#Code: The Programmed Revolution

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#Code: The Programmed Revolution

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The transformation of business units: all managers and all coders? ...

The transformation of business units: all managers and all coders?

From an expert's language to an accessible language for everyone, code is becoming a "super power", able to unlock creativity, disrupt industries and transform our society.

A tool for innovation, prototyping and acceleration par excellence, code has become the secret weapon of the start-up model. As a new language, will code be the grammar 2.0 that all school children should know in order to develop their critical thinking skills in the digital age? As an economic paradigm, code will necessarily shape future firms by transforming them into real organizations of the 21st century : programmable organizations.

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  • Parler de code comme une révolution et ne pas parler une seule fois de Linus Torvald ou encore Richard Stallman , et donc préferer Gates et Zuckerberg. Présenter le code comme un business plutôt que comme un moyen d'individuation de libération. Sans parler de la propriété intellectuelle, ni des licences... Je suis d'accord sur les chiffres, mais l'approche est purement mercantilisante à des lieux de l'état d'esprits des fameux hackers. Bref un peu déçu par le fond ...
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  • 1. #CODE: THE PROGRAMMED REVOLUTION
  • 2. © faberNovel 2013 ••• 2 THIS WORK IS MADE FOR YOU TO SHARE, REUSE, REMIX, REWORK… It is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-NC-SA license to allow for further contributions by experts and users in the coming months. You are free to share and remix/adapt the work. You must cite this document: FABERNOVEL, #CODE: The Programmed Revolution, May 2014. WHY DO WE RELEASE THIS KIND OF WORK FOR FREE? You may not use this work for commercial purposes. You may distribute a modified work under the same or similar license. Our job is to help big organizations think and act like startups. And we believe that this cannot be achieved without causing people to want to innovate and explore new business models. Our ambition is to inspire you by giving you the keys to understand new trends like API or analyze the success of digital giants like Apple, Amazon, Facebook… or LinkedIn.
  • 3. //3 KEYNOTE_BEGIN #code – la révolution programmée
  • 4. //4 1975: two computer science students, Paul Allen and Bill Gates, created Altair BASIC, the first programming language for microcomputer, which gave birth to Microsoft. 1998: Sergey Brin and Larry Page, PhD students in computer science at Stanford University, started a search engine project named Google. 2004: Former computer science student at Harvard, Mark Zuckerberg launched Facebook, a website connecting students on campus. WITH CODE, THESE MEN CONQUERED THE WORLD
  • 5. //5 …AND NOWADAYS, THE WHOLE WORLD SPEAKS HIGHLY OF CODE “Learning to code is not only important for your future, but also the future of your country”. BARACK OBAMA “Coding is a skill that will empower the next generation in almost any field”. HARRY LEWIS (Former Dean of Harvard College) “I learned how to fly a hot air balloon when I was 30,000 feet up and my life was in the balance: you can learn skills at any age but why wait when we can teach everyone to code now!” RICHARD BRANSON
  • 6. //6 The website Code.org offers 1-hour coding lessons for beginners. LEARNING TO CODE HAS NEVER BEEN THIS EASY! 2014: Launch of an Hour of Code Participants have followed the HOUR of CODE program since January 2014. With ambassadors such as: Mark Zuckerberg, Bill Gates, Google, Yahoo, MSN and Disney. +30 M
  • 7. //7Kevin Systrom, founder & CEO of Instagram Kevin Systrom had a Marketing background when he started to learn himself how to code after office hours. In 2010, Systrom coded Burbn, an HTML5 web app combining Foursquare’s check-in feature with other elements from the Facebook game “Mafia Wars”. After raising $500,000, Systrom decided to turn Burbn into a concept of geolocated photography … Burbn became Instagram. In April 2012, Instagram was acquired for 1 billion dollars by Facebook. EVERYONE CAN GET THIS SUPER POWER
  • 8. //8 Oh, by the way… what is code? #code – la révolution programmée
