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Ideology, EducationIdeology, Education
And Identity In IndiaAnd Identity In India
BY . MOHAMMAD IRFAN ALIBY . MOHAMMAD IRF...
ContentsContents
 IdeologyIdeology
 Relationship between Education andRelationship between Education and
ideologyideolog...
 Political aspects of education,Political aspects of education,
 Education and politics of nationalEducation and politic...
 Ideology , education and identities inIdeology , education and identities in
India,India,
 What kind of nation is India...
 Indian Text books and extremistIndian Text books and extremist
Hindu view of history.Hindu view of history.
 Glorificat...
What is Ideology ..?What is Ideology ..?
 When a system of beliefs function to shapeWhen a system of beliefs function to ...
Ideologies as cognitive systems.
 Several cognitive systems serve man in discovering and inventing
the meaning of the wor...
Education, an ideologicalEducation, an ideological
legitimizationlegitimization
 Education in modern society functions by...
Functions of IdeologyFunctions of Ideology
 Controls people's behavior, but people do not control theirControls people's ...
Relationship between EducationRelationship between Education
and ideology ..and ideology ..
 Educational decisions are al...
Clients of EducationClients of Education in a Countryin a Country
 Education is meant to serve three masters. Its three c...
The basic questions of education, in theThe basic questions of education, in the
context of ideologycontext of ideology..
...
The basic questions of education, in theThe basic questions of education, in the
context of ideology.context of ideology.
...
Functions of Education in formation ofFunctions of Education in formation of
ideology and identityideology and identity .....
Functions of Education in formation ofFunctions of Education in formation of
ideology and identityideology and identity .....
Factors which influence the national educationFactors which influence the national education
system of a country and form ...
Factors which influence the national educationFactors which influence the national education
system of a country and form ...
Political aspects of education inPolitical aspects of education in
context of ideology formationcontext of ideology format...
Education and the politics ofEducation and the politics of
national identity;national identity;
 National identity--- nat...
Role of text books in creating theRole of text books in creating the
identity.identity.
 The texts books represents much ...
National Identity, Religion andNational Identity, Religion and
National Education SystemNational Education System
 Religi...
Ideology , Education and IdentityIdeology , Education and Identity
in Indiain India
 What kind of nation is India.What ki...
Nehruvion vision of nationalNehruvion vision of national
identityidentity
 It was Nehruvion vision of national identityIt...
Key features of Indian EducationKey features of Indian Education
SystemSystem
Key aims of Indian education system wereKey ...
India’s Redefinition of NationalIndia’s Redefinition of National
Identity Through Education.Identity Through Education.
Hi...
Concerns raised by minoritiesConcerns raised by minorities
about Indian education systemabout Indian education system
 Pr...
Indian Text books and extremistIndian Text books and extremist
Hindu view of historyHindu view of history
Four strata cast...
Indian Text books and extremistIndian Text books and extremist
Hindu view of historyHindu view of history
 Class of 6,7,1...
Hinduism the sources of allHinduism the sources of all
human wisdomhuman wisdom
 Iran was first settled by Indian,,Iran w...
ConclusionConclusion
 India has been used as an example toIndia has been used as an example to
depict how religious natio...
THANKSTHANKSTHANKSTHANKS
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Transcript of "Ideology, Education, and Identities."

  1. 1. Ideology, EducationIdeology, Education And Identity In IndiaAnd Identity In India BY . MOHAMMAD IRFAN ALIBY . MOHAMMAD IRFAN ALI ROLL NO: 20ROLL NO: 20
  2. 2. ContentsContents  IdeologyIdeology  Relationship between Education andRelationship between Education and ideologyideology  Basic elements in any Educational stateBasic elements in any Educational state..  The basic questions of education, accordingThe basic questions of education, according to the ideological components:to the ideological components:  Functions of education in formation ofFunctions of education in formation of ideology and identity .ideology and identity .  Factors which influence the nationalFactors which influence the national education system and form identity andeducation system and form identity and ideology of a country.ideology of a country.
