when the link makes sense
semantic web: linking data and schemas on the web
fabien, gandon, @fabien_gandon, http://fabien....
le web originel
liens typés…
SEMANTIC WEB STANDARD STACK

W3C®
A WEB OF
LINKED DATA

W3C®
RDF is a triple model i.e. every
piece of knowledge is broken down into
( subject , predicate , object )
doc.html has for author Fabien
and has for theme Music
doc.html has for author Fabien
doc.html has for theme Music
RDFtriples can be seen as arcs
of a graph (vertex,edge,vertex)
(the RDF data model can be seen as a directed labelled mult...
Fabien
author
doc.html
theme
Music
identify what
exists on the
web
http://my-site.fr

identify,
on the web,
what exists
http://animals.org/this-zebra
http://ns.inria.fr/fabien.gandon#me

http://inria.fr/schema#author
http://inria.fr/rr/doc.html
http://inria.fr/schema#them...
http://ns.inria.fr/fabien.gandon#me
http://inria.fr/schema#author
http://inria.fr/rr/doc.html
http://inria.fr/rr/doc.html
...
open and link data in a

global giant graph
<

RDF /> has an XML syntax
RDF has other syntaxes
(Turtle, JSON-LD, Triple)
ratatouille.fr
datatouille.fr
HTTP URI
GET
303
GET
HTML,RDF,…

linked data principles

 Use RDF as data format
 Use HTTP URIs as names for things so t...
May 2007

April 2008

September 2008

Linking Open Data

March 2009

400
300

200
100
0
10/10/2006 28/04/2007 14/11/2007 0...
thematic content
Number of
datasets

Number of
Triples

%

Out links

%

Media

25

1 841 852 061

5,82 %

50 440 705

10,...
query with SPARQL
SPARQL Protocol and RDF
Query Language
e.g. DBpedia
HTTP

SPARQL
Linked Data Platform
REST like access to LD resources & containers
HTTP for accessing, updating, creating and deleting
res...
don’t read
the sign
you loose!
we identify and interpret information,

machines don’t.
180°C+

=?



publish the data schemas

+
=


semantic web
mentioned by Tim BL
in 1994 at WWW

[Tim Berners-Lee 1994, http://www.w3.org/Talks/WWW94Tim/]
PUBLISHED
SEMANTICS
OF SCHEMAS

W3C®
RDFS to declare classes of
resources, properties, and
organize their hierarchy
Document

creator

author

Report

Document...
OWL in one…



algebraic properties
!

union
disjunction
intersection
complement
restriction

1..1

disjoint properties
1...
Discovery Hub (Inria, Alcatel Bell Lucent)
open your data
to those who could use them
watchdogs #wearedata
many data
buried and dormant in web pages
schema

mapping

R2RML

a standard transformation of a
relationnal database in RDF
publication
Datalift process

demo
• one click setup
• raw data import
• RDF transformation
• Web publication
• online que...
RDFa means
RDF in HTML attributs
<div xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/">

<h2 property="dc:title">The trouble wi...
schema.org =

+

+

+

schemas to improve index, search and display e.g:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Creative works, Book, Movie, Mus...
presentation

RDFa, microdata,…

LDP, HTTP, JSON-LD, …
logic

data

R2RML, SPARQL, RDF, …

a (too) fast three-tier summary
http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/wiki/Tools
towards rich webmarks
QAKIS: natural language queries
doggy-bag
web 1, 2
web 1, 2, 3
person
price

homepage?
convert?

more info?
he who controls metadata, controls the web
and through the world-wide web many things in our world.

fabien, gandon, @fabi...
when the link makes sense
when the link makes sense
when the link makes sense
when the link makes sense
when the link makes sense
when the link makes sense
when the link makes sense
when the link makes sense
when the link makes sense
when the link makes sense
when the link makes sense
when the link makes sense
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when the link makes sense