  • 9. //9 “CODE” IS A SET OF INSTRUCTIONS GIVEN TO MACHINES AN INPUT: • A keyboard • A mouse A REPOSITORY: • A processor • Memory • A storage location AN OUTPUT: • A screen AN INSTRUCTION: The key "A" pressed on the keyboard A COMPUTING ACTION : •  A computing program (which consists of lines of code) is turned on •  The compiler translates these lines of code into a language that can be understood by the machine (“0s and 1s”) A RESULT: The letter "A" appears on the screen We usually call “code” (or source code of a software) a set of instructions which need to be executed by a machine (a processor). Code is realized in the form of written text in a certain programming language. Code gives the possibility to create software that simplify the way we use a machine <A/>
  • 10. //10 EXAMPLE OF A PROGRAMMING INTERFACE
  • 11. //11 “CODING” IS NOTHING NEW These men and women contributed to the development of computer science: CHARLES BABBAGE Inventor of the first machine with mechanical instruction (approx. 1820) GRACE HOPPER American computer scientist behind the first compiler in the 1950’s BILL GATES & PAUL ALLEN Co-founders of Microsoft in 1975 MARK ZUCKERBERG Founder of Facebook in 2004 ADA LOVELACE Creator of the first algorithm (in the 1840’s) <2010s: all coders?/>
  • 12. //12 THE MACHINES WE PROGRAM ARE IMPROVING QUICKLY Programmable loom 1850 Tablets & smartphones Internet of thingsComputer 1950
  • 13. //13 Code is not only a technical tool… #code – la révolution programmée
  • 14. //14 Born in 1960 at MIT, “hacking” has grown into a real counterculture. Hacking means solving problems by tweaking objects in order to hijack their primary functions. Hackers are curious tweakers, snoopers motivated by intellectual challenge, game and exchange. …BUT ALSO A COUNTERCULTURE: HACKING
  • 15. //15 ...FOUNDED ON ETHICAL PRINCIPLES PRACTICE Learning by deconstructing, tweaking and testing. FRUGALITY Code should be « esthetic » by its minimalism and frugality. A program should do the most with the least possible lines of code. PROGRESS Computer science is a source of technological and social progress. Technology must be constantly improved. MERITOCRACY A hacker must be judged by the quality of her code, not by her degree. SHARE A hacker can rely on a community to construct and improve existing projects. ACCESS Free and full access to knowledge and machines. Source: Hackers: Heroes of the computing revolution. Steven Levy Hackers’ ethics (a non-exhaustive list)
  • 16. //16 #code – la révolution programmée Ever simpler and accessible for everyone, code is becoming a ‘‘super power’’ able to unlock creativity, disrupt industries and transform the society, code has become the symbol of a revolution… … a ‘‘programmed revolution’’.
  • 17. //17 PART 1 Code: secret of the startup model #CODE: THE PROGRAMMED REVOLUTION PART 2 Code: coding hacks the classroom PART 3 Code: the open space rockstar
  • 18. PART 1 Code: secret of the startups model …Or how code hacks strategic management
  • 19. //19 BUILD-MEASURE-LEARN: The Lean Startup1 approach Developed by Eric Ries in 2008, the Lean Startup approach is an entrepreneurial model which relies on quickly turning ideas into testable products (Minimum Viable Product), and on the generation of lessons learned (Validated Learning) through user tests and data. These short iterations should enable a startup to pivot quickly (change or refine its concept) and come up with better solutions to user problems. A model partly inspired by software development The Lean Startup approach is partly inspired by methods of agile software development (based on very short iterations, hypothesis-test-adaptation) But also by the minimalist ethic (frugality) of code i.e. achieving the most with the least resources. AN AGILE MODEL OF DEVELOPMENT INSPIRED BY SOFTWARE 1The term « Lean » comes from « Lean Manufacturing »
  • 20. //20 "Fail often to succeed soonner" TOM KELLEY Ideo In the light of rapid prototyping, a team able to code its own application or website, even if in a basic form, will be able to measure and judge the quality of its concept quickly. The force is also about the capacity of communicating ideas to others in a way more concrete than words. CODE CAN ACCELERATE THE IDEA-TO-PRODUCT PROCESS
