Fabrication & Characterization of 1DSolid-State Model Systems on SiliconFONDS NATIONAL SUISSESCHWEIZERISCHE NATIONALFONDSF...
Fabrication & Characterization of 1DNanolines on SiliconFONDS NATIONAL SUISSESCHWEIZERISCHE NATIONALFONDSFONDO NAZIONALE S...
Motivations
TimeMoores Conjecture"The number of transistors incorporated in a chipwill approximately double every 24 months."Gordon Mo...
TimeMoores Conjecture"The number of transistors incorporated in a chipwill approximately double every 24 months."Gordon Mo...
Size Limitmm ŵmøhairsnm1947 2012© Intel newsroom 3D transistor & Nature Nanotechnology 7, 242 (2012)cells
Size Limitmm ŵmøhairsnm1947 2012© Intel newsroom 3D transistor & Nature Nanotechnology 7, 242 (2012)cells"What would happ...
Chain, CC-BY BotheredByBees (Flickr)Atom Chainsor nanolines/nanowires
Nanowires ApplicationsNature Photonics 7, 306 (2013)Adv. Mater. (2013)Adv. Mater. 15, 997 (2003)Angew. Chem. 120, 4597 (20...
Open QuestionsFabrication? Properties?Lego bricks, CC-BY-SA dbesham (Flickr)
Presentation OutlinePhysics in One Dimension ?Measurement & Synthesis of NanolinesNanolines on Silicon:Bi nanolines Haiku ...
Physics in OneDimensionOne-dimensional CC-BY-NC-ND (with permission) Andredoreto (Flickr)
One DimensionTrac Jam,, CC-BY-SA Andreas (Flickr)
1D PhysicsCC-BY-NC-ND (with permissions) Water drop, Beauty Eye & Pipes, e.asphyx (Flickr)Fermi Liquid Tomonaga-Luttinger ...
1D PhysicsCC-BY-NC-ND (with permissions) Water drop, Beauty Eye & Pipes, e.asphyx (Flickr)Fermi Liquid Tomonaga-Luttinger ...
a2aPeierls DistortionEnergieEF-π/2a π/2aEnergieEF-π/2a π/2aWavevectorWavevectorInsulatorMetallic
Peierls Distortion Example293 K(20°C)4.7 K(-268°C)InsulatorPlatinium on Ge(001)Surf. Sci. 602, 1731 (2008)Metallic
Can We SeeNanostructures?
Scanning Pr eBraille, CC-BY-SA kainita (Flickr)IFeedbackScanning tunneling microscope(STM)
2 nmMonohydride Silicon (001)Scanning ProbeIFeedbackScanning tunneling microscope(STM)
STM LaboratoryLow Temperature77 K (­196°C)Ultra-High Vacuum(UHV, ~ 5×10-11mbar)
NanolinesS nt es s❚❤e ❯n✐✈ersa❧ ▲a❜e❧✱ ❈❈✲❇❨✲N❈ ❘an❞a❧❧ ▼unroe ✭❳❑❈❉ n➦✶✶✷✸✮
Fabrication MethodsTop-down(Lithography)
Fabrication MethodsTop-down(Lithography)Bottom-up(Self-assembly)
❱icinal SurfacesStairs, courtesy Sylvain Masson (Flickr)
Vici♥al Surfaces❙tairs, courtes② ❙②l ai✁ Masso✁ (❋lic❦r)Co o✂ ✄ici✂al Cu(111)€☎✆ ✽7, 16✹06(☎) (✝01✞)
2 nmdimer row[110][110]Buckled c(4×2)Flip-flop (2×1)Silicon (001)Buckled c(4×2)Flip-flop (2×1)SideviewTopviewSideviewTopview
Synthesis Principle
Synthesis PrincipleSeeds, CC-BY-NC-SA CIMMYT (Flickr)
Synthesis PrincipleSeeds, CC-BY-NC-SA CIMMYT (Flickr)BismuthBismuth, Free Art Alchemist-hp (Wikipedia)
Synthesis PrincipleSeeds, CC-BY-NC-SA CIMMYT (Flickr)BismuthBismuth, Free Art Alchemist-hp (Wikipedia)Rows of Red, CC-BY-N...
BismutNano nes
Con tant Width✺n♠ 2 n♠4 ✟i di✠❡r✡ wid❡☛o✉☞✌❡ ❝hain o❢ ✍i di✠❡r✡
Tunable Density20 nmLow High
Micro✎eters Long1 μm 50 nm❩oo✏
sideviewtopviewHaiku StructureBiBi57575J.H.G Owen et al. J. Mater. Sci. 41, 4568 (2006)Si
Bi-Nanolines AdvantagesSelf-assembledMicrometers longTunable densityPotential templateWell know structureOn a semiconducto...