  3. 3.  Political aspects of education,Political aspects of education,  Education and politics of nationalEducation and politics of national identity;identity;  Education and NationalismEducation and Nationalism  Role of text books in creating theRole of text books in creating the identity and ideology of a nationidentity and ideology of a nation..  Role of religion in nationalRole of religion in national education systemeducation system ContentsContents
  4. 4.  Ideology , education and identities inIdeology , education and identities in India,India,  What kind of nation is India.What kind of nation is India.  Key features of Indian educationKey features of Indian education system .system .  Hindutva ideological nationalistHindutva ideological nationalist agenda under the slogan of indanizeagenda under the slogan of indanize ..  Anti minority outlook of IndianAnti minority outlook of Indian education systemeducation system  India’s redefinition of nationalIndia’s redefinition of national identity through education.identity through education. ContentsContents
  5. 5.  Indian Text books and extremistIndian Text books and extremist Hindu view of history.Hindu view of history.  Glorification of Hinduism throughGlorification of Hinduism through education.education.  Hinduism the source of all humanHinduism the source of all human wisdomwisdom  Demonization of Islam and theDemonization of Islam and the Muslim communitiesMuslim communities  ConclusionConclusion .... ContentsContents
  6. 6. What is Ideology ..?What is Ideology ..?  When a system of beliefs function to shapeWhen a system of beliefs function to shape people’s behaviors , to give them directions , andpeople’s behaviors , to give them directions , and effectively acts to exclude others beliefs we calleffectively acts to exclude others beliefs we call that system an ideology.that system an ideology.  The body of doctrine , myth, symbol, etc of aThe body of doctrine , myth, symbol, etc of a social movement , institution or class”social movement , institution or class”  The concept of ideology as a way of furtherThe concept of ideology as a way of further explaining how social andexplaining how social and educational policieseducational policies are guided by system of beliefs that underlieare guided by system of beliefs that underlie our educational and social ideas .our educational and social ideas .  We examine how beliefs system (ideologies )We examine how beliefs system (ideologies ) come to shape the way we see schooling and howcome to shape the way we see schooling and how ideologies are translated into education policies.ideologies are translated into education policies. (book . Justice, Ideology, Education)(book . Justice, Ideology, Education)
  7. 7. Ideologies as cognitive systems.  Several cognitive systems serve man in discovering and inventing the meaning of the world and of life, and to derive an orientation for his actions. Ideologies are such cognitive systems.  Other cognitive systems, used by man to achieve the same aims, are  Science ,  Philosophy ,  Religion  Art ,  Astrology  Magic  Various occult creeds and combinations of prejudices and superstitions. ( Ideologies and Educational Thought Zvi Lamm Hebrew( Ideologies and Educational Thought Zvi Lamm Hebrew University of Jerusalem )University of Jerusalem )
  8. 8. Education, an ideologicalEducation, an ideological legitimizationlegitimization  Education in modern society functions by means of an ideological legitimization, we are saying two things:  (a) Ideologies are cognitive systems that clarify to people the essence and aims of education, and the criteria by which people choose the type of education they prefer over others;  (b) Ideologies are social control mechanisms, by means of which agreement is reached in various societies about the accepted ways of educational practice, through which these societies try to ensure their continuity. ( Ideologies and Educational Thought Zvi Lamm( Ideologies and Educational Thought Zvi Lamm Hebrew University of Jerusalem )Hebrew University of Jerusalem )
  9. 9. Functions of IdeologyFunctions of Ideology  Controls people's behavior, but people do not control theirControls people's behavior, but people do not control their ideologies.ideologies.  Ideologies can fill this role of control mechanisms because peopleIdeologies can fill this role of control mechanisms because people cannot control their ideologies to the same extent that they cancannot control their ideologies to the same extent that they can control their scientific research, their philosophic thinking or theircontrol their scientific research, their philosophic thinking or their practical actions.practical actions.  Explains or justifies the status quo. for example divine right ofExplains or justifies the status quo. for example divine right of king was an ideology that justified what ever action a monarchking was an ideology that justified what ever action a monarch might take.might take.  Competing ideologies that challenge the status quo.Competing ideologies that challenge the status quo. (book Justice,Ideology,Education)(book Justice,Ideology,Education)
