Current issues and trends in Seed Industry, BioAsia 2010
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Current issues and trends in Seed Industry, BioAsia 2010

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CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES IN SEED INDUSTRY-TECHNOLOGICAL INTERVENTION IN DEVELOPMENT OF HYBRIDS

CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES IN SEED INDUSTRY-TECHNOLOGICAL INTERVENTION IN DEVELOPMENT OF HYBRIDS

-Dr. Arvind Kapur
CEO, Vegetable Seed Division, RASI Seeds Pvt. Ltd.

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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
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  • nice ppt
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  • Dear Sir,
    Indeed it's a very good and informative presentation.
    Thanking you
    Dr. S.C.Biswas
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  • Dear Arvind,
    Many of the slides (11-13, 21-30 and 37) were developed and are under copyright by the International Seed Federation (ISF). You have copied them as such into your presentation. This should have been mentioned in your presentation.
    Marcel Bruins
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Current issues and trends in Seed Industry, BioAsia 2010 Current issues and trends in Seed Industry, BioAsia 2010 Presentation Transcript

  • FEB. 4 th ,2010 DR ARVIND KAPUR CEO VEGETABLE SEED DIVISION RASI SEEDS (P) LTD CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES IN SEED INDUSTRY-TECHNOLOGICAL INTERVENTION IN DEVELOPMENT OF HYBRIDS
  • AGRICULTURE AND CLIMATE WILL CONTINUOUSELY IMPACTED BY HUMAN ACTIVITIES WITHOUT WAITING FOR THE COPENHAGEN DEBATE TO BE CONCLUSIVE FACTS OF AGRICULTURE
  • FOOD PRODUCTION TARGETS AND ISSUES BY 2020 India needs more than 320 mn Ton of food ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
    • Land and water resources are shrinking
    • Productivity is still low in many crops
    • Productive agricultural land is still under less productive seed
    • Heavy dependence on Monsoon and optimum weather conditions
    • Comprehensive agricultural policies are inadequate
    • Combined effort of public and private sector in agriculture is still lacking
  • THE WORLD SEED MARKET (billions $) Total Seed Field Seeds Vegetable Flower Commercial Seeds 15 15 15 33% 33% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 50 Billion Including Farmers Saved Seed Total Seed Field Seeds Vegetable Flower Commercial seed market 6.8 b$ Vegetable Seed 27.2 b $ Cereal Seed (20.3 non GM+6.9 GM) 20% vegetable seed 80% Field & other seed 34 Billion
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  • Indian Seed Industry
    • Indian seed market is one of the largest seed market, dominated by open pollinated seeds
    • Hybridization gaining pace
    • There are around 200 private players & 14 Government organizations
    • Public sector is mainly handling high volume-low value seeds of cereals, pulses & oilseeds
  • INDIAN SEED INDUSTRY
    • Total Seed Industry is worth about 7500-8000 crore
    • Cereal industry is worth 6000 crore approximately
    • About 1/3 rd is contributed by cotton worth 2000crores
    • Rice OP and hybrids contribute about 1000crores
    • Millet hybrids contribute 500 Crore
    • corn contributes around 800 crore
    • Vegetable seed industry is worth 1500 crore
  • The Seed Industry - a Time Line • 1740 - 1850: First companies specialising in horticultural crops established • 1850 - 1900: Modern Plant Breeding begins • Public sector involvement in plant breeding and protection of farmer & consumer interests • New companies established for numerous crops • First National Seed Associations established • 1900-1970s: Transition and Modernization • Growth of the seed sector, private and public Sector
  • The Seed Industry –a Time Line 1970s -First wave of consolidation • Chemical & oil industry acquire seed companies – 1980s -Biotechnology in plant breeding • DNA marker assisted selection, genetic engineering – 1990s -Second wave of consolidation • Birth of ‘life-science’ companies – International Treaties and Conventions with impact on the seed industry (UPOV, CBD, CPB, IT-PGRFA)
  • The Seed Industry Today 1.Increasing global seed market 2.Growing use of hybrid seed with several technological components(e.g. seed coatings) 3.Growing international seed trade 4.Increasing number of regulations 5.Increasing number of multinational companies
  • Present Area of Cereal Crops in India Area in Million hectare