  • 21. //21 Programming is based on the capacity of the Internet to make knowledge available and accessible. Wikis, forums and other collaborative platforms for developers have been created: COLLABORATION TO SIMPLIFY ACCESS TO EXTERNAL KNOW- HOW 2.7 million users3.5 million users 10 million hosted projects 7.1 million answers Source: Wikipedia
  • 22. //22 GITHUB: “THE SOCIAL NETWORK” FOR CODERS Projects are hosted on the platform and can be shared with the community Coding instructions from users (wiki) A social network to follow projects, people and flows 1 2 3
  • 23. //23 STACK OVERFLOW: THE “QUORA” FOR CODERS A forum where everyone can ask questions about coding A system where answers are rated and the most convincing ones are put forward A social network where everyone has their own expertise and to whom we can ask questions directly 1 2 3
  • 24. //24 OPENNESS: A NEW R&D MODEL OPEN SOURCE Firefox is a web and mobile browser developed with the help of thousands of volunteers using the open source and free software method (distributed under the free Mozilla Public License) OPEN API Facebook Developers provide third-party developers with Facebook data and functionalities (through its APIs) to help them create innovative services. OPEN DATA Dataparis.io is a data visualization projet created from the open data of INSEE, RATP and the City of Paris. Open Innovation is able to reduce R&D costs, simplify data distribution and increase creativity
  • 25. //25 A hackathon (contraction of Hack and Marathon) is a programming contest within a short deadline (generally over a weekend) which brings together multidisciplinary teams (developers, designers…). Launched by large organizations (e.g. RATP in France) and startups (e.g. Facebook), this initiative makes it possible to quickly spark new concepts by calling on the creativity of teamwork. A Hackathon can be organized internally (collaborators of the firm) or externally. Hackathons are controversial, however they demonstrate the great willingness of firms to promote open and participative innovation. HACKATHON: RIVALRY STIMULATES INNOVATION “Major innovations born from hackathons happen at least once a year” PEDRAM KEYANI Engineering manager @Facebook The "Like button" on Facebook was created during an internal hackathon
  • 26. PART 2 Code: coding hacks the classroom
  • 27. //27 “READING, WRITING, COUNTING…CODING?” DIGITAL LITERACY Digital literacy is key in a digitalized society. COMPUTATIONAL THINKING The strength of code is not only about learning programming languages themselves, but also the logical problem-solving approach, based on the fundamentals of computing theory. ACCESS TO FUTURE JOBS Code gives the possibility to train for digital jobs which do not exist yet. FREEDOM BY KNOWLEDGE Code enables engagement. “Empowerment” by code or “hacktivism” are ways to improve our world and defend liberty. THE VIRTUE OF CODE IS MORE AND MORE RECOGNIZED:
  • 28. //28 We don’t train our students to become users of tools created by others… We want to teach them how to create these tools and innovate by themselves. A DISCIPLINE WHICH NURTURES CRITICAL THINKING GILLES DOWEK French computer scientist and professor at Ecole Polytechnique
  • 29. //29 SCHOOLS MUST ADAPT TO THE LABOR MARKET 1,000,000 MORE JOBS TO FILL ASIDE FROM AVAILABLE TALENTS in 2020 concerning jobs in computing science in the U.S. 1.4 millionjob offers in computing science 400,000 graduate students in computing science
  • 30. //30 …BUT CODING CAN BE LEARNED ON YOUR OWN NEW STRUCTURES NEW MEDIA NEW METHODS
  • 31. //31 …ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS ARE EMERGING BEYOND THE TRADITIONAL SYSTEM NEW STRUCTURES NEW MEDIA NEW METHODS
  • 32. //32 Many movements aim to promote coding and programming among the young generation (right from 6 years old). Game designing, robot animation, connected objects manufacturing… These workshops are based on the creativity of the youngest and the educational effort from digital experts. CODING AFTER SCHOOL Kids Coding Club Kids Coding Club develops the creativity of the young generation (and their parents), through code, games, robots or connected objects. CoderDojo An international movement in 400 cities and 43 countries to train the youngest to code for free. Coding Goûter A monthly event gathering together kids, parents and developers around code and Lego: "If we don’t have fun, it’s that we are not doing what we should." - Raphaël Pierquin, founder.