  10. 10. Relationship between EducationRelationship between Education and ideology ..and ideology ..  Educational decisions are all ideologicalEducational decisions are all ideological decisions. The argument claiming that everydecisions. The argument claiming that every educational decision is ideological to alleducational decision is ideological to all levels of educational activity i.e.levels of educational activity i.e.  Laws of compulsory education and its duration .Laws of compulsory education and its duration .  The level of allocation of economic resources to educationThe level of allocation of economic resources to education in comparison to other areas of social activity.in comparison to other areas of social activity.  The uniform organization of the educational system for allThe uniform organization of the educational system for all children.children.  A class or cultural segregation in schools.A class or cultural segregation in schools.  Religious education for all or separation of religion fromReligious education for all or separation of religion from public education , all are clearly ideological decision .public education , all are clearly ideological decision .  Philosophy of education or pedagogy , theory of education ,Philosophy of education or pedagogy , theory of education , educational outlook , are nothing but ideology.educational outlook , are nothing but ideology. (Ideologies and Educational Thought Zvi Lamm(Ideologies and Educational Thought Zvi Lamm Hebrew University of Jerusalem)Hebrew University of Jerusalem)
  11. 11. Clients of EducationClients of Education in a Countryin a Country  Education is meant to serve three masters. Its three clients areEducation is meant to serve three masters. Its three clients are society, culture, and the individual;society, culture, and the individual; and they are its basicand they are its basic elements in any Educational state.elements in any Educational state.  FromFrom societysociety's point of view, an educated person is he who can's point of view, an educated person is he who can function in his various roles according to the accepted norms offunction in his various roles according to the accepted norms of his society.his society.  CultureCulture in this context is taken to mean all the institutionalin this context is taken to mean all the institutional arrangements, and all human characteristics fostered throughoutarrangements, and all human characteristics fostered throughout history by man's aspiration to improve and to achieve perfection.history by man's aspiration to improve and to achieve perfection.  Therefore, education is a process anchoring theTherefore, education is a process anchoring the individualindividual inin then historic partnership of humankind, from which culture hasthen historic partnership of humankind, from which culture has evolvedevolved  No educational theory can free itselfNo educational theory can free itself from the demands offrom the demands of societysociety (to train young people to take part in it),(to train young people to take part in it), from thefrom the demands of culturedemands of culture (to enforce values on people's personalities),(to enforce values on people's personalities), andand from the demands of the individual's developmentfrom the demands of the individual's development (as such).(as such).
  12. 12. The basic questions of education, in theThe basic questions of education, in the context of ideologycontext of ideology..  (1) What is the essence of society, and which of its needs(1) What is the essence of society, and which of its needs must be fulfilled by education?must be fulfilled by education?  (2) What is culture and what are the roles of education(2) What is culture and what are the roles of education within it?within it?  (3) What is the nature of the individual? Should this(3) What is the nature of the individual? Should this nature affect the direction of education, and if so - how?nature affect the direction of education, and if so - how?  (4) What are the aims that the average society dictates(4) What are the aims that the average society dictates to education?to education?  (5) What are the aims that culture dictates to education?(5) What are the aims that culture dictates to education?  (6) What are the aims dictated to education by the(6) What are the aims dictated to education by the developmental needs of the individual?developmental needs of the individual?
  13. 13. The basic questions of education, in theThe basic questions of education, in the context of ideology.context of ideology.  Strategic questionsStrategic questions  (7) What are the educational means needed to prepare(7) What are the educational means needed to prepare the child for his future life in society?the child for his future life in society?  (8) What are the educational means supporting the(8) What are the educational means supporting the introduction of young people into human culture?introduction of young people into human culture?  (9) What are the educational means promoting the(9) What are the educational means promoting the development of individuals?development of individuals? Questions about the public in which and throughQuestions about the public in which and through which education takes place?which education takes place?  (10) Should education be uniform for all, or education for(10) Should education be uniform for all, or education for all but not uniform, or education for part of society only?all but not uniform, or education for part of society only?  (11) What attributes are required by a person in order to(11) What attributes are required by a person in order to become an educator?become an educator?  (12) Taking all answers together - what is education?(12) Taking all answers together - what is education?
