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  • 1. Scenarios for biorefinery development in Europe Sofie Dobbelaere, Ghent University www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 2. Scenarios for biorefinery developmentPropose a number of different strategies for thedevelopment of biorefineries in Europe, based on:1. Status of the technology (current and future)2. Availability of renewable resources3. Funding possibilities (pilot plants and demonstration projects)4. Industrial implementation of biorefineries5. Synopsis -> Future concepts www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 3. Scenarios for biorefinery developmentPropose a number of different strategies for thedevelopment of biorefineries in Europe, based on:1. Status of the technology (current and future)2. Availability of renewable resources3. Funding possibilities (pilot plants and demonstration projects)4. Industrial implementation of biorefineries5. Synopsis -> Future concepts www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 4. Status of the technologyOverview of the various routes available for biomass conversion tofuels, chemicals or heat (The Biomass Energy Foundation,http://www.woodgas.com). www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 5. Status of the technology⇒ 4 concepts have been defined: •Green biorefinery •Cereal biorefinery •Oilseed biorefinery •Forest based and lignocellulosic biorefinery⇒ Within each concept several conversion technologies areused www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 6. Overview conversion technologies1. Thermochemical conversion 1.1 Pyrolysis 1.2 Gasification 1.2.1 Biomass gasification 1.2.2 Black Liquor gasification 1.3 Thermochemical Liquefaction 1.4 Combustion2. (Bio)chemical conversion 2.1 Fermentation 2.2 Catalysis 2.3 Biocatalysis 2.4 Anaerobic Digestion 2.5 Hydrolysis 2.6.1 Concentrated acid hydrolysis 2.6.2 Dilute acid hydrolysis 2.6.3 Enzymatic hydrolysis 2.6.4 Comparison of pretreatment processes 2.6 Esterification/Transesterification3. Incineration 3.1 Electrical power generation 3.2 Industrial Process Heat and Steam4. Biomass fractionation 4.1 Size reduction/separation 4.2 Extraction 4.3 Product recovery (distillation) www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 7. Development status of conversion technologies *Adapted from BTG Biomass Technology Group b.v., www.btgworld.com www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 8. Not commercial yet www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 9. General concept of a Biorefinery www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 10. Scenarios for biorefinery developmentPropose a number of different strategies for thedevelopment of biorefineries in Europe, based on:1. Status of the technology (current and future)2. Availability of renewable resources3. Funding possibilities (pilot plants and demonstration projects)4. Industrial implementation of biorefineries5. Synopsis -> Future concepts www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 11. Resource availability⇒ Main feestock groups (cfr. Scheme) • Oilseed crops • Sugar plants • Starch plants • Lignocellulosic biomass • Waste (wet)⇒Overview current availability for main feedstock groups⇒Availability prognoses for 2010 and 2020⇒Impact of European legislation on resource availability⇒Resources and sustainability www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 12. Resource availabilitySupply sector Type ExampleForestry Dedicated forestry Short rotation plantations (e.g. willow, poplar, eucalyptus) Forestry by-products Wood blocks, wood chips from thinningsAgriculture Dry lignocellulosic energy Herbaceous crops (e.g. miscanthus, reed canarygrass, giant reed) crops Oil, sugar and starch energy Oil seeds for methylesters (e.g. rape seed, sunflower) crops Sugar crops for ethanol (e.g. sugar cane, sweet sorghum) Starch crops for ethanol (e.g. maize, wheat) Dry lignocellulosic Straw, prunings from vineyards and fruit trees agricultural residues Livestock waste Wet and dry manureIndustry Industrial residues Industrial waste wood, sawdust from sawmills Fibrous vegetable waste from paper industries Industrial products Pellets, bio-oil (pyrolysis oil), ethanol, biodieselWaste Dry lignocellulosic Residues from parks and gardens (e.g. prunings, grass) Contaminated waste Demolition wood Organic fraction of municipal solid waste Biodegradable landfilled waste, landfill gas Sewage sludge www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 13. Resource availability 160000 140000 120000 100000 1000 ton 80000 EU-15 60000 EU-27 40000 20000 0 er y ze t to nf d ye at s ee rl e Su se e at ta w he ai R rb Q Ba lo Po m W e ga ap in Su ra R GProduction volumes of agricultural crops in the EU-15 and EU-27.Compulsory set-aside 10%. www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 14. Resource availabilityFuture trends in biomass availability in Europe (Nikolaou, 2003). www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 15. Resource availabilityMtoe Biomass Potential, Potential, 2020 Potential, 2030 consumption, 2010 2003Wood direct from 43 39-45 39-72forest (incrementand residues)Organic wastes, 100 100 102wood industry 6743residues,agricultural andfood processingresidues, manureEnergy crops 2 43-46 76-94 102-142from agricultureTOTAL 