Lean Standard or Standardized Work Training Module

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The Lean Standard Work Training Module v3.0 includes:

1. MS PowerPoint Presentation including 66 slides covering the History of Lean Manufacturing, Five Lean Principles, The Seven Lean Wastes, Introduction to Lean Standard Work (Introduction, Objectives, Benefits), Basic Requirements of Lean Standard Work, Step-by-Step Process using the Four Lean Standard Work Worksheets & Examples, Takt & Cycle Time, Work Balancing, Quick Changeovers, and Kanban Solutions.

2. MS Excel Process Study Worksheet Template

3. MS Excel Process Capacity Worksheet Template & Example

4. MS Excel Work Chart Template & Example

5. MS Excel Work Combination Table Template & Examples

Published in: Business

Lean Standard or Standardized Work Training Module

  1. 1. 1 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard or Standardized Work by Operational Excellence Consulting LLC
  2. 2. 2 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Our ability to improve the ways we do things depends on defining and shaping our daily habits of mind and practice — our "standard work.“ We need to do away with the notion that standards necessarily mean rigidity. Rather, standard work can help people do their jobs consistently and reliably, and improve how they do it. The traditional view that efficiency requires bureaucracy and that bureaucracy impedes flexibility needs to be replaced with a new model: clever application of standard work allows you to have efficiency and flexibility. Lean Standard Work – Why should we bother?
  3. 3. 3 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 “Managers often think that they should find out what the best practice is and then roll it out. Using this approach, organizations will often pay for it in employee engagement and buy-in. Instead, you could look for work groups that are willing to be involved in developing their own standard work, and implement there first.” Lean Standard Work – How do we get started? vs.
  4. 4. 4 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 "Must Do" Procedures Avoidable failures continue to plague us in almost every realm of organizational activity. Surgeons at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, make the case for the simple checklist as a way to avoid failures and manage complexity, especially when human lives are at stake. Airplane pilots developed the checklists they use for takeoffs and landings to make sure that planes don't fall out of the sky due to avoidable mistakes. Checklists help with memory recall and clearly set out the minimum necessary steps in a process. "Under conditions of complexity, not only are checklists a help, they are required for success. There must always be room for judgment, but judgment aided — and even enhanced — by procedure." "Must do" procedures also require permission for deviation. Lean Standard Work – When is it Needed?
  5. 5. 5 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 "Should Do" Practices How can we do the work of the organization, execute its strategy and fulfill its mission, better. When something has been standardized, that standard becomes the foundation for experiments to improve the work. Employees identify problems in delivering what customers want, develop a hypothesis about how work can be improved to deliver the required quality level, change one variable at a time, and observe whether it makes the work better. Adhering to the standard ensures that improvements will be sustained; it also facilitates training. "Should do" practices provide help for employees on what to do in the zone between "must do" procedures and "may do" discretion. Lean Standard Work – When is it Needed?
  6. 6. 6 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 "May Do" Discretion To build an organization's capabilities, and to increase people's overall engagement and motivation, leaders should give team members every opportunity to take initiative and be creative. People want autonomy to master their work and fulfill the organization's purpose. Therefore, an organization should be explicit about where it encourages initiative. For example, "When customers need service in real time, employees who are empowered to be flexible within standards can better meet those needs ... because you can't anticipate each one — or write a script in advance! Putting decision-making closest to the people who touch the customer is key.“ "May do" discretion helps employees do what they probably should do, not what they must do. Lean Standard Work – When is it Needed?
  7. 7. 7 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Establishing Lean Standard Work requires collecting and recording data on a few templates. These templates are used by front-line team leaders and manufacturing engineers to design the process effectively and by operators to make improvements in the flow and sequence of their own work. At the end of this workshop, you will …  understand the concept and fundamentals of Lean Standard Work and its importance in the foundation of a Lean system  be able to utilize the Lean Standard Work templates to collect and analyze all relevant data and information required to establish a Lean Standard Work process  be able to optimize your process with respect to cycle time, work sequence, and work-in-process  understand the benefit of additional Lean tools, including inventory manage- ment using Kanban, work or line balancing, … Lean Standard Work – Learning Objectives
  8. 8. 8 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Agenda  The History of Lean Manufacturing  The Five Lean Principles  Lean and The Seven Wastes  Lean Standard Work – Introduction, Objectives, Benefits  Three Basic Requirements of Lean Standard Work  Lean Process Study – Template, Takt & Cycle Time, Work Balancing  Lean Process Capacity – Template, Quick Changeover  Lean Standard Work Chart – Template, Work Sequencing  Lean Standard Work-In-Process – Kanban  Lean Standard Work Combination Table – Template  Summary
  9. 9. 9 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 The History of Lean All Lean Manufacturing is really trying to do is to get one process to make only what the next process needs when it needs it. Lean Manufacturing links all processes – from the final Customer back to raw material – in a seamless and smooth flow without detours that generates the shortest Lead Time, highest Quality, and lowest Cost.
  10. 10. 10 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 The Five Lean Principles Define Value - Specify value from the Customer perspective. Map Value Stream - Identify the value stream for each product or service and challenge all of the non-value adding steps (wastes) currently necessary to create and deliver this product or service. Add nothing than value. Create Flow - Make the product or service creation and delivery process flow through the remaining value-added steps. Establish Pull – Introduce pull between all process steps where continuous flow is possible. Pursuit Perfection – Manage toward perfection so that the number of steps and the amount of time and information needed to create and deliver this product or service.
  11. 11. 11 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Three Types of Process Activities Non- Value Added Business- Value Added Value- Added Customer is not willing to pay for these activities and they should be eliminated, e.g. rework. Customer are willing to pay the organization for these activities, e.g. assembly. Customers are not willing to pay for these activities, but the organizations deems these activities as necessary, e.g. preventive maintenance. Many process have less than 20% value- added activities.
  12. 12. 12 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean – The Seven Wastes Waste elimination is one of the most effective ways to increase the profitability of any business. Processes either add value or waste to the production of a good or service. The seven wastes originated in Japan, where waste is known as “Muda." Inventory Over-Processing Waiting Transportation Defects Motion Over-Production The 7 Wastes
  13. 13. 13 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 The 7 Wastes – Over-Processing Over-Processing Many organizations use expensive high precision equipment where simpler tools would be sufficient. This often results in poor plant layout because preceding or subsequent operations are located far apart. In addition they encourage high asset utilization (over-production with minimal changeovers) in order to recover the high cost of this equipment. Investing in smaller, more flexible equipment where possible; creating manufacturing cells; and combining steps will greatly reduce the waste of inappropriate processing.
  14. 14. 14 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 The 7 Wastes – Waiting Waiting Typically more than 99% of a product's life in traditional batch-and-queue manufacture will be spent waiting to be processed. Much of a product’s lead time is tied up in waiting for the next operation; this is usually because material flow is poor, production runs are too long, and distances between work centers are too great. Linking processes together so that one feeds directly into the next can dramatically reduce waiting.
  15. 15. 15 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 The 7 Wastes – Transportation Transportation Transporting product between processes is a cost incursion which adds no value to the product. Excessive movement and handling cause damage and are an opportunity for quality to deteriorate. Material handlers must be used to transport the materials, resulting in another organizational cost that adds no Customer value. Transportation can be difficult to reduce due to the perceived costs of moving equipment and processes closer together. Furthermore, it is often hard to determine which processes should be next to each other. Mapping product flows can make this easier to visualize.
  16. 16. 16 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 The 7 Wastes – Defects Defects Having a direct impact to the bottom line, quality defects resulting in rework or scrap are a tremendous cost to organizations. Associated costs include quarantining inventory, re-inspecting, rescheduling, and capacity loss. In many organizations the total cost of defects is often a significant percentage of total manufacturing cost. Through employee involvement and continuous process improvement, there is a huge opportunity to reduce defects at many facilities.
  17. 17. 17 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 The 7 Wastes – Motion Motion This waste is related to ergonomics and is seen in all instances of bending, stretching, walking, lifting, and reaching. These are also health and safety issues, which in today’s litigious society are becoming more of a problem for organizations. Jobs with excessive motion should be analyzed and redesigned for improvement with the involvement of plant personnel.
  18. 18. 18 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 The 7 Wastes – Over-Production Over-Production Simply put, overproduction is to manufacture an item before it is actually required. Over-production is highly costly to a manufacturing plant because it prohibits the smooth flow of materials and actually degrades quality and productivity. This results in high storage costs and makes it difficult to detect defects in a timely manner. The simple solution to over-production is turning off the tap; this requires a lot of courage because the problems that over-production is hiding will be revealed. The concept is to schedule and produce only what can be immediately sold/shipped and improve machine changeover/set-up capability.
  19. 19. 19 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 The 7 Wastes – Inventory Inventory Work in Progress (WIP) is a direct result of over-production and waiting. Excess inventory tends to hide problems on the plant floor, which must be identified and resolved in order to improve operating performance. Excess inventory consumes productive floor space, delays the identification of problems, and inhibits communication. By achieving a seamless flow between work centers, many manufacturers have been able to improve Customer service and slash inventories and their associated costs.
  20. 20. 20 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 The 7 Wastes – Summary In the latest edition of the Lean Manufacturing classic Lean Thinking by James P. Womack and Daniel T. Jones, Underutilization of Employees has been added as an eighth waste. Organizations employ their staff for their nimble fingers and strong muscles but forget they come to work everyday with a free brain. It is only by capitalizing on employees' creativity that organizations can eliminate the other seven wastes and continuously improve their performance. Many changes over recent years have driven organizations to become Process Excellence organizations. One of the first step in achieving that goal is to identify and attack the seven wastes.
  21. 21. 21 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Getting Started - The Ohno Circle “There are many stories about the famous Ohno circle. I was fortunate to speak in person with Teruyuki Minoura, who at the time was president of Toyota Motor Manufacturing, North America. He had learned TPS (Toyota Production System) directly from the master and part of his early education at Toyota was standing in a circle:” Minoura: Mr. Ohno wanted us to draw a circle on the floor of a plant and then we were told, ‘Stand in that and watch the process and think for yourself,’ and then he didn’t even give you any hint of what to watch for. This is the real essence of TPS. Liker: How long did you stay in the circle? Minoura: Eight hours! Liker: Eight hours?! Minoura: In the morning Mr. Ohno came to request that I stay in the circle until supper and after that Mr. Ohno came to check and ask me what I was seeing. And of course, I answered, (reflecting) I answered, “There were so many problems with the process….” But Mr. Ohno didn’t hear. He was just looking. Liker: And what happened at the end of the day? Minoura: It was near dinner time. He came to see me. He didn’t take any time to give any feedback. He just said gently, “Go home.”
  22. 22. 22 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Value vs. Non-Value Added Work Work Time Wait Time Walking Time A Typical Process or Process Step  It is not uncommon, when analyzing a process or process step, to recognize that 60 to 70% of the total work time is actual non-value added work – waiting, transportation, walking, and unnecessary motions.  Organizations often focus on the value added activities to further improve productivity and efficiency, ignoring the often huge opportunities if they would focus on eliminating non-value added activities. Process Start Process End
  23. 23. 23 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Velocity Ratio Work Time Wait Time Walking Time A Typical Process or Process Step Some organizations have introduced a performance measurement that addresses cycle time reductions. Process Start Process End Velocity Ratio = Sum of Value Added Activities (in s) Total Elapsed Time (in s)
  24. 24. 24 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 "Where there is no standard, there is no improvement.“ Taiichi Ohno Lean Standard Work Taiichi Ohno (February 29, 1912 – May 28, 1990) was a prominent Japanese businessman. He is considered to be the father of the Toyota Production System (TPS), which became Lean Manufacturing in the U.S. He devised the seven wastes (or muda in Japanese) as part of this system. He wrote several books about the system, including Toyota Production System: Beyond Large-Scale Production.
  25. 25. 25 April 9, 2016 – v3.0  Lean Standard Work (often also called Standardized Work) is one of the building blocks or cornerstone of any Lean implementation.  Lean Standard Work is a tool centered around human movement that combines the elements of a job into the most effective sequence, without waste, to achieve the most efficient method of performing a specific task.  Lean Standard Work effectively combines people, product, and process under the current conditions to improve quality, cost, safety, ease of operations, etc.  Lean Standard Work is an excellent tool to introduce an organization to some basic Lean concepts such as value added vs. non-value added work, 7 Wastes, takt time, cycle time, work balancing, and Kanban methods.  When implemented successfully, Lean Standard Work leads naturally to the implementation of other Lean methods and tools, including 5S Visual Workplace, Value Stream Mapping, Level-Loading, Mistake-Proofing, or Total Productive Maintenance. Lean Standard Work – Introduction
  26. 26. 26 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Definition & Objectives A definition of Lean Standard Work is "the most effective combination of manpower, materials and machinery to complete a specific task". Standard Work results in a formally defined and documented process to produce or perform a task at a specified pace. Standard Work consists of three elements or objectives:  First, does the rate at which the task is currently been performed meet Customer demand and requirements?  Second, does a precise work sequence exist in which an operator performs the tasks?  Third, are standard work-in-process inventory levels defined required to keep the process operating smoothly?
  27. 27. 27 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Benefits  Lean Standard Work enables an organization to ensure that improvement made are institutionalized and that best practices are identified, documented and implemented.  Documentation of the current process for all shifts results in  a predictable process through the reduction in variability,  easier training of new operators, and  reductions in injuries and strain.  It forms part of the base for Just-In-Time production by preventing over- production.  Standard work also adds discipline to the culture, an element that is frequently neglected but essential for Lean to take root.  A learning tool that supports audits, promotes problem solving, and involves team members in developing mistake-proofing solutions.
  28. 28. 28 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Workshop Case Study The Coffee Making Process that we are using in some of our training modules and workshops, also works to integrate exercises into this Lean Standard Work module. The process could start when the requirement to brew x cups of a specific coffee has been received. The process could end when the brewing process is completed and the appropriate amount of fresh brewed coffee is in the coffee pot. Takt Time could be calculated based on average daily consumption (in cups of coffee), the time available, and the number of coffee brew machines. Cycle Time can be reduced by workplace organization, pre-kitting, use of hot vs. cold water, … . Try it out to see if it would work for your organization !
  29. 29. 29 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Three Basic Requirements  Work - It is most likely impossible to establish a standard if the task is not done the same way each time. If movements are different in each cycle, or if working conditions constantly change, the standard will no longer function as a basis for comparison. Since manufacturing often consists of repeating the same actions over and over, each action can be standardized.  Equipment - Since Standard Work functions best when in a repetitive cycle, it is critical that equipment be up and running nearly all the time. When equipment is down, it disrupts the natural flow of motion and destroys the normal pattern of the job sequence. To ensure that the maximum benefits from Standard Work are achieved, it is important to determine the root cause of machine stoppages and prevent them from recurring.  Quality - If defective parts are constantly stopping the line, it is extremely difficult to maintain a smooth repetitive job sequence. Defects created in the process, or parts and materials from outside the work area, can both play a very disruptive role and prevent the maximum benefits of Standard Work from being achieved. The causes of quality problems need to be researched and properly resolved when implementing Standard Work.
  30. 30. 30 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Implementation Process Identify Product or Part Identify Process or Process Step Identify Process Steps or Work Elements Determine Takt Time Determine Cycle Times for each Process Step or Work Element Create Standard Work Process Study Sheet Create Standard Work Process Capacity Sheet Identify & Implement Work Balancing Opportunities Identify & Implement Changeover Reduction Opportunities Create Standard Work Chart Determine Work Sequence Determine Standard Work-in- Process Inventory Identify & Implement Kanban Opportunities Create Standard Work Combination Table
  31. 31. 31 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Takt Time Takt Time is the Production Rate, in seconds, necessary to satisfy Customer demand. Amount of available Production Time per Shift Number of Products needed by the Customer per Shift = Amount of Time available to produce one Product 7.5 hrs/shift x 60 minutes/hr x 60 seconds/min 450 Products needed by the Customer/Shift 27,000 seconds/shift 450 Products = 60 Seconds Takt Time
  32. 32. 32 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Cycle Time  The amount of time necessary to process one part or unit  Includes human and machine work, walking time, and waiting time  Determined by observing the actual time to process one part v 2.0 Page: ____ / ____ Total MACHINE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Cycle Time Cycle Time 0 0Total Notes Observed Times Date & Time: _____________Observer: __________________Product: __________________ Lean Standard Work: Process Study Sheet OPERATOR: ________________________________________ Process Step Work Element Process: __________________ Lean Standard Work – Process Study Sheet
  33. 33. 33 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Process Study Sheet v 2.0 Page: ____ / ____ Total MACHINE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Cycle Time Cycle Time 0 0Total Notes Observed Times Date & Time: _____________Observer: __________________Product: __________________ Lean Standard Work: Process Study Sheet OPERATOR: ________________________________________ Process Step Work Element Process: __________________ Enter the Process and Product Name Enter Name of the Process Observer Enter the Date & Time of the Process Study Enter the Page Number & Total Number of Pages Enter the Name of the Process Step being studied Enter all Work Elements or Tasks for each Process Step Perform 6 – 10 Time Studies of each Work Element for each Process Step and record the results Record the Cycle Time that can be repeatedly achieved by the Operator. Enter the Name of the Operator performing the Process Record and observations you have made during the Process Study, e.g. special incidences, improvement opportunities, …) Record the machine time for the Work Element
  34. 34. 34 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Process Study Sheet Time Study Tips  Collect the data real time observing the actual process  Position yourself so that you can see the operator's hand motions  Time each work element separately  Time several (6 to 10) cycles of each work element  Observe an operator who is qualified to perform the job  Always separate operator time and machine time  Select the lowest repeatable time for each element  Remember shop floor courtesy
  35. 35. 35 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Takt Time vs. Cycle Time  If Takt Time and Cycle Time are not the same, an imbalance exist in the process or process step. A non-balanced process can result in idle time, excessive in-process inventory, quality issues, late orders, and therefore waste.  If Cycle Time is less than or equal to the Takt Time, the process will be able to satisfy Customer demand.  If the Cycle Time is greater than the Takt Time, the process cannot satisfy Customer demand. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1 2 3 4 5 Time(s) Operator Takt Time (20s) Step 1 Step 1 Step 1 Step 1 Step 1 Step 2 Step 2 Step 2 Step 2 Step 2 Step 3 Step 3 Step 3 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 4 Step 4 Process Flow
  36. 36. 36 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Planned Cycle Time  Planned Cycle Time is the required production rate to satisfy the Customer demand allowing for scarp, rework, downtime, change-overs and other inefficiencies (wastes).  The objective of other Lean methods and tools is of course to minimize these losses and reduce the gap between Takt Time and Planned Cycle Time. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1 2 3 4 5 Time(s) Operator Takt Time (20s) Step 1 Step 1 Step 1 Step 1 Step 1 Step 2 Step 2 Step 2 Step 2 Step 2 Step 3 Step 3 Step 3 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 4 Step 4 Planned Cycle Time (18s) Process Flow
  37. 37. 37 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Work Balancing Theoretical # of Workers = -------------------------------- = -------------------------------- = 3.75 = 4 Workers 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 1 2 3 4 5 Time(s) Process Step Takt Time (20s) 18s 12s 19s 12s 14s Total Work Time Takt Time 18 + 12 + 19 + 12 + 14 20  The objectives of Work Balancing are to  ensure that the cycle times for all process steps are similar  ensure that the cycle time of each process step is below the required takt time
  38. 38. 38 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Work Balancing 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1 2 3 4 5 Time(s) Operator Takt Time (20s) Step 1 Step 6 Step 10 Step 13 Step 17 Step 2 Step 7 Step 11 Step 14 Step 18 Step 3 Step 8 Step 12 Step 15 Step 4 Step 5 Step 9 Step 16 BeforeAfter 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1 2 3 4 5 Time(s) Operator Takt Time (20s) Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 8 Step 9 Step 10 Step 11 Step 12 Step 13 Step 14 Step 15Step 16 Step 17 Step 18 Work Balancing Work Balancing
  39. 39. 39 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Process Capacity Sheet The Process Capacity Chart is used to calculate the capacity of each process step to confirm true process capacity and to identify and eliminate bottlenecks. Processing capacity per shift will be calculated from the available production time, completion time, and tool-change time (and other factors as necessary) for each unit or product. Lean Standard Work: Process Capacity Sheet v 2.0 Process: __________________ Line: _____________________ Product: _____________________ Part Number: ______________________ Approved by: ____________________ Author: __________________ Date: ____/____/_____ Number of Parts: ________ Step Process Step Name Machine # Basic Time (in sec) Tool Change Processing Notes Manual Machine Completion Change Time Capacity / Shift 1 0 #DIV/0! 2 0 #DIV/0! 3 0 #DIV/0! 4 0 #DIV/0! 5 0 #DIV/0! 6 0 #DIV/0! 7 0 #DIV/0! 8 0 #DIV/0! 9 0 #DIV/0! 10 0 #DIV/0! 11 0 #DIV/0! 12 0 #DIV/0! 13 0 #DIV/0! 14 0 #DIV/0! 15 0 #DIV/0! Total 0 0 0 #DIV/0! Lean Standard Work – Process Capacity Sheet
  40. 40. 40 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Process Capacity Sheet v 2.0 Approved by: ____________________ Date: ____/____/_____ Change Time 1 Cutting 250 120 2 Press Brake 500 300 3 Grinding 100 30 4 Finishing 0 5 Quality Control 0 6 Packaging 0 7 8 9 10 Total 111 102 213 443 E105 45 0 45 600 D000 11 50 61 443 QA12 15 0 15 1,800 B102 9 20 29 912 C101 25 0 25 1,067 Notes Manual Auto Completion Capacity / Shift A100 6 32 38 702 Step Process Step Name Machine # Basic Time (in sec) Tool Change Processing Lean Standard Work: Process Capacity Sheet Process: __________________ Line: _____________________ Product: _____________________ Part Number: ______________________ Author: __________________ Number of Parts: ____1_____ Enter the Process and Product Name Enter Name of the Production Line Enter the Name of the Product Enter the Part Number Enter the Number of the Process Step Enter the Name of the Process Step Enter the Name of the Author Record and observations you have made during the Process Study, e.g. special incidences, improvement opportunities, …) Enter the Date Enter the Number of Parts produced per Cycle Enter the Name of the Machine Record the Cycle Time for the Manual and Machine Operations Record the Cycle Time for the Manual and Machine Operations Record Change Frequency and Changeover Time Record Change Frequency and Changeover Time
  41. 41. 41 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Quick Changeover (SMED)  Changeover or setup activities can be classified using the following three categories.  Waste – Activities which do not add value to the changeover or setup  Internal - Activities that can only be performed while the equipment is shut down  External - Activities that can be performed without shutting down the equipment  Key strategies to reduce setup and changeover time are:  Eliminate the waste activities  Convert as many internal activities to external activities  Internal activities can be improved by:  Use specially designed cart to organize tools  Use quick-release fasteners instead of bolts and nuts  Use stoppers to quickly position the jigs.  Use overhang mechanisms to handle heavy jigs  Use locating pins and holes to eliminate the adjustment
  42. 42. 42 April 9, 2016 – v3.0  Work Sequence refers to the series of process steps necessary to complete a task and that is fastest, most efficient, of acceptable Quality, and safe.  When the work sequence is carefully followed, the cycle time will be consistent (i.e. repeatable), no steps or parts will be forgotten, and the chance of equipment damage or any other major problems will be minimized. Lean Standard Work – Work Sequence Poor Work Sequence Design 1 2 4 3 6 5 7 Good Work Sequence Design 1 2 4 3 6 57
  43. 43. 43 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Standard Work Chart The Standard Work Chart shows operator movement and material location in relation to the machine and overall process layout. It should show Takt Time, Work Sequence, and Standard Work-In-Process (WIP). v 2.0 Date: ____/____/_____ Quality Safety Check Precaution Department/Location: _________________________________ Process Start: ______________________ Standard Work-In-Process (WIP) Symbol Number of Units Cycle Time (in s) Lean Standard Work: Standard Work Chart Team Leader: ______________________ Supervisor: ______________________ Author: __________________ Process End: ______________________ Takt Time (in s) Number of Operators Document Number (optional) Lean Standard Work – Standard Work Chart
  44. 44. 44 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 v 2.0 Date: ____/____/_____ # OP Safety Precaution Number of Operators Document Number (optional) Takt Time (in s) Process/Work Area: _________________________________ Process Start: ______________________ Standard Work-In-Process (WIP) Symbol Number of Units Cycle Time (in s) Lean Standard Work: Standard Work Chart Team Leader: ______________________ Supervisor: ______________________ Author: __________________ Process End: ______________________ Work Element Quality Check Lean Standard Work – Standard Work Chart Enter the Name of the Process or Work Area Enter the Name of the First Process Step Enter the Takt Time Enter the min. – max. Number of Units in WIP Enter the Name of the Team Leader Enter the Name of the Author Visualize the Work Flow including, Machines, Operators, Standard WIP Location & Units, Quality Checks, and Safety Precautions Enter the Date Enter the Number of Operators in the Work Area Enter the Document Number Enter the Name of the Supervisor Enter the Name of the Last Process Step Enter the Cycle Time Enter Process Steps or Work Elements
  45. 45. 45 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Standard Work Chart Example v 2.0 Date: 02 / 15/ 2012 # OP 1 1 & 2 2 1 & 2 3 1 & 2 4 1 & 2 5 1 & 2 6 1 & 2 7 1 & 2 8 1 & 2 Safety Precaution Lean Standard Work: Standard Work Chart Department/Work Area: Washing Machine & QC Work Station Team Leader: John White Supervisor: Elisa Johnson Author: Jack Miller Process Start: Deburring & Stamping Process End: Return Part to Line Work Element Deburring & Stamping Line - Sanding Machine Sanding Machine - Washing Machine Washing Machine - Line Line - Air-Control Point Defect Elimination - QC QC - Thread & Flange Control Return Part to Line Document Number (optional) Check Symbol Number of Units (in s) (in s) of Operators Quality Standard Work-In-Process (WIP) Takt Time Cycle Time Number 13 175 250 2 Before Standard Work Washing Machine Sanding Machine WIP = 13 Quality Control 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Walking – Op 1 & Op 2 Walking – Op 1 & Op 2 Step
  46. 46. 46 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Standard Work Chart Example v 2.0 Date: 03/05/2012 # OP 1 1 & 2 2 1 & 2 3 1 & 2 4 1 & 2 5 1 & 2 6 1 & 2 7 1 & 2 8 1 & 2 Safety Precaution Lean Standard Work: Standard Work Chart Department/Work Area: Washing Machine & QC Work Station Team Leader: John White Supervisor: Elisa Johnson Author: Jack Miller Process Start: Deburring & Stamping Process End: Return Part to Line Work Element Deburring & Stamping Line - Sanding Machine Sanding Machine - Washing Machine Washing Machine - Line Line - Air-Control Point Defect Elimination - QC QC - Thread & Flange Control Return Part to Line Document Number (optional) Check Symbol Number of Units (in s) (in s) of Operators Quality Standard Work-In-Process (WIP) Takt Time Cycle Time Number 7 175 150 2 After Standard Work Washing Machine Sanding Machine WIP = 7 Quality Control 1 2 3 4 7 5 6 1. The operator loading was distributed according to the takt time limit, which meant operators could comply with customers demand without overtime. 2. Some of the operator work elements were transferred to a previous work station (thread control) that had available time. 3. Some manual operations now are done while the machine runs automatically (deburring and stamping). 4. After the tasks of the two operators had been separated, walking was not necessary anymore, so this waste was fully eliminated. 8
  47. 47. 47 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 "If smaller orders are released more often, the factory resources are loaded much more easily. …This is analogous to the python swallowing dozens of little piglets instead of one large pig. …Surprisingly, many factories prefer to 'stretch the python' so it can swallow an even larger hog!" Standard, Charles and Davis, Dale - Running Today's Factory: A Proven Strategy for Lean Manufacturing uses the phrase "pig in a python" to describe large inventory bubbles that move through a factory. Lean Standard Work – “Pig in the Python.” Inventory “Bubble”
  48. 48. 48 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Standard Work-In-Process (WIP)
  49. 49. 49 April 9, 2016 – v3.0  Standard Work-In-Process refers to the minimum number of unfinished parts or products required for smooth completion of a work sequence.  If processing is performed according to the capacity of the machine, there is a tendency to have too many unfinished products on hand. This is because processing is performed according to the capacity of the machine.  By focusing on takt time, the operator’s range of work can be broadened. He/she can for example be put in charge of multiple machines. As a result, the production method changes from one based on the capacity of machinery to one based on takt time.  Remember, we only need to produce in accordance with what takt time demands.  Standard Work-In-Process varies depending upon the work sequence and layout of machinery and equipment.  Once appropriate inventory levels have been defined, Kanban can be used to schedule production for these processes. Lean Standard Work – Standard Work-In-Process (WIP)
  50. 50. 50 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Basic Kanban Concept The basic concept of a Kanban system can be easily observed in a supermarket. In a supermarket, every item has a defined inventory location that holds a specific quantity of the item. Customers select the required quantity of a specific item and proceed to the checkout counter. At the checkout counter, the cashier scans each item and a signal will be transmitted to the supermarket’s database, indicating the items part number and quantity that has been “consumed”. Once a certain quantity of a specific item has been consumed, a supermarket employee will take for example a carton of that item from the warehouse and refill the shelf-space in the store.
  51. 51. 51 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Kanban Cards • Originally, Kanban systems utilized physical cards that move back and forth between the “customer” process and the “supplier” process, serving as a signaling to trigger the movement, production, or supply of material. Electronic or e-Kanban systems are nowadays more common, and are able to improve on some of the drawbacks of manual Kanban systems. • Kanban cards, which may be multicolored based on priority, show at a minimum the internal part number & description, supplier name, supplier part number & description, restocking location, and the re-ordering quantity. • The most commonly used Kanbans are: – “Withdrawal" or “Move” Kanbans – This Kanban is used to relocate items from one work area or sub-process to another. – “Production" Kanban – This Kanban is used to replace the items when they are consumed or sold. – “Signal” Kanban – This Kanban is used to initiate production or replenishment of a predetermined batch size of a specific item.
  52. 52. 52 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Single-Card Kanban In a single-card or one-card Kanban scheduling system, a “Signal” Kanban card is taken from the Kanban location once a defined minimum stock quantity has been reached. The card is then for example placed on a Kanban board, signaling the need for a stock replenishment order. The “supplier” process responsible for the replenishment of the Kanban location schedules its production based on the Kanban board and replenishes the Kanban location. The minimum stock quantity that signals or triggers the replenishment request needs to assure that the remaining on hand inventory is sufficient until the replenishment stock arrives and is based on the average consumption, consumption fluctuation, and replenishment lead time.
  53. 53. 53 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Kanban Example The images below illustrate a simple example of a single-card Kanban system to prevent coffee stockouts in the office. The minimum stock has been determined as one box of “K-cups” and a Kanban card is attached to the last box. As soon as an employee opens the last box, he/she removes the Kanban card and orders a predefined number of “K-cups” boxes or places the card in a pre- defined location to trigger the replenishment process.
  54. 54. 54 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Dual-Card Kanban A dual-card or two-card Kanban scheduling system uses "Withdrawal" and "Production" Kanban cards. One card is attached to each container holding a pre-defined quantity of items. To relocate or move a container from the “supplier” process to the “customer” process for consumption, the attached “Production” card is removed from the container and placed on the Kanban board. The “Withdrawal” card is then attached to that container and the container is moved to the “customer” process for consumption. The “supplier” process schedules production based on the cards on the Kanban board and pre-defined scheduling rules. Once a container of items has been produced, a “Production” card is removed from the Kanban board and attached to the container.
  55. 55. 55 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Dual-Card Kanban – Phase 1 “Supplier” Process “Customer” Process Kanban Board Phase 1: “Customer” process moves an empty container to the “supplier” process. Standard Container (full) Standard Container (empty) “Production” Card “Withdrawal” Card
  56. 56. 56 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Dual-Card Kanban – Phase 2 “Supplier” Process “Customer” Process Kanban Board Phase 2: “Customer” process places the “Production” card of a full container on the Kanban board and replaces it with the “Withdrawal” card from the empty container. Standard Container (full) Standard Container (empty) “Production” Card “Withdrawal” Card
  57. 57. 57 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Dual-Card Kanban – Phase 3 “Supplier” Process “Customer” Process Kanban Board Phase 3: “Customer” process moves the full container with the “Withdrawal” card to the “Customer” process. Standard Container (full) Standard Container (empty) “Production” Card “Withdrawal” Card
  58. 58. 58 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Dual-Card Kanban – Phase 4 “Supplier” Process “Customer” Process Kanban Board Phase 4: “Supplier” process produces new items and attaches the “Production” card from the Kanban board to the full container. Standard Container (full) Standard Container (empty) “Production” Card “Withdrawal” Card
  59. 59. 59 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Dual-Card Kanban – Summary “Supplier” Process “Customer” Process Kanban Board Phase 1: “Customer” process moves an empty container with a “Withdrawal” card to the “supplier” process. “Supplier” Process “Customer” Process Kanban Board Phase 2: “Customer” process places the “Production” card of a full container on the Kanban board and replaces it with the “Withdrawal” card from the empty container. “Supplier” Process “Customer” Process Kanban Board Phase 3: “Customer” process moves the full container with the “Withdrawal” card to the “Customer” process. “Supplier” Process “Customer” Process Kanban Board Phase 4: “Supplier” process produces new items and attaches the “Production” card from the Kanban board to the full container. Standard Container (full) Standard Container (empty) “Production” Card “Withdrawal” Card 1 2 3 4
  60. 60. 60 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Kanban Example A very effective application for a dual-card Kanban scheduling system is the “decoupling” of two very different sub-processes, for example a machining process and an assembly process. A machining process is often fairly automated, resulting in high depreciation costs, and requires significant setup time to change over from one product to another, resulting in low utilization when producing small batches of different items. An assembly process is often less capital intense and requires no or very little changeover time.
  61. 61. 61 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Standard Work Combination Table The Lean Standard Work Combination Table shows the combination of manual work time, walk time, and machine (auto) processing time for each process step or work element in a production sequence. The Lean Standard Work Combination Table can serve as training tool, a quality tool, a management tool, or a continuous improvement tool. Lean Standard Work: Work Combination Table Approved by: ____________________ Author: __________________Date: ____/____/_____ Takt Time: _________ Hand Auto Walk 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 1 2 3 Work Area: __________________ Process Start: _____________________ Process End: _____________________ Required Units /Shift: _________ v 2.0 Time (in s) Step Work Element Work Time (in s) Lean Standard Work – Work Combination Table
  62. 62. 62 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Standard Work Combination Table The Standard Work Combination Table has many uses: 1. As a training tool, it provides a standard that can be clearly communicated to employees during the training process and provides them with a quick and easy refresher when posted in a work area. They can glance up and check that they are doing the process correctly. This is especially important as a Lean implementation often results in employees rotating jobs more frequently. 2. As a quality tool. When a problem is discovered, the first step should be to confirm that the agreed process is being consistently followed. The Standard Work Combination Sheet makes it easy to audit an operation. 3. As a management tool. The Standard Work Combination Table helps team leaders and managers: understand their capacity, manage daily operations, and keep things running smoothly. Knowing exactly where an employee should be at any point lets managers get them help immediately when things go wrong. 4. As a continuous improvement tool. The Standard Work Combination Table, to the experienced eye, screams out incidents of waste. When this waste is easily identified, it is much more likely to be eliminated.
  63. 63. 63 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Standard Work Combination Table Lean Standard Work: Work Combination Table Approved by: ____________________ Hand Auto Walk 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 70 50 30 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 Date: 02/15/2012 Takt Time: 130 150 Process Start: Cutting 9 10 7 8 5 Quality Control 20 0 0 6 Packaging 15 0 10 3 Grinding 15 0 10 4 Finishing 5 30 5 1 Cutting 5 15 5 2 Press Brake 10 5 0 v 2.0 Work Area: Sheet Metal Process End: Packaging Required Units / Shift: 500 Step Work Element Time (in s) Work Time (in s) Author: John White Enter the Process or Work Area Name Enter the first Process Step Enter the Date Enter the last Process Step Enter all Process Steps, Work Elements or Tasks Record Hand, Auto & Walk Times for each Work Element Enter the Author of the Document Enter the Quantity per Shift required Enter the Takt Time Visualize the Hand, Auto & Walk Times for each Work Element using a “Gantt Chart”
  64. 64. 64 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Standard Work Combination Table Lean Standard Work: Work Combination Table Approved by: ____________________ Hand Auto Walk 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 70 50 20 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 10 140 8 9 6 Packaging 15 0 5 7 4 Finishing 5 30 5 5 Quality Control 20 0 0 2 Press Brake 10 5 0 3 Grinding 15 0 5 Step Work Element Time (in s) Work Time (in s) 1 Cutting 5 15 5 v 2.0 Work Area: Sheet Metal Process Start: Cutting Process End: Packaging Author: John White Date: 02/15/2012 Takt Time: 130 Required Units / Shift: 500
  65. 65. 65 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Lean Standard Work – Implementation Process Identify Product or Part Identify Process or Process Step Identify Process Steps or Work Elements Determine Takt Time Determine Cycle Times for each Process Step or Work Element Create Standard Work Process Study Sheet Create Standard Work Process Capacity Sheet Identify & Implement Work Balancing Opportunities Identify & Implement Changeover Reduction Opportunities Create Standard Work Chart Determine Work Sequence Determine Standard Work-in- Process Inventory Identify & Implement Kanban Opportunities Create Standard Work Combination Table
  66. 66. 66 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 The End … “Perfection is not attainable, but if we chase perfection we can catch excellence.” - Vince Lombardi
  67. 67. 67 April 9, 2016 – v3.0 Terms & Conditions After you have downloaded the training material to your own computer, you can change any part of the course material and remove all logos and references to Operational Excellence Consulting. You can share the material with your colleagues and re-use it as you need. The main restriction is that you cannot distribute, sell, rent or license the material as though it is your own. These training course materials are for your — and your organization's — usage only. Thank you.

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