  14. 14. Functions of Education in formation ofFunctions of Education in formation of ideology and identityideology and identity .... Man is revolutionary, reformist or conservative; the means of hisMan is revolutionary, reformist or conservative; the means of his ideology are part of his identity.ideology are part of his identity.  Education the most logical entry point for the process of change inEducation the most logical entry point for the process of change in societysociety .. (BOOK. Education as the political tool on Asia.)(BOOK. Education as the political tool on Asia.)  Survival of society based on Social solidarity and social integration.Survival of society based on Social solidarity and social integration. So educationSo education  Creates Homogeneity in heterogeneity ( through commonCreates Homogeneity in heterogeneity ( through common curriculum ,shared common history, shared symbols i.e. nationalcurriculum ,shared common history, shared symbols i.e. national flag , national game, national poet , national anthem , nationalflag , national game, national poet , national anthem , national hero, national language etc ) .hero, national language etc ) .  Produces Self control, individuals learn to respect the general rulesProduces Self control, individuals learn to respect the general rules of the society.of the society.  Transmits academic skills,Transmits academic skills,  Shapes the set of attitudes , dispositions and beliefsShapes the set of attitudes , dispositions and beliefs (ideology)(ideology) designed to support the young nation .designed to support the young nation . (Educational reformer and political leaders , Benjamin Rush, Thomas Jefferson and Noah(Educational reformer and political leaders , Benjamin Rush, Thomas Jefferson and Noah WebsterWebster ))
  15. 15. Functions of Education in formation ofFunctions of Education in formation of ideology and identityideology and identity ....  Transformation each new generation of a social infants intoTransformation each new generation of a social infants into responsible adults through moral education .responsible adults through moral education .  to socialize new generation to overcome their egoism.to socialize new generation to overcome their egoism.  Education contribute to the maintenance of the socialEducation contribute to the maintenance of the social system and the conservation of the national character. (By.system and the conservation of the national character. (By. Durkheim)Durkheim)  1.Socialization (development in the individuals of the1.Socialization (development in the individuals of the commitments and capacities which are essentialscommitments and capacities which are essentials prerequisites of their future role performance)prerequisites of their future role performance)  2.. Selection (define the role of individual and allocation of2.. Selection (define the role of individual and allocation of these roles on the basis of achievements and merits ,these roles on the basis of achievements and merits , allocation of societal role and occupational role)allocation of societal role and occupational role) ( By .Talcott parson)( By .Talcott parson) (BOOK sociology of education)(BOOK sociology of education)
  16. 16. Factors which influence the national educationFactors which influence the national education system of a country and form identity andsystem of a country and form identity and ideology ,ideology ,  Geographical FactorsGeographical Factors . Agricultural countries emphasis on. Agricultural countries emphasis on agricultural education ,climate of cold country, hot countries,agricultural education ,climate of cold country, hot countries, industrial countries pay attention on technology.industrial countries pay attention on technology.  Economic Factors.Economic Factors. Socialist or democratic, dependence on theSocialist or democratic, dependence on the training of a highly skilled and adaptive workforce),training of a highly skilled and adaptive workforce),  Cultural factorsCultural factors .Cultural consciousness , necessity to develop.Cultural consciousness , necessity to develop love for one’s own culture, Every state attempts to perpetuatelove for one’s own culture, Every state attempts to perpetuate itself through the transmission of cultureitself through the transmission of culture ( Pai and Adler 2001).( Pai and Adler 2001).  Racial Factors.Racial Factors. Race which consider superior to others try toRace which consider superior to others try to strengthen its control on educational system I. e France andstrengthen its control on educational system I. e France and British established their colonies in Africa, white and black inBritish established their colonies in Africa, white and black in Africa and British rule in India. Minority is suspicious aboutAfrica and British rule in India. Minority is suspicious about majority.majority.
  17. 17. Factors which influence the national educationFactors which influence the national education system of a country and form identity andsystem of a country and form identity and ideology ,ideology ,  Philosophical factors.Philosophical factors. Philosophy of land i.e. ancientPhilosophy of land i.e. ancient Greece Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. In china educationGreece Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. In china education system is based on communist philosophy, ancient Indiasystem is based on communist philosophy, ancient India Gurukal system of education was based on VedicGurukal system of education was based on Vedic philosophy, Buddhist philosophy, Sarovodhoya philosophyphilosophy, Buddhist philosophy, Sarovodhoya philosophy of Gandhi),of Gandhi),  Linguistic factorsLinguistic factors. Cultural elements of a country can be. Cultural elements of a country can be understood on the basis of linguistic factors.understood on the basis of linguistic factors.  Moral factorsMoral factors (development of moral behavior.),(development of moral behavior.),  Religious factors.Religious factors. Religious sentiments of the people.Religious sentiments of the people.  Education system of a country is conditioned by its social,Education system of a country is conditioned by its social, cultural, economic, political, and religious situations.cultural, economic, political, and religious situations.  ( Book. Comparative education by S.P CHAUBE )( Book. Comparative education by S.P CHAUBE )
  18. 18. Political aspects of education inPolitical aspects of education in context of ideology formationcontext of ideology formation  Education is used to achieve the political aims byEducation is used to achieve the political aims by the government.the government.  Education is used as A political toolEducation is used as A political tool  Education is used as A an economic tool,Education is used as A an economic tool,  Education is used as a tool for social justice .Education is used as a tool for social justice .  Education and the school curriculum amongstEducation and the school curriculum amongst other vehicles is used for disseminating politicalother vehicles is used for disseminating political ideologies with a view to transforming societiesideologies with a view to transforming societies and subjecting them to more effective stateand subjecting them to more effective state control.control.  The material taught in schools reflects theThe material taught in schools reflects the political ideology of the day and the elites whopolitical ideology of the day and the elites who construct the dominant ideology are also thoseconstruct the dominant ideology are also those who select the correspondent curriculumwho select the correspondent curriculum content .content . (BOOK. Education as a political tool in Asia )(BOOK. Education as a political tool in Asia )
  19. 19. Education and the politics ofEducation and the politics of national identity;national identity;  National identity--- national identity a top down process wherebyNational identity--- national identity a top down process whereby the nation is constructed over time [it is therefore ] a publicthe nation is constructed over time [it is therefore ] a public project rather than a fixed state of mind.project rather than a fixed state of mind. ( Oliver Zimmer education as a political tool in ASIA ).( Oliver Zimmer education as a political tool in ASIA ).  Role of power ..Power works through educational practices , socialRole of power ..Power works through educational practices , social interactions and the normative language of the schooling tointeractions and the normative language of the schooling to construct social identities social relations and dominant modes ofconstruct social identities social relations and dominant modes of thoughts.thoughts.  There is a fixed pattern to the way in which identities are coded orThere is a fixed pattern to the way in which identities are coded or structured . either other is coded as identical to us , westructured . either other is coded as identical to us , we consider the other to be the same as us , or the other is coded asconsider the other to be the same as us , or the other is coded as different from us ..and these identities are coded through thedifferent from us ..and these identities are coded through the social institutions.social institutions. (Todorov)(Todorov) (BOOK. Education as a political tool in Asia )(BOOK. Education as a political tool in Asia )
  20. 20. Role of text books in creating theRole of text books in creating the identity.identity.  The texts books represents much more than simply theThe texts books represents much more than simply the curriculum taught in the class roomcurriculum taught in the class room  The content of texts book reflects the political powerThe content of texts book reflects the political power struggle within society and between government andstruggle within society and between government and society.society.  This is a specially the case in democratic societies . it s veryThis is a specially the case in democratic societies . it s very different in countries with authoritarian regime where textdifferent in countries with authoritarian regime where text books are written by the government , or under strictbooks are written by the government , or under strict government supervision . yet in either situation thegovernment supervision . yet in either situation the formation of identity and the role the state plays throughformation of identity and the role the state plays through what gets taught and what is missed out is central.what gets taught and what is missed out is central. (BOOK. Education as a political tool in Asia )(BOOK. Education as a political tool in Asia )
  21. 21. National Identity, Religion andNational Identity, Religion and National Education SystemNational Education System  Religion plays a central role in the nationalReligion plays a central role in the national identity i.e.identity i.e.  The contrast between communist china andThe contrast between communist china and Vietnam,Vietnam,  The vision of the former Hindu nationalistThe vision of the former Hindu nationalist government in India,government in India,  Past Islamic regimes in Pakistan.Past Islamic regimes in Pakistan.  The politics of education are linked withThe politics of education are linked with  1.Role of religion 2.Conflicting views regarding1.Role of religion 2.Conflicting views regarding what belief system should or should not bewhat belief system should or should not be transmitted through education.transmitted through education.  Schools give students a strong dose of religiousSchools give students a strong dose of religious educationeducation ..
  22. 22. Ideology , Education and IdentityIdeology , Education and Identity in Indiain India  What kind of nation is India.What kind of nation is India.  British Raaj and Divide and rule ideology,British Raaj and Divide and rule ideology, resulting in social division.resulting in social division.  Multi religiousMulti religious  Multi culturedMulti cultured  Multi ethnicMulti ethnic  Multi linguisticMulti linguistic  Secular nationSecular nation  Radical differences between secular andRadical differences between secular and religious nationalism in the construction ofreligious nationalism in the construction of an Indian “self” .an Indian “self” .
  23. 23. Nehruvion vision of nationalNehruvion vision of national identityidentity  It was Nehruvion vision of national identityIt was Nehruvion vision of national identity based on shared history that contributing tobased on shared history that contributing to keeping India together.keeping India together.  Instead of giving birth to one national society,Instead of giving birth to one national society, seems to have delivered a whole litter ofseems to have delivered a whole litter of communities divided from one another in termscommunities divided from one another in terms of language ,religion, region or caste.of language ,religion, region or caste.  OnlyOnly ideologyideology countering the impasse ofcountering the impasse of communalism, and violence between warringcommunalism, and violence between warring communities seems to becommunities seems to be Hindu CommunalHindu Communal Nationalism.Nationalism. (Aloysius 1997:1 lall 2001)(Aloysius 1997:1 lall 2001)
  24. 24. Key features of Indian EducationKey features of Indian Education SystemSystem Key aims of Indian education system wereKey aims of Indian education system were formulated by the Kothari commissionformulated by the Kothari commission 1964.1964.  Increase productivity,Increase productivity,  Develop social and national unity,Develop social and national unity,  Consolidate democracy,Consolidate democracy,  Modernize the country,Modernize the country,  Develop moral , social and spiritual values.Develop moral , social and spiritual values.  Develop languages (Hindi , Sanskrit, regionalDevelop languages (Hindi , Sanskrit, regional languages, and three languages formula),languages, and three languages formula),  Equality of educational opportunities (regionalEquality of educational opportunities (regional tribal and gender imbalances to be addresses ),tribal and gender imbalances to be addresses ),  Development and prioritization of scientificDevelopment and prioritization of scientific education and research.education and research.
  25. 25. India’s Redefinition of NationalIndia’s Redefinition of National Identity Through Education.Identity Through Education. Hindu fundamentalist Rashtriya swayamsevek Singh SSR inHindu fundamentalist Rashtriya swayamsevek Singh SSR in 2001 / 2002 with the BJP dominated regime “National2001 / 2002 with the BJP dominated regime “National Council of Educational Research and Training” NCERTCouncil of Educational Research and Training” NCERT introduced aintroduced a Hindutva ideological nationalist agendaHindutva ideological nationalist agenda  AA national curriculum framework for school educationnational curriculum framework for school education under the slogan ofunder the slogan of Indanize, Nationalize andIndanize, Nationalize and spiritualizespiritualize ..  Purging of all foreign elements from the curriculum in statePurging of all foreign elements from the curriculum in state schools, included the British legacy as well as the aspectsschools, included the British legacy as well as the aspects of Indian culture introduced by the Mughal invaders fromof Indian culture introduced by the Mughal invaders from the sixteenth century onward.the sixteenth century onward.  Changes introduced by the nationalists were an attempt toChanges introduced by the nationalists were an attempt to increase pride in being Indianincrease pride in being Indian..
  26. 26. Concerns raised by minoritiesConcerns raised by minorities about Indian education systemabout Indian education system  Promotion of anti minority out look through NewPromotion of anti minority out look through New history and social science text books.history and social science text books.  Concerns were raised that Indian culture wasConcerns were raised that Indian culture was presented as a solely Hindu culture, ignoringpresented as a solely Hindu culture, ignoring India’s pluralistic roots.India’s pluralistic roots.  Divided Indian society into Hindu and non HinduDivided Indian society into Hindu and non Hindu segments with effects reaching well beyond tosegments with effects reaching well beyond to the class room this division of society has beenthe class room this division of society has been reflected in violent communal clashes not least inreflected in violent communal clashes not least in Gujarat where between 1000, 2 000 Muslims lostGujarat where between 1000, 2 000 Muslims lost their lives in 2002(human right watch andtheir lives in 2002(human right watch and engineer 2003)engineer 2003)  Omission of facts and exaggeration by theOmission of facts and exaggeration by the extremist Hindu view of history.extremist Hindu view of history.
  27. 27. Indian Text books and extremistIndian Text books and extremist Hindu view of historyHindu view of history Four strata cast system is presented as having existed inFour strata cast system is presented as having existed in the Vedic society .the Vedic society .  The various history texts books are related to distinctThe various history texts books are related to distinct periods of Indian history ,periods of Indian history ,  In class 7 and 8 students are introduce to history with theIn class 7 and 8 students are introduce to history with the two part series called “India and the world” , coveringtwo part series called “India and the world” , covering Indian history , from Vedic time to the struggle ofIndian history , from Vedic time to the struggle of independent ,independent ,  Class 9 on “Contemporary India”Class 9 on “Contemporary India”  Class10 on “Ancient India”Class10 on “Ancient India”  Class11 on “Medieval India”Class11 on “Medieval India”  Class12 on “Modern India” theme which had beenClass12 on “Modern India” theme which had been addressed 6 and 7 are repeated in the more depth betweenaddressed 6 and 7 are repeated in the more depth between classes 9 and 12 . All these books were published betweenclasses 9 and 12 . All these books were published between 2002 and 2003 and replaced the previous history book .2002 and 2003 and replaced the previous history book .
  28. 28. Indian Text books and extremistIndian Text books and extremist Hindu view of historyHindu view of history  Class of 6,7,10 ,and 12 shows Hinduism is best in all worldClass of 6,7,10 ,and 12 shows Hinduism is best in all world religionsreligions  Indian and chine's civilizations are the only one which haveIndian and chine's civilizations are the only one which have survived right from the time they came into existence till datesurvived right from the time they came into existence till date (class 7 India and the world.)(class 7 India and the world.)  On page 88 Buddhist and Islamic influences are marginalized .On page 88 Buddhist and Islamic influences are marginalized .  Class 10 text book the Vedic people are depicted as havingClass 10 text book the Vedic people are depicted as having extensive scientific knowledge in certain cases knowing thingsextensive scientific knowledge in certain cases knowing things which were discovered by others only much later, page 100.which were discovered by others only much later, page 100.  Through out the text books Muslim population of India is shown inThrough out the text books Muslim population of India is shown in an unfavorable light .an unfavorable light .  Mughal empire emphasize an image of warfare and destructionMughal empire emphasize an image of warfare and destruction where Muslims are terms as Muslim invaders and Muslim rule iswhere Muslims are terms as Muslim invaders and Muslim rule is shown as particularly brutal.shown as particularly brutal.  Views ulema and Sufis as two opposing groupsViews ulema and Sufis as two opposing groups
  29. 29. Hinduism the sources of allHinduism the sources of all human wisdomhuman wisdom  Iran was first settled by Indian,,Iran was first settled by Indian,,  Greece philosophers like Herodotus andGreece philosophers like Herodotus and Aristophanes were influenced by the Veda.Aristophanes were influenced by the Veda.  The Egyptian faith was based on Indian traditionsThe Egyptian faith was based on Indian traditions according to Plato and Pythagoras .according to Plato and Pythagoras .  The language of native American Indian evolvedThe language of native American Indian evolved from ancient India languages ..from ancient India languages ..  The cow is the mother of us all in whose bodyThe cow is the mother of us all in whose body god are believed to reside ..god are believed to reside ..  The ayurveda is the finest medical system of theThe ayurveda is the finest medical system of the world and it evolved in India .world and it evolved in India .  Jesus Christ roamed the Himalaya and drew hisJesus Christ roamed the Himalaya and drew his ideas from Hinduism.ideas from Hinduism.
  30. 30. ConclusionConclusion  India has been used as an example toIndia has been used as an example to depict how religious nationalism throughdepict how religious nationalism through the fundamentalisation of the curriculumthe fundamentalisation of the curriculum and text books have been used as a stateand text books have been used as a state controlled discursive mechanism .controlled discursive mechanism .  Indian education system attempting toIndian education system attempting to socialize the whole new generation withsocialize the whole new generation with the identity ofthe identity of ““INDIANS” into NATIONALIST IDEOLOGY.INDIANS” into NATIONALIST IDEOLOGY.
  31. 31. THANKSTHANKSTHANKSTHANKS

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