Fabrication and characterization of one-dimensional solid-state model systems on silicon
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Fabrication and characterization of one-dimensional solid-state model systems on silicon

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Fabrication and characterization of one-dimensional solid-state model systems on silicon Fabrication and characterization of one-dimensional solid-state model systems on silicon Presentation Transcript

  • Fabrication & Characterization of 1DSolid-State Model Systems on SiliconFONDS NATIONAL SUISSESCHWEIZERISCHE NATIONALFONDSFONDO NAZIONALE SVIZZEROSWISS NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATIONFN NFSFrançois Bianco
  • Fabrication & Characterization of 1DNanolines on SiliconFONDS NATIONAL SUISSESCHWEIZERISCHE NATIONALFONDSFONDO NAZIONALE SVIZZEROSWISS NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATIONFN NFSFrançois Bianco
  • Motivations
  • TimeMoores Conjecture"The number of transistors incorporated in a chipwill approximately double every 24 months."Gordon Moore, Intel co-founder108104106Numberoftransistors
  • TimeMoores Conjecture"The number of transistors incorporated in a chipwill approximately double every 24 months."Gordon Moore, Intel co-founder108104106NumberoftransistorsPictures, CC-BY-SA Wikipedia contributors1980 2010
  • Size Limitmm ŵmøhairsnm1947 2012© Intel newsroom 3D transistor & Nature Nanotechnology 7, 242 (2012)cells
  • Size Limitmm ŵmøhairsnm1947 2012© Intel newsroom 3D transistor & Nature Nanotechnology 7, 242 (2012)cells"What would happen if we could arrange theatoms one by one the way we want them?"Richard Feynman
  • Chain, CC-BY BotheredByBees (Flickr)Atom Chainsor nanolines/nanowires
  • Nanowires ApplicationsNature Photonics 7, 306 (2013)Adv. Mater. (2013)Adv. Mater. 15, 997 (2003)Angew. Chem. 120, 4597 (2008)APL 85, 6389 (2004)Nature Nanotechnol. 2, 626 (2007)Nature Nanotechnol. 7, 242 (2012)MemorySingle-atom transistorSolar cellGas detectorCatalystVertical nanowires, © EPFL PressNature Biotechnol. 23, 1294 (2005)Proteins detector
  • Open QuestionsFabrication? Properties?Lego bricks, CC-BY-SA dbesham (Flickr)
  • Presentation OutlinePhysics in One Dimension ?Measurement & Synthesis of NanolinesNanolines on Silicon:Bi nanolines Haiku stripes Haiku DanglingBond Rows
  • Physics in OneDimensionOne-dimensional CC-BY-NC-ND (with permission) Andredoreto (Flickr)
  • One DimensionTrac Jam,, CC-BY-SA Andreas (Flickr)
  • 1D PhysicsCC-BY-NC-ND (with permissions) Water drop, Beauty Eye & Pipes, e.asphyx (Flickr)Fermi Liquid Tomonaga-Luttinger Liquid2D 1DQuasiparticles Collective excitations
  • 1D PhysicsCC-BY-NC-ND (with permissions) Water drop, Beauty Eye & Pipes, e.asphyx (Flickr)Fermi Liquid Tomonaga-Luttinger Liquid2D 1DQuasiparticles Collective excitationsSpin-charge separationPower lawsPeierls distortionPredictions:
  • a2aPeierls DistortionEnergieEF-π/2a π/2aEnergieEF-π/2a π/2aWavevectorWavevectorInsulatorMetallic
  • Peierls Distortion Example293 K(20°C)4.7 K(-268°C)InsulatorPlatinium on Ge(001)Surf. Sci. 602, 1731 (2008)Metallic
  • Can We SeeNanostructures?