  • Seed Production in FY-2009 CROPS Qty. in M.T Maize 80000 Sunflower 8000 Pearl Millet 20000 Hybrid Rice 20000-25000 Sorghum 12000 cotton 32 mn packet Reasearch varieties OP of Rice 60,000
  • Global Seed Market Split Tomato fresh indet. 11% Cabbage 7% Sweet pepper 7% Lettuce 7% Watermelon 5 % Onion 5% Seed Vegetable seed Melon 5 % Chinese cabbage 5 % Hot pepper 5% Carrot 4% Tomato fresh set. 3% Internal assessment Cotton 3% Canola 5% Vegetables 18% Corn 32% Rice 10% Other 6% Potato 4% Sunflower 2% Barley 2% Sugar Beet 2% Wheat 4% Soybean 12%
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  • CRADLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPED MUST BE CARRIED FROM TO GRAVE Investments Value Recovery
  • FOOD SAFETY MUST BE ENSURED FROM FARM TO FORK Without toxic compounds
  • Contributions of Plant Breeding Yield
  • Contributions of Plant Breeding Yield
    • Winter wheat yields: trebled over the past 60 years
    • 2.5 tonnes/ha (mid-1940s) to 8 tonnes/ha today.
    • NIAB study 2008: wheat, barley, oats
    • 300 varieties (>3 yrs), 3600 trials, 53.000 data points
    • 1947-1986: 50% of increase in yield attributed to plant breeding.
    • Rest to fertilizers, crop protection products, crop husbandry and machinery (Silvey, 1986)
    • Since 1982: 90% of all yield increase due to introduction of new varieties (yield : 5t/ha =>8t/ha)
  • Contributions of Plant Breeding
  • Contributions of Plant Breeding Biotic stress resistance Plant Breeding has provided 10.000s of resistant varieties to: • Fungi • Insects • Viruses • Bacteria • Nematodes • Water molds
    • Contributions of Plant Breeding
    • Yield
    • • Resistance to biotic stress
    • • Tolerance to abiotic stress
    • • Earliness •Shelf-Life
    • • Size •Taste
    • • Quality •Labour cost
    • Firmness •Harvest ability
    • • Plant type •Dwarfness
  • Annual global level of lost food production $85 billion caused by pathogens $46 billion caused by insects UK: disease resistance alone saves 100 million GBP/yr in crop protection products
  • Gemini viruses in tomato • Tomato YellowLeafCurlVirus • 1990s: Destroyed 95% of tomato harvest in Dom. Rep. • In 1991/1992: 140 million USD damage in Florida. • Now resistant varieties
  • Contributions of Plant Breeding Abiotic stress tolerance Plant Breeders focus on tolerance for: • Herbicides (95 billion USD / yr lost on weeds 380 million tonnes of wheat) • Drought(90 million people affected/yr) • Flood (106 million people affected/yr) • Salt (900 million ha affected) • Better nutrient uptake
  • 124 million people / yr in 118 countries affected by Vit. A deficiency (1-2 million deaths) • Rice: staple crop for half of mankind • Rice varieties developed with higher levels of carotenoids=> ‘Golden rice’ • Market release 2011? • 70 IP rights from 32 companies relinquished Contributions of Plant Breeding Nutritional quality
  • Contributions of Plant Breeding Responding to the challenges • Food security& Hunger alleviation • Increase nutritional values • Reduction of pesticides / fossil fuels • Reduction GHG emissions • Land saving/ Decrease deforestation • Conserve biodiversity • Increase carbon sequestration
  • CROP IMPROVEMENT EVOLUTION vs. REVOLUTION Slow Random Stability ? Focus ? Environment GERMPLASM BASE VARIETAL BREEDING PEDIGREE BREEDING G x E INTERACTION ACCESSION OF GENES GENETIC TRANSFORMATION ACCELERATED INTROGRESSION THROUGH MAB Fast Specific Stable Focused
  • GENE HUNTING Discovery research Lab research (REFINEMENT) Transformation Protocol Development TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT GENE CLONING GENE FUNCTIONS GENE MODIFICATION GENE CONSTRUCT
  • Regeneration protocol development of target plant species Transformation stabilization Selection of best transformation for fertilization Product development with trait
  • THREE LEGGED STOOL MODEL TOWARDS DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTS BIOTECHNOLOGY PRODUCT PRODUCT GERMPLASM GERMPLASM GERMPLASM BREEDING BREEDING PRODUCT
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  • SEED PRODUCTION ISSUES
    • Large area for seed production to achieve the SRR targets
    • Seed production systems have to be improved
    • Seed production contract should be legal to avoid cross purchases
    • Seed production per unit area needs improvement
    • CMS or other systems to be introduced in some crops like cotton and many vegetable crops
    • Seed production areas should be ear marked as seed valleys
  • Contributions of Plant Breeding Conclusion: Enormous contribution so far Tremendous potential BEST STILL TO COME
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  • THANKS