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16 h45 27.07 johannes ruwwe evonik - 2011-07-27 (noticias)


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  • 1. Beyond B5 - A technology view on EU and BrazilJohannes RuwweJuly 27, 2011Biodiesel Congress - Beyond B5
  • 2. Our positioningEvonik is thecreative industrial Groupfrom Germany.2011-07-27 | page | 2
  • 3. An attractive company• One of the global leaders in its core specialty chemicals business• Investments in the energy and real estate sectors2011-07-27 | page | 3
  • 4. Who makes lightweight construction light? We do.2011-07-27 | page | 4
  • 5. placeholder visual Who drives 5.000 km without any gasoline? We do.2011-07-27 | page | 5
  • 6. placeholder visual Who proves that biodiesel can power vehicles other than tractors? We do.2011-07-27 | page | 6
  • 7. Key Figures Sales 2010 €13,3 billion Chemicals €12,9 billion Real Estate €0,4 billion EBITDA €2,365 billion Profitability (EBITDA margin) 17,8% Return on capital employed (ROCE) 15,0% Employees 2010 34.4072011-07-27 | page | 7
  • 8. A presence in over 100 countries2011-07-27 | page | 8
  • 9. 1. A quick view on EU mandates / blends2. Feedstock / raw materials3. Quality issues4. Specifications5. Engine operability6. Conclusion2011-07-27 | page | 9
  • 10. Biofuels mandates: parts of Europe require blends higher than B5EU member statesaddressRenewable EnergyDirective (RED 2009/28)andFuels Quality Directive(FQD 2009/30)by National Action Plans(nREAP’s).These imply:Blending obligations,some higher than B5. source: Kingsman report 2011-07-27 | page | 10
  • 11. Mandates, blends and EU fuel standards:Germany (largest EU market): B4.4 minimum obligation, B7 widely in place; in the past, Germany had a B100 market (in 2007: 1,8 mio t);France (2nd largest EU market): B7 minimum obligation and B7 in place;many other member states have similar obligations and blends in place: B7 is a reality in Europe !Diesel norm EN590: allows up to 7% (v/v) FAME in fossil diesel (since 2009, up from 5% after revision); CEN has mandates to evaluate B10 and also B30. 2011-07-27 | page | 11
  • 12. 1. A quick view on EU mandates / blends2. Feedstock / raw materials3. Quality issues4. Specifications5. Engine operability6. Conclusion2011-07-27 | page | 12
  • 13. EU Biodiesel -production-consumption-feedstock production [mio t/a] Major local feedstock: consumption [mio t/a] - Rapeseed oil - Sunflower oil (very little) - Used oils and animal fats allow double counting for the quota 19 in some member states (UK, NL, D). ? 12 10 Europe is short in feedstock, the gap will become larger with higher 2010 2020 biodiesel volumes for mandates. The shortage is and will be overcome by feedstock and/or biodiesel imports: mainly soybean oil and palm oil based.2011-07-27 | page | 13
  • 14. EU Biodiesel –a view on other raw materials Catalyst: - most processes in the EU run on Alkoxide catalysts (mainly sodium methylate, some potassium methylate), - Evonik used to be the market leader for biodiesel catalysts right from the start of the industry; Methanol: - commodity type product, usually there are no issues in the EU, - some attempts on bio-methanol; Chemicals: - Sulfuric, hydrochloric acid, caustic, … commodity type products, usually no issues.2011-07-27 | page | 14
  • 15. Comparison of the EU and Brazilsupply situation Brazil EU Feedstock / crushing availability allows easily Feedstock is short, Feedstock for growth will rely on imports B7 or even B10 Catalyst is available; Catalyst Evonik has started to Readily available build its South America plant Methanol and Availability not a problem, Readily available chemicals logistics may be lengthy Brazil has really favorable conditions to go beyond B5 !2011-07-27 | page | 15
  • 16. 1. A quick view on EU mandates / blends2. Feedstock / raw materials3. Quality issues4. Specifications5. Engine operability6. Conclusion2011-07-27 | page | 16
  • 17. Biodiesel Quality (I)A good Biodiesel Quality is of utmost importance for - the products acceptance, - trouble-free vehicle operation;Not only true for the EU; make sure to have: - lowest possible content of impurities / contaminants: - (saturated) Mono-Glycerides, - Sterol Glucosides; - the right feedstock in the right climate; - proper Oxidation stability; - proper drying and storage in order to avoid microbial attack; - an efficient and reliable quality system.2011-07-27 | page | 17
  • 18. Biodiesel Quality (II)Impurities / contaminants:In the EU (mainly Scandinavia) - saturated Mono-Glycerides (MGs): were identified as one of the species responsible for filter blocking issues; saturated MGs should be removed, e.g. by a process optimization. - Sterol Glucosides: were identified as potential species to cause delayed precipitation and filter blocking, too; rapeseed oil does not contain as much sterol glucosides as soybean oil, source: The Swedish however, they should be removed. Petroleum Institute2011-07-27 | page | 18