  • Scanning Pr eBraille, CC-BY-SA kainita (Flickr)IFeedbackScanning tunneling microscope(STM)
  • 2 nmMonohydride Silicon (001)Scanning ProbeIFeedbackScanning tunneling microscope(STM)
  • STM LaboratoryLow Temperature77 K (­196°C)Ultra-High Vacuum(UHV, ~ 5×10-11mbar)
  • NanolinesS nt es s❚❤e ❯n✐✈ersa❧ ▲a❜e❧✱ ❈❈✲❇❨✲N❈ ❘an❞a❧❧ ▼unroe ✭❳❑❈❉ n➦✶✶✷✸✮
  • Fabrication MethodsTop-down(Lithography)
  • Fabrication MethodsTop-down(Lithography)Bottom-up(Self-assembly)
  • ❱icinal SurfacesStairs, courtesy Sylvain Masson (Flickr)
  • Vici♥al Surfaces❙tairs, courtes② ❙②l ai✁ Masso✁ (❋lic❦r)Co o✂ ✄ici✂al Cu(111)€☎✆ ✽7, 16✹06(☎) (✝01✞)
  • 2 nmdimer row[110][110]Buckled c(4×2)Flip-flop (2×1)Silicon (001)Buckled c(4×2)Flip-flop (2×1)SideviewTopviewSideviewTopview
  • Synthesis Principle
  • Synthesis PrincipleSeeds, CC-BY-NC-SA CIMMYT (Flickr)
  • Synthesis PrincipleSeeds, CC-BY-NC-SA CIMMYT (Flickr)BismuthBismuth, Free Art Alchemist-hp (Wikipedia)
  • Synthesis PrincipleSeeds, CC-BY-NC-SA CIMMYT (Flickr)BismuthBismuth, Free Art Alchemist-hp (Wikipedia)Rows of Red, CC-BY-NC-ND (with permission) sea turtle (Flickr)580°C
  • BismutNano nes
  • Con tant Width✺n♠ 2 n♠4 ✟i di✠❡r✡ wid❡☛o✉☞✌❡ ❝hain o❢ ✍i di✠❡r✡
  • Tunable Density20 nmLow High
  • Micro✎eters Long1 μm 50 nm❩oo✏
  • sideviewtopviewHaiku StructureBiBi57575J.H.G Owen et al. J. Mater. Sci. 41, 4568 (2006)Si
  • Bi-Nanolines AdvantagesSelf-assembledMicrometers longTunable densityPotential templateWell know structureOn a semiconductorFlat surfaceFixed width
  • Haiku StripesAppl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093102 (2010)& Phys. Rev. B 84, 35328 (2011)
  • SynthesisHydrogenation380°C
  • sideview2 nm✑onoh✒✓ri✓e SiliconH H H H
  • 10 nm 1 nmHaiku Stripes
  • Hai✔u ✕tripe ✖o✗✘✙✚i✚i✛i✜e✢iew57575✣i
  • Haiku Stripe Model✤i✥e✦iew57575HH H H HHSi
  • Haiku Stripe Modelsideview57575HH H H HHSiField, CC-BY-SA skrewtape (Flickr)
  • Haiku Stripe Modelsideview57575HH H H HHSiField, CC-BY-SA skrewtape (Flickr) Bulbs, CC-BY-SA, brewbooks (Flickr)
  • How can we be sure that itis a silicon only structure?
