Measure and Manage Flow in Practice                                   by                              Zsolt Fabok         ...
5 Stories from the life of a team by using        real application and data                     The collected data is the ...
#1 Too many open items
Visualize the situation withCumulative Flow Diagram                                 WIP          point of observation   so...
It offers more than just the WIP...    number of work items                           The Cumulative Flow Diagram         ...
The simplest way of collecting data:Q   3   4   1   2   D~   ~   ~   ~   ~   ~~   ~   ~   ~   ~   ~~       ~       ~   ~~ ...
A quick detour:CFD doesn’t say too much about       the throughput
/* detour */work itemWIP            lead time        time
2                        /* detour */work itemWIP            lead time   throughput
2   2                /* detour */work item
/* detour */  Let’s add more people to theproject so that “things speed up”!
2       2        3                                  /* detour */work item       coordination + communication cost
Actually, “things slow down”, so it was not a good idea (solve the rightproblem instead - systems thinking).              ...
#2 It takes too much   time to deliver
lead time
CFD was not much help here...                         lead time        ...because we didn’t know much about               ...
Distribution of lead times  count  15  13  10   8   5   3   0          1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 22 28 33 56 ...
Some examples of work items with 8-day             lead time   time spent on   time spent waiting  implementation        (...
95%    of the leadtime was spent    on waiting
Distribution of lead times                 Before                          Aftercount                              count  ...
#3 Still too many open      work items
How manytimes the item   has been   rejected
Number of rejected work items count    15    11     8     4     0week 31-32     33-34   35-36   37-38
Number of rejected work items count    15    11     8     4     0week 31-32     33-34   35-36   37-38   39-40   42-43   44...
#4 Being predictable
Sales: “I want to know when thenew features can hit the market!”Management: “I want to knowhow much it will cost me!”
All the work items we had so far        (~20 work items)                         v             ~                    v     ...
Categorizing them into three groups         S                                  v                  ~                  ~    ...
The lead time distribution                                count                                   4                       ...
The lead time distribution                                count                                   4                       ...
The lead time distribution                                count                                   4                       ...
The spent time distribution                                count                                   6                      ...
The spent time distribution                                count                                   6                      ...
#5 Forced improvement
#2 Nothing changed.           Still the same ratio   #1 We decided that we wouldforce ourselves to keep the SLA
Evolution of theteam’s workflow
Final thoughts on measurements
“If you can not measure it,         you can not improve it.”                                  Lord Kelvinhttp://en.wikiped...
“If you start measuring          something you start optimizing it, and I know itsthe wrong thing to optimize.”           ...
The Hawthorne effectmight influence yourmeasurements
The key ideas
1. We develop software not models (value)2. Demand first, supply second3. Observe the system (lead time, throughput)4. Star...
Thank you very much for your attention!http://zsoltfabok.com/               @ZsoltFabok
Measure and Manage Flow in Practice
Measure and Manage Flow in Practice
Measure and Manage Flow in Practice
Measure and Manage Flow in Practice
Measure and Manage Flow in Practice
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Measure and Manage Flow in Practice

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The sixth iteration of this talk, presented at Lean Kanban France 2012 (the previous iteration was presented at Lean Agile Scotland 2012)

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Measure and Manage Flow in Practice