  • 33. //33 New schools have been created or adapted to meet the demand for computing talents MAKE WAY FOR THE GRANDES ÉCOLES OF CODE ! ECOLE 42 Computer science school founded by Xavier Niel (Iliad – Free) in 2013. The school is accessible for all (no degree required) from 18 to 30 and offers enhanced courses in programming and digital innovation. EPITECH Epitech is a private school specialized in computer science and new technologies. It is accessible for bachelors and lasts 5 years.
  • 34. //34 // SIMPLON 55 rue de Vincennes 93100 Montreuil Simplon.co est une fabrique accélérée et rémunérée de développeurs web vouée à accompagner des porteurs de projets numériques, et prioritairement tournée vers les débutants en informatique et les profils sous-représentés dans l'entrepreneuriat digital et le web (filles, jeunes des quartiers populaires ou de zones rurales, personnes en situation de handicap, seniors). CODE: VECTOR OF E-INCLUSION Simplon.co is an accelerated factory of web developers who accompany non-coders towards the creation of digital projects. Simplon focuses on beginners and digital minorities (girls, young adults in working-class neighborhoods or rural areas, disabled people, seniors). Among other initiatives throughout the world:
  • 35. //35 … ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS ARE EMERGING …SOFTWARE REMPLACES TEACHERS NEW STRUCTURES MEW MEDIA NEW METHODS
  • 36. //36 SOFTWARE SIMPLIFIES CODE LEARNING MIT SCRATCH An intuitive programming tool developed by MIT in 2006. The lines of code are generated automatically by software, which allows the user to concentrate on their logic. GAME SALAD Game Salad is a tool for designing tablet and mobile games. Thanks to simplified interfaces, it enables all "illiterates of code” to create animations and interactions. KODU Kodu is a game designing software developed by Microsoft which uses the principle of graphic programming. The programs are produced by assembling graphic elements instead of lines of code.
  • 37. //37 E-LEARNING: INTERFACE FOR SELF-LEARNING CODECADEMY •  A plateforme to learn to code on your own •  5 million users in 2012. OPEN CLASSROOMS •  800 free online courses in computer science and other scientific disciplines •  600,000 teachers and students •  3 million visits in 2012. KHAN ACADEMY •  10 million users per month •  100,000 online exercises •  Various disciplines including "Computer science" and "Computer programming".
  • 38. //38 … ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS ARE EMERGING …CLOSE YOUR NOTEBOOKS AND GET STARTED! NEW STRUCTURES NEW MEDIA NEW METHODS
  • 39. //39 PROGRAMMABLE HARDWARE: LEARNING BY SMALL TASKS! ARDUINO An Arduino is a printed circuit available for around $50 and gives the possibility to design homo- automation and robotic projects. The force lies in its low cost approach and its extremely well developed community. MAKEY MAKEY This is an electronic circuit which helps transform all objects into a keyboard. It becomes thus possible to make music, play video games by using a fruit, an eraser or a stone. LEGO MINDSTORMS & WEDO Mindstorms and WeDo are programmable Lego bricks. This initiative is part of the Lego Education program. The bricks become programmable via MIT’s Scratch.