  • X-Ray PhotospectroscopyEγX-ray e-EkinSpectrometerEkinEγCore levelsValence bandΦe-Binding energy(XPS)
  • X-Ray PhotospectroscopyBinding energy [eV][Electroncounts/s]O C B OSi SiSiSiSiClean Si monocrystal
  • X-Ray PhotospectroscopyBinding energy [eV][Electroncounts/s]O C B OSi SiSiSiSiClean Si monocrystalBiBiBiBiBi-exposed sample before H exposureBi
  • X-Ray PhotospectroscopyBinding energy [eV][Electroncounts/s]O C B OSi SiSiSiSiClean Si monocrystalBiBiBiBiBi-exposed sample before H exposureBiBi-exposed sample after H exposure
  • X-Ray PhotospectroscopyBinding energy [eV][Electroncounts/s]O C B OSi SiSiSiSiClean Si monocrystalBiBiBiBiBi-exposed sample before H exposureBiBi-exposed sample after H exposure
  • STM SimulationsIn collaboration with Prof. D. Bowler UCL & LCNRelaxed structureSTM simulationCharges densities
  • 1 nmFilled StatessimulationexperimentHigh current(200 pA)simulationexperimentLow current(80 pA)
  • simulationexperimentCross Section1.54 nm70pm5 pmHeightWidthsimulationoset -10 pmexperiment1 nm
  • Empty States+2.5 VSimulations+ 2.5 eVData
  • Empty States+2.5 VSimulations+ 2.5 eVData3 nm+2.0 V1 nm+ 1.0 eV
  • Charge Densities3 nmSideview
  • What else?
  • Air ResistantExposed to air for 25 min3 nm
  • Micrometer Long200 nm 50 nm
  • Self-assembledStable to 400°C(in UHV)Micrometer longProperties SummaryTunable densityInert in air
  • Self-assembledStable to 400°C(in UHV)Micrometer longProperties SummaryTunable densityInert in airDelocalizedelectronic state Perfectly matchingmodel
  • Self-assembledStable to 400°C(in UHV)Micrometer longProperties SummaryTunable densityInert in airDelocalizedelectronic state Perfectly matchingmodelContactingProbing 1D physics&
  • What about Physics?ContactingElectrodeClampSilicon1 mmMask deposition
  • 20 nmMarkers & ContactsAPL 100, 103103 (2012)Au markersGold depositionExample
  • Optical measurementDopingSpectroscopyI(+1.5 V)What about Physics?2 nmOutlook:
  • 1D Dan l nBon s Rows❆✧★ ◆ano (2013)
  • Hydrog✩nation42✵✪✫Synthesis
  • Assemb✬y InterestsMolecular moldsAtom assemblyAnnu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 60, 193 (2009)PRL 91, 136104 (2003)GalliumPhosphineBoth examples weresequentially made
  • Haiku DB ✯owsH Hπ* πsideviewHydrogenatedSi dimerDanglingBond (DB)
  • 10 nH✰B Rehydrogenated
  • Central Dimer Model✳3DviewSideviewHH HHBuckled FlatHH HH
  • H Binding EnergyH atom on Si(001)4.37 eV+0.16+0.13-0.10-0.15+-More stableLess stableEB/H[eV]sideviewHH HHBuckled FlatHH HH-0.15+0.13-0.10+0.16From DFT calculations
  • Missing Hydrogen6%Si terraces% of dehydrogenated Si atoms
  • Missing Hydrogen6%Si terraces% of dehydrogenated Si atoms85%Haiku stripe
  • Alternating Flat Dimers+ 1.8 V - 1.8 V
  • Alternating Flat Dimers+ 1.8 V - 1.8 VSpin-polarized structure?Test at room temperatureOutlook:
  • Properties SummaryMicrometer longHighly reactive templateSelf-assembledKnown structure
  • Properties SummaryMicrometer longHighly reactive templateSelf-assembledKnown structureAssembling 1D molecular or atomic chains
  • Con l s on
  • ✴✻mmarySelf-assemblyLego bricks, CC-BY-SA dbesham (Flickr)Haiku stripes Haiku DB rowsBismuth nanolines
  • SummaryHaiku stripes Haiku DB rows
  • FONDS NATIONAL SUISSESCHWEIZERISCHE NATIONALFONDSFONDO NAZIONALE SVIZZEROSWISS NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATIONFN NFS✼✾anks& ❏❛✿❀s ❁●❁❖we❂❃❄❣❅❊❂❍❁■öster◗❲oup photo, ➞❬❭❪❫❴❵❥♦s
  • "Atomic hashi.A pair of Bismuth dimers,On Silicon core.Remove all Bismuth,Silicon in silicon.Atomic template."James H.G. Owen57575HH H H HHSi