative. Without the much needed support, it would be almost impossible to sustain further growth of the initiative, especially in getting the resources such as budget and manpower to carry out the related activities and convincing the employees on the importance of knowledge management discourse (Chong et al., 2011). Lack of rewards and recognition system Creating a successful knowledge management requires active and continuous commitment from the employees in terms of the amount of energy and time spent in participating in knowledge related activities. Yet, even though many acknowledged the benefits knowledge management offers, either at individual level or collectively as whole, employees as emotional beings would strive more persistently in those activities when they are motivated. By simply depending on employees' willingness to contribute their time and energy in the initiative would be somehow premature and unrealistic (Al-Alawi, Al-Marzooqi, & Mohammed, 2007; Syed-Ikhsan & Rowland, 2004a).
  • 14. Lack of performance measurement As most of the public organisations are still in the early stages of setting up or implementing their knowledge management programs, there is at present little emphasis given to assessing and evaluating their effectiveness by using appropriate performance measurement methods. Whilst many acknowledged the difficulties involved in performing such tasks due to the complexities in understanding the intangible nature of knowledge and the fact that the impact of knowledge management initiative may not be immediately visible, the lack of performance measurement can be a cause for concern especially in demonstrating knowledge management practical value to organisations (Al-Athari & Zairi, 2001; Bartczak et al., 2010). C. Technolog Inadequate IT systems and processes It would unthinkable nowadays to implement knowledge management without having a proper technology to support the initiative. In fact, it is widely reported in literature that the popularity gained by knowledge management in recent years is partly due to the critical role played by technology especially IT with regards its speed and efficiency in acquiring, capturing, disseminating and managing knowledge. Having an effective knowledge management system in place is therefore essential in providing the much needed support for knowledge management activities (Hüttenegger, 2003). Lack of training Another potential barrier is lack of training on knowledge management tools and techniques (Cong et al., 2007; Salleh & Ahmad, 2009). More often than not, the lack of training can be caused by financial and time constraints faced by organisations in organizing the training programs. Nonetheless, the importance of training must not be taken lightly. For instance, with regards to the deployment of knowledge management systems, due to the lack or absence of appropriate training program, employees are unable to utilize all the features available in the systems to their full potential. Consequently, inefficiencies will creep in. This will eventually lead to frustration and low employee morale. Lack of security In connection to technology, there is a genuine concern raised by employees over the issue of security and confidentiality of information being posted and transmitted via the knowledge management systems such as websites and online forums (Salleh & Ahmad, 2009). This is not a baseless assertion as there have been many instances in the past where a string of high profile websites and portals were susceptible to hacking and malware attacks due to loose security measures (Grossman, 2013). And due to the exponential advancement of technology, these vulnerabilities can be difficult to monitor and manage considering their rapidly evolving rate of change.
  • 15. Problem Statement The constructs culminated from the literature review converge to proposition the problem statement as shown in Figure 2: Individual Organisation Technology Lack of awareness & understanding PROBLEM STATEMENT: (Proposition for the proposed research) Poor knowledge management in public project management organisations Lack of values for knowledge sharing Poor communication & interpersonal skills Rigid & hierarchical organization structure Lack of clear & concise knowledge management strategy Misalignment between the knowledge management & the organisation’s strategy Dysfunctional organisational culture Lack of top management support and commitment Lack of rewards and recognition system Lack of performance measurement Inadequate IT systems and processes Lack of training Lack of security Fig. 2
  • 16. (b) Objective(s) of the Research Objektif Penyelidikan (Drawing from the problem statement highlighted in Figure 2) This study embarks on the following objective: 1) To critically investigate the current concepts, theories and frameworks of knowledge management which are applicable for public project management organisations 2) To investigate the issues and challenges confronting public project management organisations in developing and implementing knowledge management 3) To establish a conceptual knowledge management framework for public project management organisations 4) To validate the conceptual knowledge management framework developed for public project management organisations (c) Methodology Kaedah penyelidikan Please state in the form / Sila nyatakan di borang ini 1. Description of Methodology The study will be carried out using the mixed method approach, comprising of quantitative and qualitative methods: Research Objective Research Methodology Method Data Collection Analysis 1. To critically investigate the current concepts, theories and frameworks of knowledge management which are applicable for public project management organisations Document Analysis Questionnaires Semi structured interview Books, Journals, Reports Chief Knowledge Officers/Knowledge Managers in Public Project Management Organisations Critical Analysis SPSS/Rasch Atlas.TI 2. To investigate the issues and challenges confronting public project management organisations in developing and implementing knowledge management (based on the themes of the six constructs) Document Analysis Questionnaires Semi structured interview Books, Journals, Reports Chief Knowledge Officers/Knowledge Managers in Public Project Management Organisations Critical Analysis SPSS/Rasch Atlas.TI 3. To establish a conceptual knowledge management framework for public project management organisations Development of Research Hypothesis Expert panels Atlas.TI
  • 17. 4. To validate the conceptual knowledge management framework developed for public project management organisations Testing of Research Hypothesis Expert panels Atlas.TI 2. Flow Chart of Research Activities (Please refer to Appendix) 3. Gantt Chart of Research Activities (Please refer to Appendix) 4. Milestones and Dates (Please refer to Appendix) (d) Expected Results/Benefit Jangkaan Hasil Penyelidikan 1. Novel theories/New findings/Knowledge To date there has been no study that emprically assessed the issue of slow adoption of knowledge management implementation in the public project management organisations. This research aims to bridge this knowledge gap. The novelty of the research is the establishment of a new conceptual of knowledge management developed into an operational framework to aid the strategic development and monitoring of knowledge management initiatives in public project management organisations. 2. Research Publications Three (3) ISI/SCOPUS/IEEE journals a) Title : Academy of Management Learning & Education ISSN : 1537-260X Publisher : ACAD MANAGEMENT IF : 2.533 b) Title : Public Management Review ISSN : 1471-9037 Publisher : ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD IF : 1.295 c) Title : Knowledge Management Research & Practice ISSN : 1477-8238 Publisher : PALGRAVE MACMILLAN LTD IF : 0.855 3. Specific or Potential Applications The findings of this research can be used as a term of reference and guidelines for the implementation of knowledge management in public project management organisations as part of an effort to enhance service quality and better delivery of projects to customers.
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  • 20. development. Asian Journal on Quality, 11(2), 157–164. doi:10.1108/15982681011075961 33. Karadsheh, L., Mansour, E., Alhawari, S., Azar, G., & El-Bathy, N. (2009). A Theoretical Framework for Knowledge Management Process : Towards Improving Knowledge Performance. Communications of the IBIMA, 7. 34. Lai, H. (2000). Knowledge Management : A Review of Theoretical Frameworks and Industrial Cases. In 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (Vol. 00, pp. 1–10). 35. Lin, H.-F. (2007). Knowledge sharing and firm innovation capability: an empirical study. International Journal of Manpower, 28(3/4), 315–332. doi:10.1108/01437720710755272 36. Luen, T. W., & Al-Hawamdeh, S. (2001). Knowledge management in the public sector: principles and practices in police work. Journal of Information Science, 27(5), 311–318. doi:10.1177/016555150102700502 37. MAMPU. (2010). Knowledge Management Blueprint. 38. Mansour, E., & Alhawari, S. (2011). Development of Conceptual Framework for Knowledge Management Process *. Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing, 7(8), 864–877. 39. McDermott, R., & O’Dell, C. (2001). Overcoming cultural barriers to sharing knowledge. Journal of Knowledge Management, 5, 76–85. 40. Oluikpe, P. (2012). Developing a corporate knowledge management strategy. Journal of Knowledge Management, 16(6). doi:10.1108/13673271211276164 41. Plessis, M. du. (2007). Knowledge management: what makes complex implementations successful? Journal of Knowledge Management, 11, 91–101. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com.ezaccess.library.uitm.edu.my/journals.htm?issn=1367- 3270&volume=11&issue=2&articleid=1599332 42. Riege, A. (2005). Three-dozen knowledge-sharing barriers managers must consider. Journal of Knowledge Management, 9(3), 18–35. doi:10.1108/13673270510602746 43. Riege, A., & Lindsay, N. (2006). Knowledge management in the public sector : stakeholder partnerships in the public policy development. Journal of Knowledge Management, 10(3), 24–39. doi:10.1108/13673270610670830 44. Robinson, H. S., Carrillo, P. M., Anumba, C. J., & Al-Ghassani, A. M. (2005). Knowledge management practices in large construction organisations. (C. J. Anumba & P. Carrillo, Eds.)Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 12(5), 431–445. doi:10.1108/09699980510627135 45. Salleh, K., & Ahmad, S. N. S. (2009). Knowledge Management in Electronic Government The Organisational Readiness of Local Authorities in Malaysia.pdf . Public Sector ICT Management , 3(1). 46. Sandhu, M. S., Jain, K. K., & Ahmad, I. U. K. B. (2011). Knowledge sharing among public sector employees: Evidence from Malaysia. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 24(3), 206– 226. doi:10.1108/09513551111121347 47. Seba, I., & Rowley, J. (2010). Knowledge management in UK police forces. Journal of Knowledge Management, 14, 611–626. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com.ezaccess.library.uitm.edu.my/journals.htm?issn=1367- 3270&volume=14&issue=4&articleid=1871164&show=html 48. Skyrme, D., & Amidon, D. (1997). The Knowledge Agenda. Journal of Knowledge Management, 1(1), 27–37. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=1367- 3270&volume=1&issue=1&articleid=883616&show=abstract 49. Sung Jun, J., & Joo, B.-K. (2011). Knowledge Sharing: The Influences of Learning Organization Culture, Organizational Commitment, and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors. Journal of Leadership
  • 21. & Organizational Studies, 18(3), 353–364. Retrieved from http://jlo.sagepub.com/content/18/3/353.abstract 50. Syed-Ikhsan, S. O. S. Bin, & Rowland, F. (2004a). Benchmarking knowledge management in a public organisation in Malaysia. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 11(3), 238–266. doi:10.1108/14635770410538745 51. Syed-Ikhsan, S. O. S., & Rowland, F. (2004b). Knowledge management in a public organization: a study on the relationship between organizational elements and the performance of knowledge transfer. Journal of Knowledge Management, 8(2), 95–111. doi:10.1108/13673270410529145 52. Talisayon, S. (2013). Knowledge Management for the Public Sector (pp. 1 – 94). Capstone. 53. Wiig, K. M. (2002). Knowledge management in public administration. Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(3), 224–239. doi:10.1108/13673270210434331 54. Wong, K. Y. (2005). Critical success factors for implementing knowledge management in small and medium enterprises. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 105(3), 261–279. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1463424&show=html 55. Yao, L. J., Kam, T. H. Y., & Chan, S. H. (2007). Knowledge sharing in Asian public administration sector: the case of Hong Kong. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 20(1), 51–69. doi:10.1108/17410390710717138 56. Yuen, Y. H. (2007). Overview of Knowledge Management in the Public Sector (pp. 1–16). D ACCESS TO EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL / KEMUDAHAN SEDIA ADA UNTUK KEGUNAAN BAGI PENYELIDIKAN INI Equipment Peralatan Location Tempat Example / Contoh: HRTEM XRD UiTM UKM
  • 22. E BUDGET /BELANJAWAN Please indicate your estimated budget for this research and details of expenditure according to the guidelines attached. Sila nyatakan anggaran bajet bagi cadangan penyelidikan ini dan berikan butir – butir perbelanjaan lengkap dengan berpandukan kepada garis panduan yang dilampirkan. Budget details Butiran belanjawan Amount requested by applicant Jumlah yang dipohon oleh pemohon Amount approved by VC/Dep.VC (R&D)/Director of RMC Jumlah yang diluluskan oleh Naib Canselor/ TNC (P&I)/Pengarah RMC Year 1 Tahun 1 (RM) Year 2 Tahun 2 (RM) Year 3 Tahun 3 (RM) Total Jumlah (RM) E(i) Vote 11000 - Salary and wages Upah dan Elaun Untuk Pembantu Penyelidik Siswazah (GRA) Please specify Sila nyatakan secara lengkap dengan pecahannya sekali. Salary for one (1) GRA @ RM2,000/month for 24 months 24,000 24,000 48,000 Please Indicate the overall Budget Sila nyatakan bajet secara keseluruhan
  • 23. Assisting in conducting: Case studies, document analysis, interview and transcribing data Questionaire survey and analysing data E(ii) Vote 21000 - Travelling and Transportation/ Perjalanan dan Pengangkutan . Please specify Sila nyatakan secara lengkap dengan pecahannya sekali. 1. Local Conferences i. International Conference on Human Capital and Knowledge Management 2013 at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (3 - 4 December 2013) 2. International Conferences i. ICIKM 2014 : International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management at Barcelona, Spain (27 – 28 February 2014) 3. Travelling expenses for case studies in Malaysia 2,000 6,000 5,000 2,000 6,000
  • 24. 4. Food and Lodging 5,000 3,500 3,500 10,000 7,000 Budget details Butiran belanjawan Amount requested by applicant Jumlah yang dipohon oleh pemohon Amount approved by VC/Dep.VC (R&D)/Director of RMC Jumlah yang diluluskan oleh Naib Canselor/ TNC (P&I)/Pengarah RMC Year 1 Tahun 1 (RM) Year 2 Tahun 2 (RM) Year 3 Tahun 3 (RM) Total Jumlah (RM) E(iii) Vote 24000 - Rental Sewaan Please specify Sila nyatakan secara lengkap dengan pecahannya sekali. NIL NIL Please Indicate the overall Budget Sila nyatakan bajet secara keseluruhan E(iv) Vote 27000 - Research Materials & Supplies Bekalan dan Bahan Penyelidikan Please specify Sila nyatakan secara lengkap dengan pecahannya sekali. 1. Stationaries 2. Printing and Binding 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 6,000 6,000
  • 25. 3. Reference Books 4. Distribution of questionaires and related expenses 3,000 6,000 3,000 6,000 6,000 12,000 E(v) Vote 28000 - Maintenance and Minor Repair Services Baik pulih kecil dan ubahsuai Please specify Sila nyatakan secara lengkap dengan pecahannya sekali. NIL NIL E(vi) Vote 29000 - Professional Services Perkhidmatan Ikhtisas Please specify Sila nyatakan secara lengkap dengan pecahannya sekali. 1. Professional services i. Statistician and Copy Editor 2. Honorarium 3. ATLAS.ti course 2,000 2,000 4,000 2,000 4,000 4,000 2,000 Please Indicate the overall Budget Sila nyatakan bajet secara keseluruhan E(vii) Vote 35000 - Accessories and Equipment Aksesori dan Peralatan
  • 26. Please specify Sila nyatakan secara lengkap dengan pecahannya sekali. NIL NIL TOTAL AMOUNT JUMLAH BESAR 113,000 F Declaration by applicant / Akuan Pemohon (Please tick ( √ )): / (Sila tanda ( √ )):
  • 27. I hereby declare that: Saya dengan ini mengaku bahawa: 1. All information stated here are accurate, KPT and IPT has right to reject or to cancel the offer without prior notice if there is any inaccurate information given. Semua maklumat yang diisi adalah benar, KPT dan IPT berhak menolak permohonan atau membatalkan tawaran pada bila-bila masa sekiranya keterangan yang dikemukakan adalah tidak benar. 2. Application of this fundamental research is presented for the Fundemental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS). Permohonan projek penyelidikan ini dikemukakan untuk memohon peruntukan di bawah Geran Penyelidikan Fundamental IPT. 3. Application of this fundamental research is also presented for the other reasearch grant/s (grant’s name and total amount) Permohonan projek penyelidikan ini juga dikemukakan untuk memohon peruntukan geran penyelidikan dari (nama geran dan jumlah dana)____________________________________ Date : Applicant’s Signature : Tarikh : Tandatangan Pemohon : ___________________________ G Recommended by Vice Chancellor/Deputy Vice Chancellor (Research and Innovation)/Director of Research Management Center Perakuan Naib Canselor/Timbalan Naib Canselor(P & I)/Pengarah Pusat Pengurusan Penyelidikan
  • 28. Please tick ( √ ) Sila tandakan ( √ ) Recommended: Diperakukan: A. Highly Recommended Sangat Disokong B. Recommended Disokong C. Not Recommended (Please specify reason) Tidak Disokong (Sila Nyatakan Sebab) Comments: Ulasan: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Name: Signature: Nama: Tandatangan: Date: Tarikh: Note: APPLICATIONS SUBMITTED WILL BE TREATED IN FULL CONFIDENCE. THE DECISION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH GRANT SCHEME MAIN COMMITTEE MOHE IS FINAL. Semua permohonan dianggap sulit. Keputusan Jawatankuasa Induk Skim Geran Penyelidikan Fundamental KPT adalah MUKTAMAD.