  • 19. Biodiesel Quality (III)Oxidation Stability: filter clogging, injector coking, …very important parameter to avoid problems inthe fuel injection system; corrosionSame test in Brazil and EU (Rancimat, 6h min.). - FAME / diesel norms (for B7) very strongly recommend the use of antioxidants; deposit formation - some EU markets have a mandatory addition of Antioxidants, e.g. France: 1000ppm BHT; resin formation - Antioxidants are the only type of additives that are often required and generally accepted at the refinery / terminal blender level; - a no-harm list for Antioxidants (32 products) is in place in the EU. source: Bosch2011-07-27 | page | 19
  • 20. Biodiesel Quality (IV)Microbial attack on biodiesel and blends: filter cloggingMicrobes are a minor problem in: - Biodiesel: water is dissolved - fossil diesel: water separates;however, in biodiesel blends:water forms small droplets and becomes corrosionaccessible to microorganisms (bacteria, fungi),Bio-fouling / bio-sludge may become an issue:solution: - good housekeeping, - low water content (200ppm), - nitrogen blanketing, source: Schülke&Mayr - if need be: Biocides.2011-07-27 | page | 20
  • 21. Comparison of the EU and Brazilquality prerequisites Brazil EU Quality ANP; AGQM, since 1999; management producers; distributors producers and traders system Cold flow Soy: reasonable Rapeseed: good properties Tallow, Palm: bad Imported feedstock: depends Sterol glucosides: Sterol glucosides: Filterability / high in Soybean oil low in Rapeseed oil contamination mono-glycerides: mono-glycerides: process related process related Oxidation Soy: low Rapeseed: medium to good stability Tallow, Palm: high distilled FAME: bad (UCOME) Microbial attack not related to feedstock or process Brazil feedstock and quality prerequisites are good to go beyond B5 !2011-07-27 | page | 21
  • 22. 1. A quick view on EU mandates / blends2. Feedstock / raw materials3. Quality issues4. Specifications5. Engine operability6. Conclusion2011-07-27 | page | 22
  • 23. B100 specifications – EN 14214 FAME for blends 200ppm water often required Under review: 8h, sometimes already spec SME would fail 120g iodine/100g, however, reasonably accepted Parts of Scandinavia require 0.5 or 0.3% mono-glycerides Alkaline and earth alkaline metals under review: 2ppm ? Phosphorus: already stricter (10 -> 4ppm), under review: 2ppm cfpp requirements: -20 – 0°C regionally and seasonally; No cold soak filter test2011-07-27 | page | 23 Table from: The Biodiesel Handbook, 2nd ed.
  • 24. B100 specifications – NBR 15512 Consider to do better: 200ppm internal spec cfpp under review: 12°C; too relaxed, esp. South Brazil MG, DG, TG required to calculate total glycerin; Keep an eye on MGs ! Consider to do better than Rancimat 6h: 8h2011-07-27 | Table from: The Biodiesel Handbook, 2nd ed. page | 24
  • 25. Comparison of some parameters ofthe EU and Brazil specification Brazil EU MGs listed, however, Mono-glycerides Not specifically listed not totally satisfying Oxidation Should be more strict Should be more strict stability Tallow ME may create cfpp requirement by Cold flow / cfpp problems in the field; season and region; filterability cfpp of 19°C or 12°C: CFIs required too relaxed Both Brazil and EU spec require ongoing review.2011-07-27 | page | 25
  • 26. 1. A quick view on EU mandates / blends2. Feedstock / raw materials3. Quality issues4. Specifications5. Engine operability6. Conclusion2011-07-27 | page | 26
  • 27. Engine operability (1)Biodiesel and Biodiesel blends in the EU are used in - passenger cars, - trucks and heavy duty engines.Passenger cars: For some carmakers’ technologies difficulties with blends >B7 were reported: - engine oil dilution (with fuel), - reduced oil viscosity, potentially resulting in engine problems. Findings: the effect is due to the post injection strategy for diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration; it is limited to short distance operation.2011-07-27 | page | 27
  • 28. Engine operability (2)Trucks and heavy duty engines:Many producers have released large parts of their fleets of trucks, buses, and heavy duty engines for B10 or higher blends, even B100: An extensive list of approvals is available: source: UFOP amendments of the EU Biodiesel norm (EN14214) are implementedto cope with the diesel particulate filter requirements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P).2011-07-27 | page | 28
  • 29. Comparison of operability issues Brazil EU No issues; Passenger Some carmaker see cars virtually no diesel engine upper limit at 7% FAME in passenger car fleet Trucks and Major part of engines Major part of engines heavy duty approved for B0 – B100 approved for B0 – B100 Introduction of blends beyond B5 appears to be easier in Brazil; bio-fraction used in private car fleet is ethanol.2011-07-27 | page | 29
  • 30. 1. A quick view on EU mandates / blends2. Feedstock / raw materials3. Quality issues4. Specifications5. Engine operability6. Conclusion2011-07-27 | page | 30
  • 31. Conclusion Brazil EU Feedstock  ? Catalyst / chemicals   Quality prerequisites   Specification ?  Biodiesel acceptance   - B7 is well introduced in the EU, despite some technical drawbacks and quality issues in the early days; - Major issue in EU is the feedstock situation; - From a technical point-of-view: going beyond B5 seems to be easy for Brazil !2011-07-27 | page | 31
  • 32. Biodiesel in Motorsports No matter how you do it – Quality Biodiesel is a Performance product2011-07-27 | page | 32