  1. 1. Measure and Manage Flow in Practice by Zsolt Fabok 2012.10.18 Broke the WIP limit TWICE Still on the team@ZsoltFabok #lkfr12http://zsoltfabok.com/ http://lkfr.org/
  2. 2. 5 Stories from the life of a team by using real application and data The collected data is the courtesy of Digital Natives
  3. 3. #1 Too many open items
  4. 4. Visualize the situation withCumulative Flow Diagram WIP point of observation solved
  5. 5. It offers more than just the WIP... number of work items The Cumulative Flow Diagram Done Started Queued backlog WIP cycle time lead time time
  6. 6. The simplest way of collecting data:Q 3 4 1 2 D~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~
  7. 7. A quick detour:CFD doesn’t say too much about the throughput
  8. 8. /* detour */work itemWIP lead time time
  9. 9. 2 /* detour */work itemWIP lead time throughput
  10. 10. 2 2 /* detour */work item
  11. 11. /* detour */ Let’s add more people to theproject so that “things speed up”!
  12. 12. 2 2 3 /* detour */work item coordination + communication cost
  13. 13. Actually, “things slow down”, so it was not a good idea (solve the rightproblem instead - systems thinking). End of the detour.
  14. 14. #2 It takes too much time to deliver
  15. 15. lead time
  16. 16. CFD was not much help here... lead time ...because we didn’t know much about the nature of the lead time
  17. 17. Distribution of lead times count 15 13 10 8 5 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 22 28 33 56 daysaverage *Calculation of medians is a popular technique in summary statistics andmedian* summarizing statistical data, since it is simple to understand and easy to calculate, while also giving a measure that is more robust in the presence of outlier values
  18. 18. Some examples of work items with 8-day lead time time spent on time spent waiting implementation (hours) % (hours) 1 63 98 7 57 90 2 62 97 2 62 97 3 61 96
  19. 19. 95% of the leadtime was spent on waiting
  20. 20. Distribution of lead times Before Aftercount count 15 15 13 13 10 10 8 8 5 5 3 3 0 0 days 1 4 7 10 13 16 33 days 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 22 average median
  21. 21. #3 Still too many open work items
  22. 22. How manytimes the item has been rejected
  23. 23. Number of rejected work items count 15 11 8 4 0week 31-32 33-34 35-36 37-38
  24. 24. Number of rejected work items count 15 11 8 4 0week 31-32 33-34 35-36 37-38 39-40 42-43 44-45
  25. 25. #4 Being predictable
  26. 26. Sales: “I want to know when thenew features can hit the market!”Management: “I want to knowhow much it will cost me!”
  27. 27. All the work items we had so far (~20 work items) v ~ v ~ ~ ~ v ~ v ~ v ~ v v ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ v
  28. 28. Categorizing them into three groups S v ~ ~ v ~ ~ ~ M ~ ~ ~ v v ~ ~ v v L ~ v ~ v
  29. 29. The lead time distribution count 4 3 3 ~ ~ ~ 2M ~ ~ ~ v v ~ ~ v v 1 1 0 days 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 13 16
  30. 30. The lead time distribution count 4 3 3 ~ ~ ~ 2M ~ ~ ~ v v ~ ~ v v 1 1 0 days 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 13 16 SLA
  31. 31. The lead time distribution count 4 3 3 Ex ~ ~ pi ~ 2M ~ ~ ~ v re v ~ ~ v v 1 d 1 0 days 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 13 16 SLA
  32. 32. The spent time distribution count 6 5 4 ~ ~ ~ 3M ~ ~ ~ v v ~ ~ v v 2 1 0 hours 6 7 8 9 10
  33. 33. The spent time distribution count 6 5 4 ~ ~ ~ 3M ~ ~ ~ v v ~ ~ v v 2 1 0 hours 6 7 8 9 10 SLA
  34. 34. #5 Forced improvement
  35. 35. #2 Nothing changed. Still the same ratio #1 We decided that we wouldforce ourselves to keep the SLA
  36. 36. Evolution of theteam’s workflow
  37. 37. Final thoughts on measurements
  38. 38. “If you can not measure it, you can not improve it.” Lord Kelvinhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lord_Kelvin_photograph.jpg
  39. 39. “If you start measuring something you start optimizing it, and I know itsthe wrong thing to optimize.” Paul Graham http://paulgraham.com/swan.html
  40. 40. The Hawthorne effectmight influence yourmeasurements
  41. 41. The key ideas
  42. 42. 1. We develop software not models (value)2. Demand first, supply second3. Observe the system (lead time, throughput)4. Start measuring, look back if necessary5. Manage6. Mind that data expires7. Goto step 3.
  43. 43. Thank you very much for your attention!http://zsoltfabok.com/ @ZsoltFabok

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