69 186-189 215-239 243-316EU biomass production potential (EEA, 2006). www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 16. Resource availability⇒Tradeability of different biomass sources: www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 17. Resource availabilityConclusions:scenarios on resource availability will highly depend on European legislation and incentives; new targets for 2020: 20% less energy consumption by better efficiency 20% less CO2 emissions as compared to 1990 20% renewables in the energy supply of the EU as binding target 10% biofuels for transportation as binding target. the kind of products produced (bio-energy or biomaterials); the status of the technology, with first generationtechnologies mainly based on agricultural crops and secondgeneration technologies based on lignocellulosic biomassand waste. www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 18. Scenarios for biorefinery developmentPropose a number of different strategies for thedevelopment of biorefineries in Europe, based on:1. Status of the technology (current and future)2. Availability of renewable resources3. Funding possibilities (pilot plants and demonstration projects)4. Industrial implementation of biorefineries5. Synopsis -> Future concepts www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 19. Funding (Pilot & Demonstration) www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 20. Funding (Pilot & Demonstration) www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 21. Funding (Pilot & Demonstration) www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 22. Funding (Pilot & Demonstration)Funding possiblilities: 1.1 Private funding 1.2 Government funding EU 1.2.1 The European Investment Bank (EIB) 1.2.2 The Risk Sharing Finance Facility (RSFF) 1.2.3 The European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) 1.2.4 The European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) 1.2.5 The 7th Framework Programme (FP7) 1.3 Industrial participation EU 1.4 Government funding US 1.5 Funding by EU member states 1.5.1 The Netherlands 1.5.2 Finland www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 23. Funding (Pilot & Demonstration)Possible scenarios to mobilise additional financial resourcesfor pilot plants and demonstration projects should include thefollowing steps: a mapping of different pilot/demonstration plants already existingin the EU, including a description of available infrastructure; an inventory of future (technological) needs & gaps; better coordination, improving the access (sharing) and use ofpilot plants; access to funding for pilot and demonstration plants should becoordinated and facilitated at EU level; put financing of pilot or demonstration plants for biorefineries onthe next ESFRI roadmap, containing the needs for infrastructures ofpan-European interest for the next 10 to 20 years. www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 24. Scenarios for biorefinery developmentPropose a number of different strategies for thedevelopment of biorefineries in Europe, based on:1. Status of the technology (current and future)2. Availability of renewable resources3. Funding possibilities (pilot plants and demonstration projects)4. Industrial implementation of biorefineries5. Synopsis -> Future concepts www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 25. Industrial implementationPossible scenarios:• Conversion of existing biorefineries into integrated biorefineries• Local integrated/decentralised biorefineries• Industrial clusters• Public-Private Partnership• Joint Venture• Co-location www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 26. Scenarios for biorefinery developmentPropose a number of different strategies for thedevelopment of biorefineries in Europe, based on:1. Status of the technology (current and future)2. Availability of renewable resources3. Funding possibilities (pilot plants and demonstration projects)4. Industrial implementation of biorefineries5. Synopsis -> Future concepts www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 27. Current oilseed biorefinery Protein Feed fraction CrushingOilseeds Refining Transesterification Vegetable oil Methyl ester Transportation(rape, sunflower, Lipid extractionsoybean, palm oil) (biodiesel) fuel Glycerol Lignocellulosic Hydrogenation Hydrocarbon fraction liquid (biodiesel) Chemical/enzymatic Oleochemical products: modifications Fatty acids, alcohols, fatty esters, Heat & ketones, dimer acids, glycerin, … Electricity Deodorizing Food ingredients: & refining Edible oils, lecithin, vit. E, … www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 28. Future Oil & Fat biorefinery Protein FeedOilseeds fraction Crushing(rape, sunflower, Transesterification Refining Vegetable oil Fermentationsoybean, palm oil) Glycerol (Bio)chemical Lipid extraction Chemical conversionsDedicated oil crops Methyl ester Transportatio(Jatropha, algae, …) (biodiesel) n fuel Hydrogenation Hydrocarbon Lignocellulosic fraction liquid (biodiesel) Gasification Chemical/enzymatic Oleochemical products: modifications Fatty acids, alcohols, fatty esters, Catalysis Syngas ketones, dimer acids, glycerin,… CHP Fermentation Biosurfactants, Dicarboxylic acids, … Heat & Transportation Deodorizing & refining Food ingredients: Electricity fuel Edible