  • 40. //40 These new structures, tools and methods for code learning are starting to prove successful #code – la révolution programmée
  • 41. //41 THEY KNEW NOTHING ABOUT CODE… BUT STILL… …SHE CODED A SOCIAL APPLICATION TO HELP THE DISABLED Thanks to courses that she followed at Simplon, Audrey Sovignet created WheelShare, an app that aims to geolocalize and share stories of the disabled people so that they can travel more easily in the city. Audrey has been rewarded by “Concours Biilink”, a social network of women entrepreneurs supported by Fleur Pellerin. …HE CODED AN APPLICATION WITHIN 16 WEEKS Thanks to courses given by a developer, Leo Grand has developed a mobile application in 16 weeks. Trees for Cars is a carpooling application that allows New Yorkers to compare CO2 emissions between traveling with and without carpooling. The Facebook page of Trees for Cars is followed by 50,000 people and the application is available for $0,99. @AudreySovignet founder of iWheelShare Leo Grand founder of Trees for Cars
  • 42. Code: the open space rockstar
  • 43. //43 Having bright, talented, creative minds developing innovative technology solutions for our businesses just makes sense. CODE INVADES OPEN SPACE! JAMIE DIMON Chairman & CEO @JPMorgan Chase
  • 44. //44 CODE GIVES BIRTH TO NEW “TALENTS” IN-HOUSE HACKERS Operational Developers for business units DATA SCIENTISTS Data experts for business GROWTH HACKERS Marketers on steroids New profiles are starting to spring up in organizations, and they might become indispensable in the future
  • 45. //45 Integrated into business units (Marketing, HR, Sales, Logistics), an In-House Hacker (or Operational Developer) is a “tweaker”, able to actively respond to all specific demands from operational staff that cannot be quickly met by the IT department. They know how to code, how to find low cost tools available online and how to use internal APIs of the firm. An In-House Hacker should be able to quickly come up with creative solutions to specific problems, such as: •  “I need to quickly create a web page for a marketing event that takes place tomorrow morning”, •  “I need to couple my client data with information from their Facebook profiles”, •  “I want to generate an automatic message for each new follower on twitter”. IN-HOUSE HACKERS: OPERATIONAL DEVELOPERS FOR BUSINESS UNITS
  • 46. //46 Their goal: increase your number of users online From Growth and Hacking, Growth Hacking has been developed in response to 2 majors problems encountered by startups: the lack of money, and the lack of traditional knowledge in marketing. A Growth Hacker relies on digital technics (newsletter, SEO, social media…), metrics and viral “tricks” to rapidly gain a critical mass of users. SEAN ELLIS Pioneer in Growth Hacking Sean Ellis helped startups like LogMeln, DropBox or Eventbrite achieve dazzling growth. As the inventor of the term “Growth Hacking”, he launched GrowthHackers.com, a global platform for the growth hacking community worldwide. GROWTH HACKERS: MARKETERS ON STEROIDS
  • 47. //47 “Data Scientist” is a term coined in 2008 by 2 engineers at LinkedIn and Facebook. The role of a data scientist is to mix mathematics, statistics and computer science to reveal business insights. A profession born with Big Data Data are nowadays everywhere and everyone can collect huge amounts of data. A data scientist uses these data to transform them into actionable information (insights) for decision markers (e.g. observation of causal links between sales and twitter activities). DATA SCIENTISTS: DATA EXPERTS FOR BUSINESS Source: Journal du Net
  • 48. //48 Which impacts on my organisation ? #code – la révolution programmée
  • 49. //49 The development and the personalization of internal applications still remains in the expert hands of IT teams. Quite often, any demand that concerns the evolution of a management tool is treated as a particular IT project, which requires time and resources for everyone. TODAY, PROGRAMMING IS STILL AN I.T. THING
  • 50. //50 IT will gradually become an internal consulting department. IT will take care of the technical architecture of the firm and will provide other departments (HR, Marketing, Logistics…) with tools (API, SDK…) in order to quickly adapt their processes and digital applications according to their needs. For example: •  The HR department will be able to develop its own recruitment tools thanks to internal APIs provided by the IT department as well as external APIs (e.g. LinkedIn API) •  The Marketing Department will be able to personalize its CRM with the access to CRM API and external APIs (Twitter, Facebook…) TOMORROW, CODING WILL BECOME A BUSINESS SKILL