Haiku StripesAppl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093102 (2010)& Phys. Rev. B 84, 35328 (2011)
SynthesisHydrogenation380°C
sideview2 nm✑onoh✒✓ri✓e SiliconH H H H
10 nm 1 nmHaiku Stripes
Hai✔u ✕tripe ✖o✗✘✙✚i✚i✛i✜e✢iew57575✣i
Haiku Stripe Model✤i✥e✦iew57575HH H H HHSi
Haiku Stripe Modelsideview57575HH H H HHSiField, CC-BY-SA skrewtape (Flickr)
Haiku Stripe Modelsideview57575HH H H HHSiField, CC-BY-SA skrewtape (Flickr) Bulbs, CC-BY-SA, brewbooks (Flickr)
How can we be sure that itis a silicon only structure?
X-Ray PhotospectroscopyEγX-ray e-EkinSpectrometerEkinEγCore levelsValence bandΦe-Binding energy(XPS)
X-Ray PhotospectroscopyBinding energy [eV][Electroncounts/s]O C B OSi SiSiSiSiClean Si monocrystal
X-Ray PhotospectroscopyBinding energy [eV][Electroncounts/s]O C B OSi SiSiSiSiClean Si monocrystalBiBiBiBiBi-exposed sampl...
X-Ray PhotospectroscopyBinding energy [eV][Electroncounts/s]O C B OSi SiSiSiSiClean Si monocrystalBiBiBiBiBi-exposed sampl...
X-Ray PhotospectroscopyBinding energy [eV][Electroncounts/s]O C B OSi SiSiSiSiClean Si monocrystalBiBiBiBiBi-exposed sampl...
STM SimulationsIn collaboration with Prof. D. Bowler UCL & LCNRelaxed structureSTM simulationCharges densities
1 nmFilled StatessimulationexperimentHigh current(200 pA)simulationexperimentLow current(80 pA)
simulationexperimentCross Section1.54 nm70pm5 pmHeightWidthsimulationoset -10 pmexperiment1 nm
Empty States+2.5 VSimulations+ 2.5 eVData
Empty States+2.5 VSimulations+ 2.5 eVData3 nm+2.0 V1 nm+ 1.0 eV
Charge Densities3 nmSideview
What else?
Air ResistantExposed to air for 25 min3 nm
Micrometer Long200 nm 50 nm
Self-assembledStable to 400°C(in UHV)Micrometer longProperties SummaryTunable densityInert in air
Self-assembledStable to 400°C(in UHV)Micrometer longProperties SummaryTunable densityInert in airDelocalizedelectronic sta...
Self-assembledStable to 400°C(in UHV)Micrometer longProperties SummaryTunable densityInert in airDelocalizedelectronic sta...
What about Physics?ContactingElectrodeClampSilicon1 mmMask deposition
20 nmMarkers & ContactsAPL 100, 103103 (2012)Au markersGold depositionExample
Optical measurementDopingSpectroscopyI(+1.5 V)What about Physics?2 nmOutlook:
1D Dan l nBon s Rows❆✧★ ◆ano (2013)
Hydrog✩nation42✵✪✫Synthesis
Assemb✬y InterestsMolecular moldsAtom assemblyAnnu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 60, 193 (2009)PRL 91, 136104 (2003)GalliumPhosphineBo...
Haiku DB ✯owsH Hπ* πsideviewHydrogenatedSi dimerDanglingBond (DB)
10 nH✰B Rehydrogenated
Central Dimer Model✳3DviewSideviewHH HHBuckled FlatHH HH
H Binding EnergyH atom on Si(001)4.37 eV+0.16+0.13-0.10-0.15+-More stableLess stableEB/H[eV]sideviewHH HHBuckled FlatHH HH...
Missing Hydrogen6%Si terraces% of dehydrogenated Si atoms
Missing Hydrogen6%Si terraces% of dehydrogenated Si atoms85%Haiku stripe
Alternating Flat Dimers+ 1.8 V - 1.8 V
Alternating Flat Dimers+ 1.8 V - 1.8 VSpin-polarized structure?Test at room temperatureOutlook:
Properties SummaryMicrometer longHighly reactive templateSelf-assembledKnown structure
Properties SummaryMicrometer longHighly reactive templateSelf-assembledKnown structureAssembling 1D molecular or atomic ch...
Con l s on
✴✻mmarySelf-assemblyLego bricks, CC-BY-SA dbesham (Flickr)Haiku stripes Haiku DB rowsBismuth nanolines
SummaryHaiku stripes Haiku DB rows
FONDS NATIONAL SUISSESCHWEIZERISCHE NATIONALFONDSFONDO NAZIONALE SVIZZEROSWISS NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATIONFN NFS✼✾anks& ❏❛...
"Atomic hashi.A pair of Bismuth dimers,On Silicon core.Remove all Bismuth,Silicon in silicon.Atomic template."James H.G. O...