oils, lecithin, vit. E, … Chemicals www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 29. Future ‘Waste’ biorefineryWaste oil (usedfrying oils UFO, Refining Crude oil Transesterification Methyl ester Transportationanimal fats, grease Lipid extraction (biodiesel) fueland offals) Glycerol waste Hydrogenation Hydrocarbon liquid (biodiesel) Gasification Chemical/enzymatic Oleochemical products: Catalysis modifications Fatty acids, alcohols, fatty esters, Syngas ketones, dimer acids, glycerin,… CHP Transportation fuel Heat & Electricity Chemicals www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 30. Current cereal biorefinery Oil fraction Oil refining Vegetable oils Hydrolysis Wheat gluten Hydrolysates Bakery ingredients Protein fraction Feed (corn steep liquor, corn gluten,…) DDGSCereal grains Extraction Hydrolysis Fermentation Transportation(e.g. maize, Starch Sugars Biocatalysis Ethanol fuelwheat, riceetc.) Fermentation products (citric acid, xanthane) Chemical Polyols, isosorbide conversion Hydrogenation Food ingredients Chemical conversion: Esterification, etherification Starch derivatives Native starch www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 31. Future cereal biorefinery Oil fraction Oil refining Vegetable oils Hydrolysis Wheat gluten Hydrolysates Bakery ingredients Protein fraction Feed (corn steep liquor, corn gluten,…) DDGS Extraction Hydrolysis Fermentation Transportatio Grains Starch Sugars Ethanol Biocatalysis n fuel Fermentation products (citric acid, xanthane) Cereals Chemical conversion Polyols, isosorbide (e.g. maize,wheat, rice etc.) Hydrogenation Food ingredients Whole plant Chemical conversion: Esterification, etherification Starch derivatives Native starchLignocellulosic biomass Chemical / enzymatic Sugars: pentoses/hexoses(straw, husks, bran etc.) Hydrolysis Lignin residues Heat & Electricity Gasification Fischer Tropsch Synthesis Transportation Syngas fuel, chemicals www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 32. Current green biorefinery Protein fraction Food/Feed Native starch Chemical conversion: Esterification, etherification Starch derivatives DDGS FeedStarch plants Extraction Hydrolysis Fermentation Transportatio(e.g. potato, Starch Sugars Ethanol Biocatalysis n fueltapioca, etc.) Fermentation productsSugar plants Extraction (citric acid, xanthane)(sugar beet,sugar cane) Chemical conversion Polyols, isosorbide Hydrogenation Food ingredients Fibres Feed Soluble/insoluble Paper High added value products www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 33. Future green biorefinery Protein fraction Food/Feed Native starch Chemical conversion: Esterification, etherification Starch derivatives DDGS FeedStarch plants Extraction Hydrolysis Fermentation Ethanol Transportation(e.g. potato, Starch Sugars Biocatalysis fueltapioca, etc.) FermentationSugar plants Extraction products(sugar beet, (citric acid,sugar cane) Chemical conversion xanthane, lactic Hydrogenation Polyols, isosorbide acid,…) High added value Food ingredientsGreen productsbiomass Fermentation/separation(grass, clover, Fibres Feedalfalfa) Soluble/insoluble Paper Bio-organic Anaerobic CHP Biogas Heat & Electricity residues digestion Fertilizer Gas distribution network www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 34. Current Forest-based Biorefinery Chemical/mechanicalWood & Pulp Cellulose Paper pulping Black liquor burning Sulphite waste liquor Heat & Electricity Pulping chemicals Lignosulfates www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 35. Future Forest-based Biorefinery Wood & Pulp Chemical/mechanical Cellulose Paper pulping Extraction Heat & Black liquor Chemicals, pharmaceuticals burning Sulphite waste liquor Fermentation Electricity Ethanol, chemicals Gasification LigninPulpingchemicals Fischer Tropsch Synthesis Syngas Transportation fuel, chemicals www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 36. Current Waste Biorefinery Steam CogenerationWaste (wet) Anaerobic Biogas Heat(organic waste, manure, CHP digestionetc.) Electricity Gas distribution network Compost, Acidogenic/methanogenic fertilizer, building digestate products www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 37. Future Waste Biorefinery Soil fertilizer Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation Transportation fuels Commodity chemicals Petrochemicals Steam CogenerationWaste (wet)(organic waste, manure, Direct Heat Oil, gas CHPetc.) Liquefaction Electricity Gas distribution network www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 38. Overall conclusions• Concept depends on EU agricultural policy• Stimulate conversion of existing agroindustries into (integrated) biorefineries• Stimulate R&D for 2nd generation conversion technologies• Facilitate funding of pilot and demonstration plants www.biorefinery-euroview.eu
  • 39. InformationTitle: Current situation and potential of the biorefinery concept in the EU: strategic framework and guidelines for its developmentAcronym: BIOREFINERY EUROVIEWStart date: 1st March 2007Duration: 24 monthsEC Scientific Officer: Dr Piero Venturi, European Commission - DG RTDContacts: Mr Marc Chopplet Industrie & Agro-Resources Cluster contact@biorefinery-euroview.eu Mr Guillaume Jolly Industrie & Agro-Resources Cluster contact@biorefinery-euroview.eu www.biorefinery-euroview.eu