  • 51. //51 Your clients will develop their personalized interfaces and service offers from the data and functionalities that you provide them. They will be more and more able to match your data and functionalities with the ones of other services in order to construct the best solutions to their problems. IN THE FUTURE: TOWARDS THE PROGRAMMABLE FIRM
  • 52. //52 Your clients are coding, your competitors are coding and your firm becomes programmable… In order to stay competitive, FABERNOVEL helps you decrypt the impact of code on your business #code – la révolution programmée
  • 53. //53 CODING LAB A day dedicated to the transformation of business organizations by “code” “I have learned enough not to get lost in my current job. I can ask relevant questions and can even be against developer’s decisions if needed.” JON EINKAUF Product manager @Amazon AWS Preface of the 101 to Computer Science at Harvard Within a day, the CODING LAB aims at providing decision markers with all the necessary tools to anticipate the coding revolution, and manage their business and talents in the era of programmable firms. Contact: cyril.vart@fabernovel.com
  • 54. Cyril VART Partner, VP Strategy and Development cyril.vart@fabernovel.com +33 1 42 72 20 04 17 rue du faubourg du Temple 75010 Paris – France T. +331 42 72 20 04 F. +331 42 72 20 03 Antonin TORIKIAN Project Director Antonin.torikian@fabernovel.com +33 1 42 72 20 04 FOR MORE INFORMATION FABERNOVEL CONTRIBUTORS : Louis Moullard, Project Analyst Thomas Borie, Junior Project Manager Benoît Talabot, Art Director Jules Mahé, Junior Art Director ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Simplon.co Frédéric Bardeau, co-founder of Simplon.co Ori Pekelman
  • 55. //55//55 Because it teaches you how to think, everyone should learn how to code... STEVE JOBS (1955-2011) Entrepreneur and founder of Apple ‘‘
  • 56. 56 FABERNOVEL was founded 10 years ago with the belief that the association of the two seemingly opposite forces – the titans of the global industry and the up-and-comers of the startup world – maximize the value of the two ecosystems. We are a platform where industrials and startups collaborate, construct and accelerate. San Francisco // New York // Lisbonne // Paris // Moscou ABOUT FABERNOVEL
  • 57. 57// // NEW YORK 150 West 25th St. , Suite 503 New York, NY 10001 +1415 298 02 09 meet_nyc@fabernovel.com // MOSCOW 3-iy Monetchikovskiy Peureulok 17, Stroenie 2 Moscow 11054 Russia +7(999) 639 80 82 meet_moscow@fabernovel.com // PARIS 17 rue du faubourg du Temple 75010 Paris +33 1 42 72 20 04 meet_paris@fabernovel.com // SAN FRANCISCO 169 11th St. San Francisco, CA 94103 USA +1415 626 6406 meet_sf@fabernovel.com
  • 58. //58 Pages 2, 7, 12, 15, 41, 56: Photo arrière plan: Shutterstock.com Page 3: Photo - Condenast.com Page 4: Photo 1 - Nbclatino.com // Photo 2 - Meltybuzz.fr // Photo 3 - Intelligencesquaredus.org Page 5: Photo - Code.org Page 6: Photo - Forbes.com Page 10: Photo 1 – Wikipedia.org // Photo 2 - TV5.org // Photo 3 - Microsoft.com // Photo 4 - Business Insider // Photo 5 - Neptuneofcourse.com Page 11: Photo 1 – Wikipedia.org // Photo 2 - Plantsciences.edu // Photo 3 - Iphone-6g.fr // Photo 4 – Engadget.com Page 13: Photo - Hightechhistory.com Page 16: Photo 1, 2 et 3 - Shutterstock.com Page 19: Photo 1 - Speckycdn.com // Photo 2 - Isource.com Page 21: Screenshots - Github.com Page 22: Screenshots - Stackoverflow.com Page 24: Photo - Wired.com Page 28: Photo 1 - Maraval.org // Photo 2 - Shutterstock.com Page 30: Données - Code.org Page 34: Photo 1 - FranceInfo.fr // Photo 2 - Siteduzero.com Page 35: Photo – Simplon.co Page 37: Photo 1 - Wikipedia.org // Photo 2 - Microsoft.com // Photo 3 - Gamesalad.com Page 38: Photo 1 - Autobiologbook.com // Photo 2 - Openclassrooms.com // Photo 3 - Discoverwebsbest.com Page 40: Photo 1 - Wikipedia.org // Photo 2 - Mrcharlwood.blogspot.com // Photo 3 - Legoengineering.com Page 42: Photo 1 - Latribune.fr // Photo 2 - Businessinsider.com Page 45: Photo - Sfexaminer.com Page 47: Photo - 01net.com Page 48: Photo - Engineer.typemag.jp Page 49: Photo - Apidays.io / Fabernovel Page 50: Photo - Bluenotetechnologies.com CREDITS: