Education, Ideologies and Identities in Pakistan


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Education, Ideologies and Identities in Pakistan

  1. 1. Ideology , Education and Identities in Pakistan
  2. 2. A set of belief, especially one hold by particular group, that influence the way people behave.( Oxford Dictionary) “ ideology is concerned with how we as individuals understand the world in which we live. This understanding involves complexity both of individual psychologies and of social structure.” (M. Cormak’s) A pattern or set of ideas, assumptions, beliefs, and values or interpretations of the world by which a culture or group operates Religious ideology :It is a faith which is unchangeable for particular group, based on strong principles which determines the actions of the people An interpretation of past , explanation of the present and vision for the future It is dynamic but not consistent phenomena
  3. 3. A phenomena to achieve some particular objectives May emerges in crisis Emerge among the exploited and dissatisfied groups of the society Oppressed , rejected and mistreated people lead to emerge ideology
  4. 4. Three major factors which produce, shape and reshape ideologies: Time Class Crisis
  5. 5. The flow of time The course of history Social evolution and development The emerge of modernization, globalization The issue of change – (social, technological, cultural, economic) Also: age (individuals, countries, systems) and readiness to embrace change. The influence of liberalism today is partly explained by the fact that liberalism was created as the ideology of change. Conservatism’s main problem: how to keep order in a changing world
  6. 6. Each major ideology has its main roots in the interests of a certain class, or a section of a class, or several aligned classes For instance, in 19th century Europe: Conservative ideologies were rooted in the interests of landed aristocracy and clergy – classes losing power as a result of modernization Capitalism was rooted in the interests of the rising bourgeoisie Socialism was rooted in the interests of the working classes The special role of the intellectuals in the production of ideas
  7. 7. A catastrophe (major war, economic collapse, ecological disaster, famine) Major deterioration of social conditions Breakdown of a state A revolution or a counterrevolution Crises create powerful demand for new ideas And people commit themselves to ideas much more strongly (become more ideological) than in normal times
  8. 8. Religious Ideology (Islamic, Christianity, Jews, Hindu, etc) Political Ideology Capitalism Socialism Democracy Fascism Neo-Liberalism
  9. 9. The collective aspect of the set of characteristics by which a thing is definitively recognizable or known: The set of behavioral or personal characteristics by which an individual is recognizable as a member of a group. The quality or condition of being the same as something else. Personal individuality.
  10. 10. What factors influence the formation of beliefs and values Family Gender Religion & spirituality Environment (regional) Relationship to the land (local ,migrated) Language (urdu, punjabi, english, sindhi, pakhtoon) History Media political identity
  11. 11. Ideology change our identity Change in religion Change of Political Party Changing thought Identity determine our Ideology Gender Family Birth
  12. 12. Work as lynchpin among revolutionaries Create solidarity homogeneity Provide a line of action A pre-requisite for establishment of a new social system
  13. 13. 1-To what extent should ideology be the foundation of identity? 2-To what extent are ideology and identity interrelated? 3-To what extent are individualism and collectivism foundations of ideology? 4-To what extent does ideological conflict shape our world? 5-To what extent is modern liberalism continuing to evolve?
  14. 14. 6-To what extent should an ideology shape your thinking and actions as a citizen? ? Your opinion