  1. 1. when the link makes sense semantic web: linking data and schemas on the web fabien, gandon, @fabien_gandon, http://fabien.info
  2. 2. le web originel liens typés…
  3. 3. SEMANTIC WEB STANDARD STACK W3C®
  4. 4. A WEB OF LINKED DATA W3C®
  5. 5. RDF is a triple model i.e. every piece of knowledge is broken down into ( subject , predicate , object )
  6. 6. doc.html has for author Fabien and has for theme Music
  7. 7. doc.html has for author Fabien doc.html has for theme Music
  8. 8. RDFtriples can be seen as arcs of a graph (vertex,edge,vertex) (the RDF data model can be seen as a directed labelled multigraph)
  9. 9. Fabien author doc.html theme Music
  10. 10. identify what exists on the web http://my-site.fr identify, on the web, what exists http://animals.org/this-zebra
  11. 11. http://ns.inria.fr/fabien.gandon#me http://inria.fr/schema#author http://inria.fr/rr/doc.html http://inria.fr/schema#theme "Music"
  12. 12. http://ns.inria.fr/fabien.gandon#me http://inria.fr/schema#author http://inria.fr/rr/doc.html http://inria.fr/rr/doc.html http://inria.fr/schema#theme Music
  13. 13. open and link data in a global giant graph
  14. 14. < RDF /> has an XML syntax RDF has other syntaxes (Turtle, JSON-LD, Triple)
  15. 15. ratatouille.fr
  16. 16. datatouille.fr
  17. 17. HTTP URI GET 303 GET HTML,RDF,… linked data principles  Use RDF as data format  Use HTTP URIs as names for things so that people can look up those names  When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information (RDF, HTML, etc.) using content negotiation  Include links to other URIs so that related things can be discovered
  18. 18. May 2007 April 2008 September 2008 Linking Open Data March 2009 400 300 200 100 0 10/10/2006 28/04/2007 14/11/2007 01/06/2008 18/12/2008 06/07/2009 22/01/2010 10/08/2010 26/02/2011 14/09/2011 01/04/2012 September 2011 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/ September 2010
  19. 19. thematic content Number of datasets Number of Triples % Out links % Media 25 1 841 852 061 5,82 % 50 440 705 10,01 % Geography 31 6145 532 484 19,43 % 35 812 328 7,11 % Government 49 13 315 009 400 42,09 % 19 343 519 3,84 % Publications 87 2 950 720 693 9,33 % 139 925 218 27,76 % Inter-domain 41 4 184 635 715 13,23 % 63 183 065 12,54 % Life Sciences 41 3 036 336 004 9,60 % 191 844 090 38,06 % Users’ content 20 134 127 413 0,42 % 3 449 143 0,68 % 295 31 634 213 770 Domains 503 998 829 0% 9% 6% 42% 10% Government Geography Inter-domain 13% Life Sciences Publications 20% Media Users' content
  20. 20. query with SPARQL SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language
  21. 21. e.g. DBpedia
  22. 22. HTTP SPARQL
  23. 23. Linked Data Platform REST like access to LD resources & containers HTTP for accessing, updating, creating and deleting resources from linked data servers. PUT http://data.inria.fr/people/fab Host: data.inria.fr Content-Type: text/turtle HTTP/1.1 <fab> a foaf:Person ; rdfs:label "Fabien" ; foaf:mbox <fabien.gandon@inria.fr> .
  24. 24. don’t read the sign
  25. 25. you loose!
  26. 26. we identify and interpret information, machines don’t.
  27. 27. 180°C+ =?  publish the data schemas + = 
  28. 28. semantic web mentioned by Tim BL in 1994 at WWW [Tim Berners-Lee 1994, http://www.w3.org/Talks/WWW94Tim/]
  29. 29. PUBLISHED SEMANTICS OF SCHEMAS W3C®
  30. 30. RDFS to declare classes of resources, properties, and organize their hierarchy Document creator author Report Document Person
  31. 31. OWL in one…  algebraic properties ! union disjunction intersection complement restriction 1..1 disjoint properties 1..1 ! qualified cardinality individual prop. neg   chained prop. cardinality  equivalence enumeration [>18] value restrict. disjoint union  keys …
  32. 32. Discovery Hub (Inria, Alcatel Bell Lucent)
  33. 33. open your data to those who could use them
  34. 34. watchdogs #wearedata
  35. 35. many data buried and dormant in web pages
  36. 36. schema mapping R2RML a standard transformation of a relationnal database in RDF
  37. 37. publication Datalift process demo • one click setup • raw data import • RDF transformation • Web publication • online querying
  38. 38. RDFa means RDF in HTML attributs <div xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"> <h2 property="dc:title">The trouble with Bob</h2> <h3 property="dc:creator">Alice</h3> ... </div>
  39. 39. schema.org = + + + schemas to improve index, search and display e.g: • • • • • • • • Creative works, Book, Movie, MusicRecording, Recipe, TVSeries ... Embedded non-text objects, AudioObject, ImageObject, VideoObject Event Organization Person Place, LocalBusiness, Restaurant ... Product, Offer, AggregateOffer Review, AggregateRating
  40. 40. presentation RDFa, microdata,… LDP, HTTP, JSON-LD, … logic data R2RML, SPARQL, RDF, … a (too) fast three-tier summary
  41. 41. http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/wiki/Tools
  42. 42. towards rich webmarks
  43. 43. QAKIS: natural language queries
  44. 44. doggy-bag
  45. 45. web 1, 2
  46. 46. web 1, 2, 3 person price homepage? convert? more info?
  47. 47. he who controls metadata, controls the web and through the world-wide web many things in our world. fabien, gandon, @fabien_gandon, http://fabien.info
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