SPORT – NETBALL
When you complete this module will be able to:
Explain and describe the basic game of netball
Be able know how to play netball
Be able to know the rules of the sports
Netball is a wonderful game that gives us all a great deal of satisfaction and
pleasure. It is a simple game, players throw, they catch and they move. Netball is about
doing the simple things well, over and over again, every time. At the end of the match it
is the team who makes the least amount of unforced errors who will succeed. Champions
are just that because they make fewer errors than their opponents do. They are more
consistent in everything they do. They have the ability to consistently play with minimal
errors in their game.
Netball is a game that is based on running, jumping, throwing and catching. The
players of the game work very hard on endurance, speed and agility. It is a non-contact
sport and no player may come into personal contact with an opponent even if it is
accidental. The objective of a netball team is to score more goals than the opposition. A
goal is scored through a successful shot into the opponents hoop. The team which scores
the most goals wins the match. A game is usually played into four 15 minutes segments
called quarters. At the end of each quarter the teams change shooting ends. The game
starts with a center pass, and center passes change after each goal is scored. All shots
must be taken from within the goal-circle, which is the semi-circular area around the goal
post. The game is managed by 2 umpires, whose predominant role is to enforce the rules
of the sport. Umpires use a whistle to gain attention and verbal and hand signals to
communicate with the players.
The Netball Court
Netball is played on a court (either hard or soft) which is 30.5 metres in length
and 15.25 metres wide. The court is divided into three equal parts - a centre third and two
goal thirds, with players only being permitted to enter particular zones depending on their
position. The goal circles have a radius of 4.9m.There is a goalpost at either end of the
court, with a hoop positioned 3.05 metres off the ground and the metal ring has an
internal diameter of 380mm. The ball used in netball is size 5.
The Position and Responsibilities
A netball team is made up of 7 players. Each player has a nominated position and
role, and may only be permitted into certain areas of the court. If a player enters a zone
which they are restricted from then they are deemed 'offside'. The position and
responsibilities of the netballers can be divided into, the attacker and the defender. The
attacker included center, wing attack, goal attack, and goal shooter while the defenders
include center, wing defense, goal defense and the goal keeper.
Has to be very fit
Has the role of attacking and defending
The center is the player that starts the game
when it's their teams turn to throw the ball.
The center stands in the small circle in the
middle of the netball court.
Allowed everywhere except the semi circle
The main shooter with the role of to get the
ball into the hoop and score points
Allowed in attacking third and semi circle
Goal Attack (GA)
The goal attack goes on attack and either
feeds the ball into the goal circle to the
shooter, and can also shoot the ball into the
Allowed in center third, attacking third and
Keep the goal shooter from getting the ball
The main role is to block of shots from the
Allowed in attacking third and semi circle
Try to prevent the opposition from getting
the ball into the goal circle
Are on the defense, ensuring the opposing
team's shooters can't get a shot at the goal.
Allowed in center third, attacking third and
The wing attack helps with the feeding of the
ball into the goal circle to the shooters
Allowed in center third and attacking third
Main role is to defend the ball from getting
into the opponents semi circle so they can't
Allowed in center third and defending third.
Basic Rules of Netball
Duration of the Game
Netball is played over four 15 minute quarters.
There is a 3 minute break between the first and second quarter and the third and
The half time break is 5 minutes.
Injury time is up to 2 minutes.
Starting the Game
The game commences and is restarted after each goal is scored and at the beginning
of each quarter by a centre pass taken alternatively by the two centres, irrespective
of who scores the goal.
The umpires whistle indicates the beginning and end of each quarter.
Scoring a Goal
A goal is scored when a Goal Shooter or Goal Attack with no contact with the
ground outside the circle throws the ball completely through the goal ring.
The umpires whistle signals the goal is scored
Team Changes and Substitutions - A team may make any number of substitutions at
the quarter, half or three quarter time break as well as during a stoppage due to
injury or illness. If a substitution or team change is made due to injury or illness the
injured or ill player must be involved in the substitution or positional change.
A player cannot accidentally or deliberately come into contact with another player
in a way which impedes their play.
For example, pushing, charging, tripping, throwing the body against an opponent or
using the ball to push or contact an opponent.
Players must not hold an opponent, nor keep their elbows against another player.
A player with arms extended cannot defend closer than 0.9 meters (3 feet). This
distance is measured from the first landed foot of the attacking player to the nearer
foot of the defending player.
A player may stand closer to an opponent provided their arms are not extended.
If the attacking player lessons the distance in their throwing or shooting action, then
the defending player is not considered to be obstructing because it was the attacking
player and not the defending player who shortened the distance.
A player must not use intimidating actions against an opponent with or without the
A player must pass the ball or shoot for goal, within three second.
Over a Third
The ball cannot be thrown over a complete third without being touched by a player
in that third.
The pass is taken from the third where the player gained possession. It does not
matter if they step into an adjacent third to throw.
A free pass is taken where the ball crossed the second transverse line.
Players must stay within their designated playing areas.
A player may reach over and take the ball from an offside area provided that no part
of their body touches the ground in that area.
When two opposing players go offside but neither touches the ball, there are not
If one or both players are in possession of the ball when they go offside, a toss up
is given in their area of play.
Out of Court
When the ball goes out of court it is thrown in by an opponent of the team which
was last to touch it.
The player taking the throw in should place one or both feet behind the point where
the ball crossed the line and make sure all other players are on the court before
throwing the ball.
If a player has no contact with the ball they may stand or move out of the court but
must make contact with the playing area and have no other contact with anything
outside the court before attempting to touch the ball again
One foot landing
When a player lands on one foot they may step with the other foot, lift the landing
foot, but must throw before re-grounding it.
They may use the landing foot as a pivoting foot, stepping in any direction with the
other foot as many times as they wish. Once the pivoting foot is lifted they must
pass or shoot before re-grounding this foot.
A player may jump from the landing foot onto the other foot and jump again,
providing they throw the ball before re-grounding either foot.
NB. A player cannot: drag or slide the landing foot, hop on either foot.
Two foot Landing
If a player catches the ball and lands on both feet simultaneously, they may step in
any direction with one foot, lift the other foot but must throw or shoot before regrounding this foot.
They may pivot on one foot, stepping in any direction with the other foot as often as
they wish. Once the pivot foot is lifted they must throw the ball before re-grounding
They may jump from both feet onto either foot, or step and jump but must throw or
shoot before re-grounding either foot.
Playing the Ball
A player who has possession of the ball may not bounce the ball and replay it.
If a player does not catch the ball cleanly, it may be bounced once to gain
possession or batted or bounced to another team mate.
After throwing the ball, a player cannot play it again until it is touched by another
player, or rebounds off the goal post.
There must always be room for a third player to move between the hands of the
thrower and those of the receiver when passing. Passes that do not have this room
are called short passes.
A player cannot:
o Punch, roll, kick or fall on the ball.
o Pass the ball in any way while lying, sitting or kneeling on the ground.
o Use the goal post as a way to regain balance or as a support while stopping
the ball from going out of court.
A toss up is used to put the ball into play when:
Opposing players simultaneously contact each other
Opposing players simultaneously knock the ball out of court
Opposing players simultaneously gain possession of the ball
The umpire unable to decide who last touched the ball out of court
Opposing players simultaneously offside with one in possession of the ball
The two players stand 0.9m apart, facing each other and their own goal ends.
Their arms should be straight with hands by their sides. Once in position, they must not
move until the umpire has tossed it up from just below shoulder height of the shorter
player and blown the whistle.
Fundamental Skills and Techniques
Netball is a game made up of a variety of passing techniques. The player‟s
ability to pass accurate and well timed throws will determine the success of the
team. Players need to master the basic skills of each of the throwing techniques as
well as balance, timing and control. The player must learn when and where to
pass the ball and which pass to use.
Shoulder Pass 1 Handed
Stand side-onto the intended receiver
Feet should be shoulder width apart with knees slightly bent and weight on the
The ball can be held with two hands but as the arm is taken back behind the
shoulder the ball is held with one hand
Elbow should be bent
The opposite foot to the throwing arm should be forward
Transfer the body weight from the back foot to the front foot as the player
steps forward with the front foot
The ball is pushed forward with the shoulder, elbow, wrist and fingers
Follow through with the hand whilst the fingers should be pointing in line
with the throw
Shoulder Pass 2 Handed
Everything is the same as the one handed shoulder pass but as the arm is
taken back behind the shoulder two hands remain on the ball.
Two hands behind the ball with thumbs and fingers in a “W” shape
Ball held close to chest
Elbows bent and relaxed by side
Wrist and fingers direct and control the ball
Step forward into the pass
Weight is transferred onto the front foot
Follow through with arms and fingers in the direction of the pass
As the player steps forward ensure feet are in a balanced position
Overhead or Lob Pass
One or two handed pass
The body can be facing or side-on the receiver
The ball should be released above the head
As the throw is executed the throwing arm or arms moves up and forward
towards the receiver
The wrist and fingers direct the ball in a high arc into the space ahead of the
The highest point of the arc should be when the ball passes over the defender
Weight is transferred from the back to the front foot as the step forward is
A bounce pass can be performed with one or two hands from in front or side
of the body
Hold the ball the same as for a shoulder pass
Ball can be held at either waist or hip level
Bent knees and step forward onto the front foot
As the ball is pushed forward the hand and fingers should follow the path of
When executing the bounce pass the ball should bounce approximately 2/3‟ of
the distance between passer and receiver
Emphasize a two handed catch over a one handed catch
Eyes watching the ball into the hands
Fingers and thumbs spread in a “W” shape ready to receive
Fingers and thumbs relaxed but strong
Hands and arms outstretched towards the ball
Step forward and reach with hands to catch
Snatch the ball with strong fingers and bend arms when receiving the ball to
lessen the impact whilst pulling the ball towards the body
Keep thumbs behind the ball with fingers spread and relaxed
Bring the ball back to the chest ready for the return pass
Allow time for a balanced landing position before throwing the ball
Shooting is all about balance, rhythm and feel for the shot. Shooting for
goal should be an automatic well sequenced skill. Shooters should always try to
be balanced and in line with the post before they attempt to shoot. Feet, hips,
body, shoulders and elbows should all be „square‟ to the post. This will give the
ball every opportunity to travel in a straight line to the ring. Shooters should
always look at the same aim point every time they shoot. These aim points could
be the front of the ring, above the middle of the ring or at the back of the ring.
Start at the base and look at what the feet and legs do when shooting for goal.
The shooter‟s feet should be parallel approximately shoulder width apart in a
Shooters should try not to step forward as they shoot.
The power of the shot comes from the legs. More bend in the knees will give
more power on a longer shot for goal.
The ball should sit on all finger tips and the thumb on one hand
The ball should be placed above the head in the shooting hand.
The other hand is placed gently to the side of the ball as a support only to keep
Because shooting is all about rhythm the knees and elbows bend at the same
As the body straightens in sequence the ball is not released until the arm is at
The ball is released in a smooth fluid action following right through to the
The index and middle fingers direct the ball to the post and must be strong.
The wrist and fingers should flick the ball in a gentle back spin motion to the
ring. Fingers should follow the arc of the ball to the post.
Effective attacking play comes from the player‟s ability to catch and throw
whilst moving combined with changes of speed and timing of movement.
Explosive speed, agility, strength and endurance are necessary components of a
good attacking player.
Before moving the attacking player must take into consideration:
The spaces that are available
Their starting position in relation to the defender and their team mates
The timing of the movement
Any limitations of space that may require a preliminary movement to create
A good attacking player needs to be able to execute the following movements:
Straight and Diagonal Leads
Straight Lead - A simple movement but a very effective one. When timed to
perfection it can be extremely difficult to defend. The attacker initiates the
movement whilst the defender can only guess in what direction the attacker will
run. The attacker must decide the exact moment to move then begin with strong,
explosive steps towards the thrower either running directly forward or diagonally
to the free side.
Diagonal Lead – When leading to the right or left it is important the player lands
on their outside foot when catching the ball. For example if the attacker is leading
diagonally to the right the land should be on the right foot when the ball is caught.
When leading to the left the land should be on the left foot when the ball is
caught. Practice taking off using the outside foot. This will drive the attacker out
on the angle quickly and away from the defender.
Dodging is a short, sharp movement often executed from a stationary
beginning. It can be used to quickly change direction to create space for
themselves or team mates. It also allows the attacker to wrong foot or takes the
defending player away from the space where the ball is to be caught.
Change of Direction
The change of direction is executed from a longer run. The same
technique is used as for the dodge but the player changes direction after making a
Change of Pace
Changing the pace of the attacking movement is used to upset the rhythm
and timing of the defender. The attacker can create a clear movement towards the
ball. A change of pace can sometimes is a very effective attacking strategy.
Attacking is not always about sprinting. It is a subtle blend of walking, jogging,
running and sprinting. The skill is to know when to change the speed of the
movement. The ability to read the cues of the defender e.g. when the defender has
committed to the initial movement a sudden change of speed will cause the
defender to re-adjust their speed. At this point the attacker should accelerate away
from the defender.
There are many contributing factors as to why players miss-times their
movements. Factors such as placement of the pass. Correct placement of the ball
enables the receiver to catch the ball in the appropriate position then turn quickly
to identify the intended target. The thrower must decide on the exact moment to
release the pass otherwise even a well-timed movement will not link with the ball.
One slight error in any of these elements will result in the breakdown of play. On
the physical side of things it comes back to the execution of the basic skills that
enables all movements to link together with the flight of the ball. The player‟s
ability to read the play and read the cues also plays a substantial part in the entire
Defense work includes the following:
Pressurizing a player: One-on-One Defending
The defender tries to prevent her opponent from receiving the ball by tight
one-on-one marking. Their aim is to dictate to the attacker the spaces they can go
into and force a turnover ball. The team is trying to force the opposition into
errors or into a held ball situation. The disadvantage of this type of defense work
is that it is reactive rather than creative. You are simply following and trying to
anticipate the movements of your opponent. A visual awareness of your opponent,
the ball and other players is a key element of successful one-on-one defending.
This is probably the most physically difficult way to defend and players will need
very good fitness levels to successfully defend in a one-on-one manner.
Still a one-on-one situation but the defender is standing slightly off the
player giving the attacking player a false sense of security. The thrower assumes
the attacker is free to receive a pass but the defender is ready to move and
intercept. Timing is vital in order to take the interception. If the defender has
committed too soon she may be easily beaten, the pass may not be thrown or a
different pass is given in order to beat the defender.
Marking or Defending Space
When space marking peripheral vision is vital. The defending team sets up
intercept situations for individual members of the team. Intercepts are generally
taken after the opposition has been lured into a false sense of security in assuming
some attacking players are free to receive the pass or after the opposition has
made a mistake. With this style of defense players are able to create situations and
opportunities for an interception rather than simply reacting to the movements of
the opposing team. All players must be working together or the effectiveness of
this form of defense will be diminished.
Part Court/Full Court Zoning
Players have specific areas of the court to defend. They stand in relation to
where the ball is at any one time. This type of defense is reliant on total team
work because if any player is out of position the ball will be passed with ease
leaving many of the defending players behind play. The aim is to encourage the
opposition to throw a long clearing pass to one of their team mates that can then
be easily intercepted. Players close to the ball stand a little higher so that spaces
are left further down the court to encourage the longer pass being made.
Defending Player with the Ball
Aims: To force opponents to pass in a particular direction
To force opponents to make a particular pass
To tip or intercept ball as it is being passed
After the pass is made to direct oppositions next movement i.e. towards or
away from the pass just thrown. Rather than simply defending 0.9m in front of a
player with the ball defend the player on their favorite attacking side. Defend
left/right handed players on their preferred throwing side. The position of the
player marking the thrower can dictate the play to come (e.g. mark player towards
the sideline or mark player to path of the ball) thereby making it possible for a
team mate to have an attempt for the ball at the receiver‟s end of the pass.
Defense of a shot
Lean 0.9m from first grounded foot of the shooter. The defender stretches
out to pressure the point of release of the shot. Either:
1. Opposite foot forward to arm outstretched over ball
2. Same arm/foot forward
3. Balance on both feet with both arms outstretched over ball
4. Balance on both feet with one arm outstretched over ball.
The other arm is used for balance and used to cover a possible pass to the
other shooter. The 0.9m stance can be taken from in front, to the side or behind
the shooter. The choice of position dependent on shooting style and distance away
from the goal.
Timing is involved and if successfully executed will result in a deflection
of the shot. Player is at 0.9m away from first grounded foot of the shooter. Time a
powerful leap in the air towards the ball to attempt to tip the ball at its point of
release or above. Try not to jump straight up and down. As you jump make sure
you jump towards the ball after it has left the shooters fingers.
Lean over the shot standing at 0.9m from the first grounded foot of the
shooter then bring back foot forward to jump on release of the shot.
The defender should aim to stand approximately one meter from the post
in the front position. This is the ideal position. The defender should work to
establish the rebounding position before the shot is being taken. The defender
who leans or jumps the shot at goal then needs to screen out that shooter so that
both defenders will have the more favorable rebounding positions.
Netball is a simple, basic game. It‟s about doing the simple things well over and
over again every time. Coaches do not need the fancy, complicated activities if the
players could not catch and throw well. Besides, coaches need to keep their mind open
and find new and better ways of doing the same things. Coaches need to keep challenge
their athletes and themselves.
1. What is the equipment that needed to play netball?
2. What are the skills the player needs to play netball?
Draw a diagram of the netball court showing the position of
each player and explain their use.
SPORT – SOCCER
When you complete this module will be able to:
Explain and describe the basic game of soccer
Be able know how to play soccer
Be able to know the rules of the sports
Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, and it is also one of the most
demanding. It is a challenging sport because it requires cardiovascular fitness, cognitive,
competitive and psychomotor qualities. Soccer can be played in industrial and less
developed nations, by young and old, boys and girls, by elite and physically or mental
challenged. All that is needed is a ball and willing participants.
The game, ball and players
Soccer is played by two teams consist of 11 players for each team (with an
appropriate number of substitutes), including goalkeeper.
Objectives of the Game
The objective of the game is to score the ball across the goal line and within the
confines of the 8 x 24 foot goalposts and crossbar.
Once the whistle blow, each team attempts to gain possession, and through
planned and creative combinations of the fundamental skills (passing, shooting, heading,
trapping, dribbling, tackling, marking, and goalkeeping) attempts to place the ball in the
back of the opponent‟s net.
64cm –66 cm
69cm – 71cm
Field of Play
Placed at the center of each goal line and consists of:
Two upright posts (2.44m) high and 7.32m apart
made of wood,
metal, or plastic
Horizontal crossbar (7.32m)
Nets (made of hemp, jute, or nylon) and attached to the back of the
crossbar and goalposts)
Also known as coaching box that is marked at least 1.53m from the
parallel to the touchline and extending 18.29m in both directions from the
halfway line. This technical area can be helpful in the management of the game.
Coaches and players should remain inside the technical area, except when the
players are warming up in preparation to substitute.
The most economical sport which requires:
Appropriate footwear (flats or spikes)
Shorts, shirt and socks
Field equipment, goals, nets, and corner flags.
A soccer matches are presided over by:
A referee and
o The center referee who makes all the final decision regarding fouls and
Two assistant referees
o Run on the touchlines and signal when a ball is completely crossed the
touch line, goal line, or goal
o Indicate fouls and offside infractions
o Serve as “advisors”
The objectives of having the officials is to allow play to be free-flowing and
within the spirit of the game while maintaining optimal safety for the participating
Restart is awarded once the ball is completely crosses (either in the air or rolling)
the touchline or the goal line or a violation is whistled. Depending on the situation, any
number of restarts may occur. A restart can be a direct restart or indirect restart.
Direct restart is when the goal can be scored without touching another
player. Direct restarts included the following:
A penalty kick is awarded when players of the defending team:
Handling the ball
occurs inside the penalty area
Any players of the offended team may take the penalty kick except the
substitute brought in to take the penalty kick. A penalty kick is taken from the
penalty kick mark, 10.97m from the goalpost. Only penalty kicker and goalkeeper
would be in the penalty area, while all other player should be outside until the ball
is struck forward. The goalkeeper is only allowed to move on the goal line with
his feet until the ball is kicked. The ball remains in play if it rebounds off the
goalpost or the goalkeeper. The penalty kicker may legally play the ball again if it
bounces off the goalkeeper; however, the penalty kicker may not play the rebound
off the goalpost or crossbar until the ball has been touched by another player.
A corner kick is awarded when the ball crosses the defender‟s goal line
and is last played by a defender. Corner kick must be taken within the 0.9m arc of
the corner of the field closest to where the ball crossed the goal line. As the
players defending the corner kick must be 9.14m from the corner kick arc when it
A direct kick is awarded when players of the defending team:
Handling the ball
occurs outside the penalty area
Defending players must always be 9.14m from the ball before it is played,
or a retake may be awarded.
An indirect restart when the ball must be touched by another player, even
the opposition, before a goal is awarded. The indirect restarts are as follows:
A goal kick is awarded to the defending team when the ball crosses the
defensive goal line and is last touched by the attacking side. The goal kick must
be taken from the goal area and must clear the penalty area before being touched
by either team.
A throw in is a two handed overhead movement that must be taken with
both feet on the ground. It is awarded to the team that last touched the ball when
the ball crosses completely over the sideline. If the throw-in handed improperly or
fails to enter the field of play, the ball is awarded to the opposing team.
Indirect Free Kick
As a technical infraction occur; offsides, obstruction, dangerous play, or
delay of game, an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team. While the
indirect free kick is taken the opposing players must be 9.14m from the ball. A
goal from the shot can only be awarded if another player touches the ball.
An offside is usually occurs when a player receive the ball from a
teammate without having two defensive players between him and the goal, or he
is nearer to the opponent‟s goal line. An offside is not committed when:
The player is in his own half of the field
There are two opponents nearer to their own goal line than the attacking
The ball was last played by the attacker
The attacking player receives the ball directly from a goal kick, corner kick,
throw-in, or drop ball
An offensive player even with the second-to-last defender is on-side.
A drop ball is held waist high and dropped by a referee in a nonthreatening
or neutral territory and must hit the ground before being played. A drop ball is
called for after the referee stops play due to an injury or emergency or when a call
is unclear or in doubt.
Fouls and Misconduct
When a foul or some other form of misconduct or illegal behavior is
committed by a player, the opposing team will be awarded with a direct or
indirect free kick. Intentionally fouling are as follow:
Kicking or attempting to kick an opponent
Jumping at an opponent
Fundamental Skills and Techniques
Soccer is a game of movement, speed, physical and mental control, space, timing,
flow, creativity, improvisation, and imagination. A soccer player needs to employ a basic
fundamental skills and techniques as follow:
Made with the inside of the foot
Chipped, by placing the foot under the ball
Struck with force, while leaning the body backward to
create the desired loft
Made at a right angle to the attacker in the hope that
the passer will continue the momentum and receive a
Direct forward pass, the ball is thrust behind the
opponents into their defensive space as your teammate
runs onto the ball
The basic technique of shooting can be described as a powerful instep
blast with any surface of the foot or body can be employed. The technique of
shooting includes accuracy, deception, discipline, and optimal concentration; and
practice in all game situations is paramount.
Heading is a technique when the player plays the ball with the head.
Heading technique includes concentration, awareness of players around you,
proper body posture and positioning, including the use of the arms as a protective
shield, and keeping your eyes on the ball as it is directed is necessary as heading
usually harm the player with injury. Heading technique is used in soccer to pass
or to shoot the ball. The ball should be attacked by the header with the frontal
bone of the forehead near the hairline and directed to a teammate or space that
will permit a teammate to collect the ball or afford to reorganize, especially in the
defensive third of the field.
Trapping and Collecting
Trapping and collecting is the necessary techniques to bring the ball under
complete control from teammate‟s pass or opponent‟s miscue. Trapping is a
technique used to gain possession and control of the ball. Collecting is a technique
of receiving and gaining control of the ball. Trapping and collecting may used
various parts of the body depending on the ball‟s position upon arrival.
Key for a successful trapping and collecting:
Knowing and using your immediate space to gain possession of the ball
Utilize muscular control and bodily momentum-absorption techniques
Concentration and knowing the opponents‟ whereabouts
Ball Position upon
Body Part Use
In Flight Ball
The sole of the foot
The inside or outside of the foot
Dribbling is a succession of forward pushes or touches in which the player
keeps the ball under control. Effective dribbling acquire both feet employing
feints, or fakes; changes of pace; and rapid, deceptive moves. Dribbling technique
also requires proper body position because the ball needs to be shielded, screened,
and protected from a defender or marker. The used of dribbling are as follows:
To advance the ball,
Move into position to get off a quick shot,
Delay the game
To take the ball into open space
Tackling and Marking
Tackling is a defensive technique that is used to dispossess an opponent
from the ball so that you or your teammate can gain the ball possession. Tackling
involves marking, playing the opponent with the ball until optimal time (usually
just after the opponent has touched the ball) to make your tackling move.
Tackling technique requires sound judgment, assertive play, mental toughness,
and teamwork. It is accomplished by blocking, poking, or sliding in a calculated
effort to win the ball.
The goalkeeper roles are to stop, control, and catch a ball within the
penalty area if it is not intentionally passed to him by a teammate.
goalkeeper may legally use the hands. Upon collection of the ball, the goalie is
also permitted to clear the ball or initiate “instant offense” by throwing, drop
kicking, or punting the ball. The goalkeeper must know when and how to
challenge, come off the line, and cut down the attacker‟s angle and effectively
smother and deflect shots. Sound judgment, common sense, mental ability as well
as physical skill are an important quality in selecting a good goalie.
Systems of Play
A system, or style, of play describes the organization and configuration of the
players on the field, as well as their responsibilities within the team structure. The team‟s
players and the skill and style of the opponent determine how a coach chooses to
implement a particular style of play.
Arsenal Football Club‟s WU System
Italy‟s more defense –minded
System to “total futbol”
An attacking player must be able to move without the ball, not only to create space but
also to receive a pass from a teammate. These moves or runs are in the form of:
Near and far-post runs
Corner flag runs
Runs away and off the ball
Overlapping runs (usually from the midfield position, runs forward past the ball
being held by a teammate and into open space behind the defense)
Support and Penetration
The effectiveness of offensive principles is the need of supporting system from
teammate (at least two should always be 10-15 yards from the teammate with the ball).
With proper support and communication, combination play, such as wall passing and
“give and goes”, can be initiated and space can be created and exploited for penetration
(via passing and dribbling) behind the defense.
Once the scoring opportunity has been created, the principles of finishing, or
scoring, must be effectively applied. This finishing principle is the critical shooting skills,
the only way to score.
Chase and Delay
As the ball is lost to the opposition, defensive play begins. Immediate chase and
pressure is applied to the player who has taken control of the ball. These chasing and
pressure effort is to delay the player with the ball and force him to the nearest touchline,
thereby preventing a quick penetration toward the goal.
The chasing and delay gives opportunity to the defensive team to retreat, organize
(find, mark, and track) or regroup to support the defender playing the ball. This support
involves balance, depth, and cover in order to restrict the amount of space that the
opponent has to exploit.
Balance and Concentration
Defensive team concentration is needed to force the attacking team to its least
desirable offensive option (usually away from the center of the field, where the shooting
angle is most favorable).
Once proper defensive support and cover are implemented, the defender playing
the ball can challenge, or tackle (the act of taking the ball away from an opposing player),
the ball. Usually the ball is challenged by the primary defender and won by the cover
A counterattack or deliberate offensive buildup is constructed (depending on
where the ball is won) after the ball is won.
It is important to note that teaching/coaching responsibilities needs some
considerations as follows:
The health and safety of the players
Practice can be manipulated by an instructor depending on the:
Fitness and skills level
The particular goals to be accomplished daily or long range
Since it is the most popular sport in world soccer is the most played sport of
school children. Some play for their own satisfaction, enjoyment and some to challenge
them to empower their talent. As for these children, teacher or coaches need to help in
monitoring and developing their skill and ability. With a proper guidance this young
children might become a good soccer player in the future. Thus, teacher or coaches need
to commit and play their responsibility to the younger.
1. How many position player in soccer game and explain?
2. What are the fundamentals skills the player needs in
Give examples of various drills that could be employed to practice
ATHLETICS - TRACK AND FIELD
When you complete this module will be able to:
Explain and describe the basic athletics game
Be able know how to play the game
Be able to know the rules of each track and field game
Athletics is defined in five disciplines; track and field, road running, race walking,
cross country running, and mountain running. All forms of athletics are individual sports
with the exception of relays races. Athletics or specifically the track and field is the core
and the most common in school. The track and field competitions emerged in the late 19th
century. Each school has their annual sport day that especially for track and field event.
Track and Field Event
The track and field events involve running, jumping, and throwing activities
where running activities make up the track event while jumping and throwing activities
make up the field events.
Running events can be divided into 5 main categories; sprints, hurdles,
relays, middle distances and long distances.
Types of Event
80 – 100 percent anaerobic energy
Require approximately 50% aerobic
and 50% anaerobic (speed and
Aerobic in nature
The heights of hurdles, the distance
between them, and the total distance
run, vary among men, women, youth,
110 meter (Men)
master, and senior athletes
Consist of four members
Each runner carries a baton a specific
distance, passing it to the next runner
within a marked zone until the last
runner carries it across the finish line
28 hurdle jumps and 7 water jumps
5 jumps per lap
Water jump in fourth
Hurdles height vary by category (men
Water jump hurdle should be 3.66m in
width, 3.06m in length
The water should be 70cm in depth
immediately in front of the hurdle and
slope to the level of the field at the
The hurdle should be firmly fixed in
front of the water
Jumping events consists of four types of jump; long jump, triple jump,
high jump and the pole vault.
Types of Event
The runway varies from 36.6m – 48.8m (men) and 27.4m –
The takeoff board, made of wood or other rigid material –
wide 19.8 – 20.32cm; long 1.22m, thick 10cm
The landing area must not be less than 2.74m in width and
identical in elevation with the takeoff board
Filled with sand
Has three phases
Hop – landing on the takeoff foot
Step – landing on the non-takeoff foot
Jump – into the landing pit
Two primary styles of jumping
Fosbury Flop – used back layout technique with a curve
approach that allowing the athlete to use more speed in
the approach and provided for a very efficient bar
The combination of speed, strength, coordination and
agility make up this event
Runways vary 38.1 – 42.7m in length
The poles made up of fiberglass and have 14 – 16 feet in
The throwing events include four types of throw; shot put, discus throw,
hammers throw and the javelin.
Types of Event
The shots are made of a cast iron, bronze, or brass shell
with a lead center
The weight are vary:
Men – 7.26kg
High school boy – 5.45kg
Women – 4kg
The shot are thrown from a circle 2.13m in diameter with a
stop board in front
Usually made of wood with a metal rim
The weight are vary
Men – minimum weight 2kg with 219-221mm in
High school boy – 1.62kg in weight with 209-211mm
Women – 1kg in weight with 180-182mm in diameter
Discus throw from a circle 2.5m in diameter
The hammer consists of a round weight attached to a
triangular handle by a wire
The weight and length are vary:
Men – 7.27kg
not exceed 1.22m
High school boy – 5.45kg
Women – 4kg and length may not exceed 1.195m
The hammer is thrown from a circle 2.13m in diameter
The javelin consists of three parts:
Head – metal head terminating in a sharp point
Shaft – constructed of metal and fixed to head
Cord grip – should be about the center of mass and
shall not exceed the diameter of the shaft by more than
8mm with uniform thickness
The length and weight are vary:
Men – 2.7m in length and weight of 800g with a cord
grip of 16cm
Women – 2.3m in length and weight of 600g with a
cord grip of 15cm
Other Track-and-Field Events
Through a progression of steps so taken that
3 km-10 km
unbroken contact with the ground is maintained
The advancing leg must be straightened (not bent at
the knee) from the moment of first contact with the
ground until the leg is in the vertical upright position
Failure to adhere to this rule lead to warning and
The tests of all-around skill and ability
Decathlon - 10 events run over 2 days in the
Day 1 – 100m, long jump, shot put, high jump,
Day 2 – 100m hurdle, discus, pole vault, javelin,
Heptathlon – 7 events scheduled in 2 days as follow:
Day 1 – 100m hurdles, high jump, shot put,
Day 2 – long jump, javelin, 800m
Incorporates reaction time, block clearance time, and velocity out of the
The use of starting blocks is essential because it provide a solid base from
which to push off and prevent slipping or injury to the runner
o “On your mark”
The runner moves in front of the blocks and backs into position and
place the feet in the blocks one at a time
Feet straight, toes in contact with the surface of the track
The hands are placed directly under the shoulders, with the fingers
and thumbs bridged just behind the starting line about shoulder –
The arms are fully extended, with the weight evenly distributed
between the hands, rear knee, and foot
The front knee relaxed, extending just inside the forearm
The head in natural alignment with the trunk, the eyes are focused
about a yard in front of the starting line
The runners raise the hips to the desired level and extends the knee
joints to the appropriate angle
Shoulders move slightly forward in front of the hands in order to
provide a horizontal component
Usually sprinters reach their maximum velocity between 60-70 meters
The main objective of sprinting is to accelerate over the longest possible
distance in the shortest time possible
The acceleration pattern is sets up by the clearance of the blocks with a
maximum force in a balanced positions
Speed is the product of stride length (distance between the touchdown of the
toes for each stride) and stride frequency
The average of stride length, 2.20-2.38m
Stride length vary because of individual muscle strength, leg length,
flexibility, speed of running, and any injuries
Once maximum velocity reached (50-70 meters), the runner can only maintain
maximum velocity for a few strides (about 15-25 meters) before fatigue cause
of gradual deceleration
Deceleration can be minimized by relaxation, conditioning, and concentration
on proper technique
Mental and Psychological Aspects
Runner must be able to run the curve efficiently and carry the speed for an
additional 100 meters
In order to cut down the distance run, the runner must run close to the lane
line as possible on the curve
This technically can maintain balance and fight the centrifugal force that
tends to push the athlete outward, the athlete should look inside, lean inside,
and drive outside arm across the body to help maintain balance
The runner must develop the ability to distribute his or her speed and energy
over the total racing distance in the most efficient manner
Need pace judgment and effort distribution skills
For the first 150 meters should be run in a relaxed and smooth manner while
trying to maintain rhythm and velocity with the least effort
Gradually increase the arm drive and stride frequency at the 200-meter mark
For the final 100 meters, the runner must stay as relaxed as possible and try
to maintain form and concentration
Success of this event requires maximum development of the anaerobic
endurance energy system
Relays require team work and timing
Employ two types of baton passes:
o Non-visual pass
not seen by the receiver, and it is used in sprint relays
Baton must be passed in a 20-meter zone
The outgoing runner has an additional 10-meter zone in which to
Alternate hands, first and third runners carrying baton in the right
hand and the second and forth runners carrying the baton in the left
Outgoing runner accelerate maximally into and through the passing
zone as the incoming runner hits the go mark
Visual or vocal cues can be used to initiate the pass
The more efficient technique – extended arm position with openpalm, thumb down hand position because it provides a bigger
target, a natural hand-baton fit, better control and a longer free
distance between runner
The incoming runner uses an upsweep push into target hand of the
The main objective is to keep the baton moving through the
passing zone at top speed
o Visual pass
A pass that is seen by the receiver and it is primarily used in long
The outgoing runner should turn and go as the incoming runner
hits the go mark
The outgoing runner accelerates into 3-5 strides and turns about 10
meters into the zone and reaches back with the left hand, chest
facing the curb
The hand should reach high into the face of the incoming runner as
it provides a good target with the fingers extended and the thumb
open in the natural reaching position
The incoming runner places the baton into the target hand of the
outgoing runner and as he/she turns, he/she must judge the strength
and speed of the incoming runner
The outgoing runner has about 10 meter to slow down or speed up
to complete the pass
As it is completed and the runner is clear of traffic, the baton
should be switched to the right hand, and the runner should sprint
hard through the first turn and establish position
Requires outstanding sprinting ability, rhythm, flexibility, coordination,
balance, and efficient technique
The start is basically the same as for sprinting with an adjustment to achieve
the correct stride number to the first hurdle, 8 strides is the most common
The lead leg should be placed in the rear block in preparation for 8 strides to
the first hurdle
The takeoff distance from the hurdle is important to establish an efficient
flight path over the hurdle as the hurler‟s size, speed of approach, and lead
leg action determine the proper takeoff distance for each hurdler
o Depends on proper takeoff and lead-leg action
o Takeoff – high on the balls of the feet, highly flexed lead knee and large
split between legs as this lifts the center of gravity high into efficient
flight path over the hurdle while minimizing vertical forces
o Lead leg should not swing up with straight or locked leg, and should not
swing inside or outside
o Lead leg should be directly in front of the hip, with the toe straight up
o The take off leg is driven up and around to the side of the body in a
tightly folded position
o The toe of the takeoff leg is turned out
o Most efficient technique – single arm action as it stimulates the running
o The lead arm is driven forward about shoulder level, with a bent elbow
o The takeoff arm swings backward for balance and rhythm
o The hurdler leans forward with the shoulders square
o Land on the ball of the foot with the center of mass (hips) over or
slightly in front of the landing foot
o Takeoff leg comes through with a high knee action and flows into a full
o The hurdler takes 3 sprint strides between hurdles, with the last stride
Hurler should sprint through the first hurdle out of the blocks, between the
hurdles, and off the last hurdle through the finish line
The main emphasis of the endurance training is on the development of the
aerobic metabolic oxygen transport system (the lungs, heart, and vascular
systems). There is a strong correlation between a high aerobic capacity and
success in endurance events.
Long Continuous Runs
The major part of endurance runners‟ training programs where they build a
strong aerobic base first
The runs range from 3 to 10 miles for middle distance runner, and 10 to 20
miles for longer distance runners
These runs may average a pace of 5 to 7 minutes per mile for men and 6 to 9
minutes per mile for women depending on the level of competition and
Precise measurement of each phase of work is essential to get the specific
training effect to produce the developmental heart stimulus
The basic elements:
o The distance run – groups of 100, 200, or 400 m
o The recovery interval – 30, 60, 90 seconds. Heart-rate recovery of 120
beats/minute have also been used
o The pace of the run – how fast each interval is run depends on the
fitness of the athlete and the race pace desired
o The number of repetition – the number of times the run is repeated
depends on the planned workload
Fartlek alternates hard and easy running over varied and interesting terrains
It takes the athlete away from the confines of a track to a more natural
Fartlek means “speed play”
The runner can develop speed and endurance at the same time in a fun and
It is a flexible and wide ranging system
The distance of the run-up is determined by strength, skill, conditioning, and
the acceleration pattern of the jumper
The main objective of the approach is to develop maximum controllable
speed at takeoff
Techniques that have been used to achieve this goal: gradual buildup, an
explosive buildup, or a two-to four-step walk-in to the first check mark
The key factors are a fast, relaxed, consistent stride pattern
An efficient take off action is one that allows the jumper to get lift at the
appropriate angle with a minimum loss of horizontal velocity.
The position of the takeoff foot and the center of mass at takeoff are the
most important technical considerations for successful jumps
A long/short stride pattern in the last two strides should be used as it can
lowers the center of mass on the next-to-last stride and catches the hips on
the rise in the final stride.
The takeoff action should be fast, with a short duration on the board
Flight in the air
Three types of in-the-air styles: the sail, the hang, and the hitch kick have
been used effectively, and each has its strengths and weaknesses. All styles are
basically used to counter forward rotation created at takeoff. They allow the
athlete to maintain balance and prepare the legs for an efficient landing.
The most effective landing position is with the feet as far as possible in
front of the center of mass (hips) without falling backward into the pit.
The landing action is initiated by extending the legs parallel to the pit or
slightly above parallel, with the toes up
The head, chest, and arms are thrust forward
The arms sweep down and back, then forward, as the heels contact the sand
At this point, the knees flex and allow the hips to move forward
The athlete can fall forward into a tight tuck position or execute a sit out
technique that employs a pivot to the side with a hip thrust that strikes the
sand with the buttocks near or past the feet
Triple jump require the lower takeoff angle and three jumps of an even
distribution of effort and conservation of horizontal velocity on each jump
Te triple jumper must takeoff and land on the same foot in the first jump; on
the second jump the jumper must land on the opposite foot; and on the third
jump the jumper may land in any manner
The triple jumper may also posses good balance and a high level of legs
strength and power
The takeoff in the first phase is characterized by a single or double arm
The single arm action is recommended as it is more natural extension of
The stronger leg should be used for this phase
The jumper runs off the board with a single arm action and pulls the
takeoff leg tightly through under the buttocks to a thigh-thigh position in
front of the hips
The fore leg is extended slightly forward, and the ankle is cocked
The arms are simultaneously extended backward into a double arm
The jumper is now prepared to execute the second phase
Initiated by a forward swinging of the arms, an explosive firing and
pawing action by the extended takeoff leg and flexed ankle into the ground
under the body, and a forward drive of the opposite knee into a high-thigh
The jumper must hold this position as long as possible to achieve the
greatest distance possible in this phase
The jumper must again extend both arms backward, and the foreleg of the
lead leg extends forward, with the ankle cocked
Begins with the forward swing of the arms, the driving, pawing action of
the lead leg under the body, and the forward and upward drive of the
The flight path and landing of the third phase is similar to the long jump
Usually used a sit-out landing technique because lack of momentum to
carry them over the legs in the traditional tuck position
Two basic styles of high jumping that have produced the highest jumps are
the flop and the dive straddle.
Plant and takeoff
The jumper should plant the outside foot almost parallel to the bar, 0.9 to 1.2
m directly in front of the near standard
The jumper plants with the heel and rotates to the toe
The ankle and the knee extend fully to the toe for maximum drive
The inside knee is driven up and across the body at takeoff as it rotates the
body into a back-to-the-bar position
To ensure maximal takeoff force with the most efficient takeoff angle to
clear the bar, the lead knee must be driven away from the bar, and the body
must be perpendicular to the ground at the takeoff
The jumper prepares to clear the bar as soon as he or she leaves the ground
From the back-to-the-bar position, the jumper drops the head back and lifts
the hips to clear the bar
Spreading the knees with the heels kept close together facilitates flowing
into this position
The arms and hands rest on the thighs
Once the hips clear the bar, the jumper drops the hips and lifts the arms and
legs to clear the feet (action-reaction)
The jumper lands on the shoulder and back in the pit
The five phase of pole vaulting are as follow:
Approach that allows the greatest buildup of controlled speed should be
The handhold should be slightly wider than shoulder width
The pole should be plant early and out in front of the body
The upper arm is extended as straight as possible overhead or slightly in
front of the head
The plant foot should be directly under or behind the upper hand at takeoff
The lower arm should be locked after the takeoff as it aids in the transfer of
linear velocity to angular velocity
The knee opposite the plant foot should be driven up, whereas the plant foot
is left hanging until the next phase
The hips should be brought higher than the head and the knees flexed into
The vaulter should remain in the rollback position until the pole is well into
This final phase start with a pull-up which should be done when the pole is
almost straight for maximum efficiency and greatest height potential
The push-up is done much like the handstand push-up
As the vaulter reach maximum height, the vaulter push-off, dropping the
legs and rotating around the bar
The technique for throwing the shot is a putting action (elbow and forearm
extension). Two basic techniques are: the glide and the spin.
The thrower starts at the back of the circle facing the opposite direction of
The knees should be flexed and the trunk leaning forward over the right leg
The throw is started by driving the left leg in the direction of the throw
At the same time the right leg should begin a driving action
The landing and throw
o The right foot lands near the center of the circle, and the left foot
makes contact with the inside edge of the toe board
o The hips and the body begin to rotate in the direction of the throw
o The forearm and elbow of the right arm should remain directly behind
o The throwing arm extends explosively and chases after the shot, and
the wrist is snapped
o During the follow-through and reverse, the thrower should lower the
center of mass and extend the arms and legs to maintain balance and
stay in the circle
The thrower starts at the back of the circle and rotates into the power
position like the discus thrower instead of gliding
The remaining movements are the same as the glide so as the foot
The hand is placed on the discus with the fingers slightly separated and the
first joint of each finger curled slightly over the rim
The thumb rests on top of the discus and the wrist is slightly cocked toward
the little finger to lose contact with the discus
The thrower starts in the extreme back position of the circle and will
eventually complete one-and-three-quarters turns before the release
The beginning of the spin is usually preceded by a few preliminary swings
of the discus back and forth to establish a rhythm
The beginning position of the spin should be with the feet slightly wider
than shoulder width and the top part of the body rotated more than 180
degrees to the right
The spin is initiated by the legs and the hips as the weight is shifted to the
The upper body remains relaxed, and the throwing arm trails behind with the
discus at shoulder height
The right foot will be lifted off the ground and driven forward toward the
center of the ring to establish a new support as the weight continues to the
Before the right foot contacts the ground, the thrower will face the front of
the ring, pass through this position, and again face the back of the ring
Once the right foot contact with the ground, the performer pivots on this
The left foot comes off the ground to eventually be placed at the front of the
circle a little pass the centerline
Once the left foot makes contact, the thrower enters the explosive part of the
With the right foot now planted at the center of the circle and the left foot
planted at the front of the circle, the thrower explodes and accelerates the
turning of the upper body against the firmly anchored lower body
The discus at the beginning of this explosion should be about shoulder
height, then it is dropped to hip height, and release at shoulder height
The most important aspect in javelin throw is the velocity of the release
that developed in the run-up, the torque created by the thrower‟s body and the
transfer of these forces over the thrower‟s plant leg. The angle of release is
dependent on the ability of the thrower.
The approach covers 33.5 to 40 m, with crossover steps in the final 5 or 6
The crossover steps allow the thrower to place the body in a strong throwing
The thrower plants the leg opposite the throwing arm in front of the body
with a long last stride
The javelin is pulled back, and the shoulders are rotated back to create
torque in the body
The throw initiated by an explosive push by the rear leg that drives the body
over the plant leg
The shoulders and the arms follow the leg drive as they rotate into the throw
The final wrist flick and body follow-through further accelerate the javelin
Varieties of grip are used, but for all of them the hand must be in contact
with the cord grip
The palm should face upward, and the thrower should pull straight through
the shaft to the tip into the proper release angle and direction
The final wrist and finger drive should be against the cord grip and through
the tip, to impart spin of the javelin and stabilize its flight
Hammer throw require a high degree of skill as well as balance, strength,
power, speed, and very specific motor patterns. The hammer is a rhythm event
thus it require many hours of drills to coordinate the balanced movements of the
body. The basic parts of the throw are preliminary swings, entry, turns, low and
high points of the swings and the release. The throw must be viewed as a whole,
linked by its various parts. Technique:
The thrower begins from a position facing the opposite direction of the
throw and toward the edge of the circle
Feet approximately shoulder-width apart, arms extended, and body weight
over the leg on the side of the hammer
The throw initiated with one or two preliminary swings around the head
while facing the starting position in the back of the circle
The thrower then accelerates into three-and-a-half complete turns with the
The hammer thrower attempts to build maximum velocity in the hammer
head during the turns
While rotating through the three-and-a-half turns, the hammer moves
progressively from a low point to a high point and reaches a final angle of
approximately 45 degrees at the release
Starting blocks must be used for all races up to and
including 400 meters
Up to 400 meters, starting command is “on your mark,
set” and the gun fired about 2 seconds after everyone is
up and motionless
Races over 400 meters, the starting command is “set”
and the gun fired
2 methods of timing are considered official, hand timing
(manual) and fully automatic timing. Hand times are
recorded to the next tenth of a second. Add .24 seconds
to hand times to convert to fully automatic times
A false start is declared if the runner jumps the gun. A
runner is disqualified after the second false start
A competitor who cuts in front of another runner
without proper clearance of one full strides shall be
In all races run in lanes, runners shall start and finish in
their assigned lanes
All competitors must clear, within their lane, the
required number of hurdles
The hurdler may not run around the side of the hurdles,
trail the leg below the level of the hurdle bar, run out of
her or his lane, impede another hurdler, or deliberately
knock down a hurdle with the hand or foot
The entire body must pass over the hurdle
The baton must be passed in 20-meter passing zone
The runner must remain in his or her lane and not
interfere with other team exchanges
The baton‟s position, not the body of either athlete, is
the decisive point in determining if the exchange
occurred within the zone
The baton must be carried in the hand, and if dropped,
must be recovered by the athlete who dropped it
The last runner of the race must have the baton
A legal high jump is one in which competitor jumps
from one foot
The crossbar must be cleared without displacement
It is a failed attempt when, after clearing the bar and
landing in the pit, the jumper stumbles against the
uprights and displaces the crossbar
The crossbar must be cleared without displacement
either with the body or the pole
It is a failed attempt if the vaulter leaves the ground in
an attempt to vault and fails to clear the bar
A trial or failure may not be counted if a vaulter‟s pole
breaks during an attempt to clear the bar
The pole may be of any material or combination of
materials, and it may be of any size and weight
The landing pad measured beyond the vertical plane of
the stopboard shall be a minimum of 4.88 m wide and
3.66 m deep
Long and Triple
The jumper‟s shoe must not extend over the foul line
The jumper must leave the pit under control beyond his
or her mark made in the sand
The triple jumper must take off and land on the same
foot in the first jump, and any landing is permissible
following the final jump
In attempting a jump, it is foul jump if the jumpers runs
beyond the foul line extended
Shot Put and
Must start from a stationary position
Must not leave the circle until the implement has
touched the ground
Must not exit from the back half of the circle once the
implement has landed
The implement must land within the sector
The proper implement must be used
The shot must be held in close proximity to the chin, and
the throwing arm must not drop behind or below the
No tape is allowed on hands unless there is an open cut
or wound. Gloves are not permitted
There are no form requirements while throwing the
Must not touch the tip of the stopboard or ring, or
outside the circle
The throw must land within the sector
The javelin must be held by the cord grip
A regulation javelin must be used
It shall be a foul and not measured if during the attempt
to throw, the thrower touches with any part of the body,
any surface of the foul line, the run-up lines, or the area
outside of the foul line or run-up lines
The throw must land within the sector
During the throw, the competitor must not leave the
The hammer must be legal
Gloves may be used
Proper warm up with a few flexibility and conditioning exercises prior to practice or
competition to prepare the body and prevent injury
Wear shoes that are suitable for the individual events and make sure they fit
Take proper care of equipment
Use caution in all throwing events. Carry the implements back to the thrower and
make sure the throwing area is clear
Check all jumping surfaces for stability and firmness. Take special precautions for
wet, slippery conditions
Teaching and coaching track and field require the basic understanding of the
physical and mental responses to training as well as a general knowledge of exercise
physiology and biomechanical principles need to be used as a guideline in planning
training programs. These guidelines should include the following principles:
Training should be specific to the requirements of the
event in terms of the development of strength, power,
speed, flexibility, and the aerobic and anaerobic
The appropriate intensity, frequency, and duration of
training should be well planned
The principle of gradual progressive overloads should
be followed to allow for training adaptation
Each individual has unique ability and skills
A sensitivity to genetic and acquired differences
should be considered
Body size and composition and muscle type should be
Individual temperament and tolerances should also be
Adequate rest and recovery cycles should be included
in the training to allow for positive adaptation
The “hard day, easy day” principle is a good policy to
Overtraining can lead to injury, staleness, and burnout
thus athlete needs regular recovery periods, both
physically and psychologically
Class or Team Management
As to achieve the various training goals, management requires a careful planning.
The following tasks should be considered:
Setting individual and group goals
Designing daily, weekly, and monthly practice schedule
Providing for equipment needs
Staffing and teaching strategies
Proper selection and grouping of athletes into appropriate events
Testing and evaluation of performances
Motivational techniques and strategies
As a core sport in school, it requires every single teacher to at least have
knowledge of skill, basic techniques and rules of the athletic track and field events. This
is important to ensure teacher can administer student athletes for the school sport day.
Besides, teacher can guide and trained potential student to be a successful athletes. Since
athletic develop fitness as whole, teacher can help student to stay fit and healthy by this
activity.the correct technique help to reduce the pain of injury as well. Therefore, teacher
needs to have the basic skill and technique for this athletic track and field event.
1. Describe the basic rules of hurdles
2. What are the fundamentals skills of throw event?
Outline and discuss a training program for selected track and field
RECREATION – OUTDOOR
When you complete this module will be able to:
Explain and describe the basic of outdoor recreation
Be able to know the benefit of outdoor
Be able to know the values of ourdoor
Experiential education is learning by doing or by participating in an experience.
Through direct experiences with nature, people, objects, things, places and by actually
learning by doing, scientific evidence has shown that the learning process is faster, what
is learned is retained longer, and there is greater appreciation and understanding for those
things that are learned firsthand. Outdoor education is a form of experiential education
that is important in society today.
Outdoor education usually refers to organized learning in an outdoor setting.
Outdoor Learning has become a more contemporary term for arguably the same thing,
but it reflects well the distinction between discovery/active learning (which Ardroy
promotes) and didactic education, which is more the domain of mainstream education.
Outdoor education programs usually involve residential or journey-based experiences in
which students participate in a variety of adventurous, memorable challenges. The
community aspect of living in a residential environment for a period of time should not
be down-played either.
Definition of Outdoor Education
Outdoor education can be simply described as experiential learning in the
outdoors. The term „outdoor education‟, however, is widely used to refer to a range of
organized activities, which take place in a variety of ways, in predominantly outdoor
environments. Outdoor education programs sometimes involve residential or journeybased experiences in which students participate in a variety of adventurous challenges in
the form of outdoor activities such as hiking, climbing, canoeing, ropes courses,
and group games. Outdoor education draws upon the philosophy, theory, and practices
of experiential education and environmental education.
Outdoor recreation activities have been defined as those activities that:
are undertaken outside the confines of buildings (i.e., in the outdoors);
do not involve organized competition or formal rules
can be undertaken without the existence of any built facility or infrastructure
may require large areas of land, water and/or air;
may require outdoor areas of predominantly unmodified natural landscape
The outdoor education must encompass:
an educational element which stimulates personal and social development
an experience which includes themes of “outdoor”, “adventure”, and “education”
learning as an experiential process which utilizes direct experiences
an increased self and social awareness, plus increased awareness of community and
Benefits of Outdoor Education
Personal health, including psychological health, is one of the important outcomes
of outdoor recreation participation.
Psychological health can be demonstrated as:
Stress reduction–. Relaxation, rest and revitalization all happen as people
participate in outdoor activities. The influence of a natural environment, the
opportunity to escape the pressures of urban life and the sense of achievement that
occurs through participation all contribute to increasing the ability of individuals
to deal with the world around them.
Good self-esteem and positive self-image–. Achievement, stress reduction,
positive lifestyle options and choices all contribute to individuals‟ feelings of
having control over their life and of success.
Life satisfaction, inspiration and self-realization–. Many individuals use outdoor
recreation as a major motivating force. Instead of describing themselves as a
teacher or a banker many people prefer to describe themselves as a rock climber
or a bushwalker. The personal rewards and satisfaction they achieve through their
participation mean that many participants regard it as an integral component of
their life, providing the impetus for work and participation in their community,
and the goal at the end of the week can all be provided by their activity.
Physical health can be demonstrated in all active people through:
reduced heart disease
Outdoor recreation participants have historically demonstrated their willingness to
preserve the conservation values of sites through substitution, maintenance and
rehabilitation projects arising through an active communication and consultation
process with landholders.
Outdoor recreation participants are likely to be highly motivated to assist in
conservation initiatives on a site to which they feel attached. Collaboration and
consultation with these groups and individuals are likely to result in successful
communication of and compliance with restrictions on sites with conservation
values that are incompatible with outdoor recreation use
Outdoor recreation activities based in natural environments raise the profile and
community importance of looking after these places, providing insurance for a
new and improved environmental future.
The Values of Outdoor Education
Promote active learning through direct personal experience and offer excitement, fun and
adventure within a framework of safety
Active learning and adventure outdoors can take place in a variety of environments:
rural and urban, local and more remote. Outdoor education, training and recreation
involve both young people and adults in a wide range of experiences, including
adventurous activities on land and water and activities with an environmental focus.
Methods used include skills-focused learning, problem solving, team building and
self-reliant journeys and activities, with residential experience an especially valued
Challenging experience outdoors impacts powerfully upon a young person‟s
intellectual, physical, spiritual, social and moral development
Use of the outdoors makes a major contribution to physical and environmental
education and enhances many other curriculum areas. It contributes to personal
growth and social awareness and develops skills for life and the world of work.
Qualities such as a sense of responsibility and a purpose in life are nurtured.
There is also a great deal of intrinsic enjoyment and satisfaction to be experienced
from participation in outdoor activities.
Building self confidence and self esteem is fundamental to any young person‟s
Outdoor activities provide valuable alternative, often non-competitive, avenues
for achievement, as well as opportunities to develop independence and self
reliance. Through successfully facing up to the challenges which outdoor
activities provide, overcoming fears and apprehensions along the way, young
people make major strides in confidence, with implications for all aspects of their
A positive attitude to learning is essential if young people are to make the most of
Participation in exciting and enjoyable outdoor activities with teachers, youth
workers and peers reinforces a positive attitude to education and contributes
significantly to the general ethos of a school or youth group. Direct experience out
of doors stimulates and reinforces learning across many areas of the curriculum,
and the use of the outdoors encourages young people to take greater responsibility
for their own learning
Awareness of the needs and contributions of others and the ability to sustain effective
relationships, at work and in the family, are vital in today‟s society
Experience in the outdoors provides rich opportunities for personal and social
development through carefully structured group work in challenging situations.
Trust, care, tolerance and the willingness to give and accept support are all
encouraged and anti-social behavior is challenged. Opportunities are presented to
exhibit and develop effective inter-personal behavior and to work co-operatively
and effectively in teams.
The purposeful use of leisure time is increasingly seen as making an important
contribution to a fulfilling lifestyle
Outdoor recreation introduces young people to a range of worthwhile leisure
pursuits which will enrich their future lives, and develops the skills and
knowledge essential for safe participation. Outdoor exercise contributes greatly to
health and fitness and continuing participation in outdoor pursuits encourages the
maintenance of a healthy lifestyle into middle age and beyond.
Our relationship with the environment is a key issue facing tomorrow‟s citizens
Active learning and adventure outdoors introduces young people to the
environment in a way which develops understanding appreciation, awe, wonder
and respect. It fosters sensitivity to the environment, helps young people to see
themselves in a global context and helps to develop citizens with an awareness of
the need for sustainable use of the world‟s natural resources
Tomorrow‟s successful citizens will possess the adaptability to cope with a rapidly
changing world of work and the responsibility to be an effective member of a
Challenging outdoor experiences promote the development of communication,
problem solving and decision making skills which have currency across a range of
occupations. They encourage a positive “opting in” and “can do” attitude. Young
people‟s horizons are broadened, new challenges come to be relished rather than
shunned, and perseverance and determination are reinforced. Values and attitudes
developed in a context of shared endeavor help to form a sound basis for
Experience of outdoor education is both unique to the individual and equally just
as prone to development and change. Outdoor education is the blending of both adventure
and environment approaches into a program of activities or experiences. Through
exposure to the outdoor setting, individual learn about their relationship with the natural
environment, relationships between the various concepts of natural ecosystems and
personal relationships with others and their inner self. Outdoor education as one means of
assisting each student in developing an attitude of personal responsibility for our finite
and fragile environment. This quality need to be adding to the curriculum view of the
1. Explain outdoor recreation education.
2. Explain benefit outdoor recreation.
What are the values that you gain in outdoor recreation activity?
Explain in school based program.
RECREATION – SAFETY
When you complete this module will be able to:
Explain and describe the importance of safety in outdoor
Be able know the principles of safety in outdoor
Be able to know the leadership function in safety outdoor
Safety management has been continuously developed and has emerged as a
distinct discipline. Many organization realize that the preventing or avoiding looses
improves the bottom line, but controlling hazards, managing risks and maintaining
proactive safety program are essential activities still overlooked by many top leadership
management. A well organized safety program plays a vital role in meeting the
challenges of providing effective patient care and other services within a safe
environment. Integrating safety into the care environment using a systems approach
remains the most proven method for achieving these desired results. The challenges
facing organizations include:
Making safety an integral part of job performance.
Understanding accidents and their relationship to cost, time and performance factors.
Educating all personnel on basic safety management concepts and principle.
Increasing involvement of staff and departments in the safety program.
Establishing a functional safety committee that can make a difference.
Implementing as effective system of information collection and evaluation.
Conducting safety related causation analyses.
Applying system safety orientation, training and education sessions.
Focusing on unsafe behaviors as well as hazard control.
Definition of Safety
Safety is the state of being "safe", the condition of being protected against
physical, social, spiritual, financial, political, emotional, occupational, psychological,
educational or other types or consequences of failure, damage, error, accidents, harm or
any other event which could be considered non-desirable. Safety can also be defined to
be the control of recognized hazards to achieve an acceptable level of risk. This can take
the form of being protected from the event or from exposure to something that causes
health or economical losses. It can include protection of people or of possessions.
Types of Safety
It is important to distinguish between products that meet standards, that are safe,
and those that merely feel safe. The highway safety community uses these terms:
Normative safety is a term used to describe products or designs that meet
applicable design standards and protection.
Substantive or objective safety means that the real-world safety history is
favorable, whether or not standards are met.
Perceived or subjective safety refers to the level of comfort of users. For
example, traffic signals are perceived as safe, yet under some circumstances, they can
increase traffic crashes at an intersection. Traffic roundabouts have a generally favorable
safety record yet often make drivers nervous.
Safety Management Principle
Accidents, injuries and loss events occur as a result of management deficiencies
and reveal the existing of managerial and leadership problems. The following actions
should be taken to minimize the likelihood of accidents:
Correct the causal factors to make better use of human and material resources.
Understanding that placing blame never addresses real safety problem.
Use analysis to help pinpoint system problems.
Improve safety throughout the organization by integrating safety programs into all
functions within the organization.
Improve organizational performance and the bottom line.
Determine ways to reduce the costs of accidents, insurance, equipment, hiring and
Bolster worker morale and promote good public relations.
Management Efficiencies and Safety
Management deficiencies and inefficiencies lead to errors of omission and
commission. Management deficiencies set the stage for accident events. Most accidents
result in interruptions and the loss of someone‟s time. Good management eliminates the
causes of accidents while poor management generates accidents. The occurrence of
accidents has a domino effect on the entire organization.
Safety Program Fundamental
Top management must demonstrate a total commitment to the organization‟s
safety program. An effective program considers maintaining worker safety to be a
fundamental responsibility of the organization:
Management must ensure that effective workplace hazard surveys are conducted.
Hazard information must be accurately analyzed to better permit the organization to
anticipate and prevent accidents.
Accidents Prevention and Hazard Control
Organizations should stress accident prevention and safe work practices to all
Actions should be taken to control hazards through the design of work areas or job
When it is not feasible to eliminate hazardous conditions, the organization must
implement measures to protect individuals from unsafe conditions or unhealthy
Training is the key to success. The mature of the training depends on the type, size
and complexity of the organization.
Training is also based on potential hazards, risks or exposures present
Coordinating hazard control and safety activities that address behaviors can be
difficult for a number of reasons. Coordination can‟t take place unless the cultural and
communication aspects of the organization are understood. The coordinating function of
management is the vehicle to change behaviors and expectations. Result occurs when
the culture is understood, communication is effective and coordination takes place.
Management commitment provides the motivating force for organizing and controlling
safety related programs. A clearly stated worksite policy regarding safety and working
conditions demonstrates the priority management has placed on safety in relation to
other organizational values.
Good policy statements express a belief or philosophy. An understanding
philosophy regarding safety provides the foundation for an organizational policy
statement and a good policy statement provides direction for meeting established safety
goals or objectives. Senior leadership must approve the safety policy statement.
Developing a Safety Policy Statement:
Develop a safety policy that effectively expresses a belief or philosophy.
Publish the policy in writing, using clear and easy to understand language.
Be sure the policy is written using broad terms and that it focuses on long range
Understand that effective policies support a proactive, not reactive and approach to
Remember that the policy must promote direct involvement by all organizational
members and departments.
Plan to use a well written safety policy for at least 5 years.
Understand the changing policies can create confusion with regard to the direction of
the safety program.
Don‟t focus too much on compliance issues; instead promote safety as being the right
thing to do.
Recommended that the policy address the importance of off the job safety.
Allow senior management to publicize the policy.
It is consists the buildings, equipment and people. A proper design and
management of the physical environment contribute to creating a safe and comfortable
environment of care that helps support and maintain patient dignity, promotes interaction,
reduces stress and encourages family participation in the care process.
Environment Safety Challenges
Establishing a multidisciplinary process or committee to resolve care environment
Appointing appropriate representation from clinical, administrative and support areas.
Identifying and analyzing care and environment issues in a timely manner.
Developing and approving recommendations for improvement as appropriate.
Establishing appropriate measurement guidelines with appropriate staff input.
Communicating issues to organizational leaders and improvement coordinator.
Coordinating environmental safety issues with leadership of the patient safety
Basics Safety Environment Considerations:
Appropriate use of space that considers the clinical philosophy of care.
Security of person, property and valuables.
Orientation and access to nature and the outside.
Color schemes that enhance care.
Reductions and control of environmental hazards and risks.
Developing an environment that minimizes unnecessary environmental stress.
Publish a safety policy that expresses commitment to the program.
Establish realistic safety goals and expectations.
Provide the resources necessary to ensure achievement of these goals.
Communicate the importance of the program to staff members.
Assign responsibilities and authority as necessary to carry out the plan.
Hold the organizational members accountable for safety goals and objectives.
Personally communicate safety at every opportunity.
Establish an off the job safety related topics is to be discussed at all meetings or
Implement an effective education program for all third shift workers.
Encourage key department managers to personalize the safety message.
Promote safety as a proactive endeavor that pays off by improving the system
Safety Supervisor Responsibilities:
Analyze work areas to identify unrecognized potential hazards.
Maintain personal protective and ensure it proper use.
Provide job training on potential occupational hazards.
Be sure that workers know the protective measures to follow.
Reinforce employee training through continual performance feedback.
Enforce compliance with safety rule and practices.
Complete accident reports and conduct initial investigations.
Conduct periodic safety inspections.
Appointing the employees to positions in the safety program.
Placing hourly workers on safety committee.
Requiring workers to report accidents and injuries immediately.
Providing quick responses to concerns about safety.
Assessing and correcting problems and hazardous conditions.
Training and educating workers on a recurring basis.
Successful Safety Programs
Safety programs developed to fit the needs of an organizational can be succeeding
if the plan properly managed.
Stress results oriented activities based on defined goals.
Investigate and analyze causal factors that result in loss.
Develop a management actions plan in addition to publishing policies.
Establish measurement criteria to assess program effectiveness.
Publish contingency plans to deal with potential problems.
Written Program Considerations:
Implement a program structure that best serves the organization.
Ensure that the program utilizes a systems approach that integrates safety.
Assign responsibilities and delegate authority to a qualified safety officer or director.
Establish lines of communication within the safety management function.
Develop comprehensive orientation, training and education programs.
Specifically address patient, worker, visitor and community safety objectives.
Stress accidents prevention and worker‟s compensation cost containment.
Develop effective reporting, hazard identification and investigation procedures
Developing or Revising a Written Safety Program
a. Review statistics, claims, trends and severity or frequency rates.
b. Evaluate effectiveness and scope of current loss control practices
c. Talk with workers to reveal their feelings, perceptions and reactions.
d. Identify any other problem areas that impact loss control efforts.
Organizational Safety Policy Statement:
a. Be sure that a philosophy has been defined before publishing any safety policy
b. Obtain approval to issue the policy statement from the highest level in the
c. Write the policy statement using simple language that communicates to everyone
d. State objectives in broad terms in terms in the statement, as detail will be
provided in the written safety program.
e. Understand that an effective safety policy statement promotes integrated and
decentralized actions while at the same time it gave the organizational leaders the
right to act.
f. Don‟t allow the written safety program to conflict with the policy statement
Assigning Authority and Responsibilities:
a. Find the authority for implementing a safety program in the codes, regulations
and organizational policy.
b. Appoint a safety officer, director or coordinator to lead the program.
c. Assign responsibilities and delegate authority to ensure program success.
d. Ensure that all employees understand their responsibilities.
Establishing Documentation and Training Procedures
a. Determine recordkeeping requirements for injury and accident report.
b. Obtain all required regulations, job procedures and safety regulations.
c. Publish written safety policies, job procedures and safety regulations.
d. Establish documentation requirements for all employee training sessions.
e. Develop concise and complete job descriptions for all employees.
Developing Evaluation Guidelines
a. Determine how frequently to evaluate the program for effectiveness.
b. Involve department heads by requiring periodic self inspections.
c. Advise departments that safety officers will evaluate each department on a
Establishing a Safety Committee or Proves Team to Oversee the Safety Management
a. Take a proactive role to promote and oversee safety activities.
b. Be given the authority to cross departmental boundaries.
c. Take all actions necessary to accomplish program objectives.
d. Be structured to meet the needs of the organization.
It does not require a specific type of safety committee but does require a safety
management proves to help develop, implement, evaluate and resolve safety matters.
Committees or other processes must have representatives from administration, clinical
and support department. Other suggestions include the following:
Make recommendations related to program improvement or revision.
Report safety related activities to upper level management on regular basis.
Maintain documentation of action and results of the management process.
Develop a process of coordination between various departments.
Reasons for Ineffective Safety Programs
Safety efforts focus on activities instead of behavioral elements.
Safety problems and issues are not addressed using a systems approach.
Senior leadership fails to define the organizational safety philosophy.
Safety education and training program focus too much on simply documenting
Leaders fail to address or deal with turf kings and queens.
Effective accident investigation techniques are not implemented.
Root cause analysis methods are used only for patient safety not all safety events.
It also requires a specific type of safety management plan that will provide a
physical environment free of hazards. The plan must address ways to manage staff
activities and reduce the risk of injuries at all campus facilities, as well as:
Outline activities that will reduce the risk of human injury.
Ensure the safety of grounds, facilities and equipment.
Provide readily identified and accessible emergency service areas.
Establish a risk assessment program to evaluate safety.
Provide for the appointment of a qualified safety officer.
Establish accident investigation procedures.
Require departments to develop safety programs.
Require safety training, orientation and education of all employees.
Examine safety issues raised by clinical departments.
Develop plans to promote worker safety.