Fabrication and characterization of one-dimensional solid-state model systems on silicon
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Fabrication and characterization of one-dimensional solid-state model systems on silicon

  1. 1. Fabrication & Characterization of 1DSolid-State Model Systems on SiliconFONDS NATIONAL SUISSESCHWEIZERISCHE NATIONALFONDSFONDO NAZIONALE SVIZZEROSWISS NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATIONFN NFSFrançois Bianco
  2. 2. Fabrication & Characterization of 1DNanolines on SiliconFONDS NATIONAL SUISSESCHWEIZERISCHE NATIONALFONDSFONDO NAZIONALE SVIZZEROSWISS NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATIONFN NFSFrançois Bianco
  3. 3. Motivations
  4. 4. TimeMoores Conjecture"The number of transistors incorporated in a chipwill approximately double every 24 months."Gordon Moore, Intel co-founder108104106Numberoftransistors
  5. 5. TimeMoores Conjecture"The number of transistors incorporated in a chipwill approximately double every 24 months."Gordon Moore, Intel co-founder108104106NumberoftransistorsPictures, CC-BY-SA Wikipedia contributors1980 2010
  6. 6. Size Limitmm ŵmøhairsnm1947 2012© Intel newsroom 3D transistor & Nature Nanotechnology 7, 242 (2012)cells
  7. 7. Size Limitmm ŵmøhairsnm1947 2012© Intel newsroom 3D transistor & Nature Nanotechnology 7, 242 (2012)cells"What would happen if we could arrange theatoms one by one the way we want them?"Richard Feynman
  8. 8. Chain, CC-BY BotheredByBees (Flickr)Atom Chainsor nanolines/nanowires
  9. 9. Nanowires ApplicationsNature Photonics 7, 306 (2013)Adv. Mater. (2013)Adv. Mater. 15, 997 (2003)Angew. Chem. 120, 4597 (2008)APL 85, 6389 (2004)Nature Nanotechnol. 2, 626 (2007)Nature Nanotechnol. 7, 242 (2012)MemorySingle-atom transistorSolar cellGas detectorCatalystVertical nanowires, © EPFL PressNature Biotechnol. 23, 1294 (2005)Proteins detector
  10. 10. Open QuestionsFabrication? Properties?Lego bricks, CC-BY-SA dbesham (Flickr)
  11. 11. Presentation OutlinePhysics in One Dimension ?Measurement & Synthesis of NanolinesNanolines on Silicon:Bi nanolines Haiku stripes Haiku DanglingBond Rows
  12. 12. Physics in OneDimensionOne-dimensional CC-BY-NC-ND (with permission) Andredoreto (Flickr)
  13. 13. One DimensionTrac Jam,, CC-BY-SA Andreas (Flickr)
  14. 14. 1D PhysicsCC-BY-NC-ND (with permissions) Water drop, Beauty Eye & Pipes, e.asphyx (Flickr)Fermi Liquid Tomonaga-Luttinger Liquid2D 1DQuasiparticles Collective excitations
  15. 15. 1D PhysicsCC-BY-NC-ND (with permissions) Water drop, Beauty Eye & Pipes, e.asphyx (Flickr)Fermi Liquid Tomonaga-Luttinger Liquid2D 1DQuasiparticles Collective excitationsSpin-charge separationPower lawsPeierls distortionPredictions:
  16. 16. a2aPeierls DistortionEnergieEF-π/2a π/2aEnergieEF-π/2a π/2aWavevectorWavevectorInsulatorMetallic
  17. 17. Peierls Distortion Example293 K(20°C)4.7 K(-268°C)InsulatorPlatinium on Ge(001)Surf. Sci. 602, 1731 (2008)Metallic
  18. 18. Can We SeeNanostructures?
  19. 19. Scanning Pr eBraille, CC-BY-SA kainita (Flickr)IFeedbackScanning tunneling microscope(STM)
  20. 20. 2 nmMonohydride Silicon (001)Scanning ProbeIFeedbackScanning tunneling microscope(STM)
  21. 21. STM LaboratoryLow Temperature77 K (­196°C)Ultra-High Vacuum(UHV, ~ 5×10-11mbar)
  22. 22. NanolinesS nt es s❚❤e ❯n✐✈ersa❧ ▲a❜e❧✱ ❈❈✲❇❨✲N❈ ❘an❞a❧❧ ▼unroe ✭❳❑❈❉ n➦✶✶✷✸✮
  23. 23. Fabrication MethodsTop-down(Lithography)
  24. 24. Fabrication MethodsTop-down(Lithography)Bottom-up(Self-assembly)
  25. 25. ❱icinal SurfacesStairs, courtesy Sylvain Masson (Flickr)
  26. 26. Vici♥al Surfaces❙tairs, courtes② ❙②l ai✁ Masso✁ (❋lic❦r)Co o✂ ✄ici✂al Cu(111)€☎✆ ✽7, 16✹06(☎) (✝01✞)
  27. 27. 2 nmdimer row[110][110]Buckled c(4×2)Flip-flop (2×1)Silicon (001)Buckled c(4×2)Flip-flop (2×1)SideviewTopviewSideviewTopview
  28. 28. Synthesis Principle
  29. 29. Synthesis PrincipleSeeds, CC-BY-NC-SA CIMMYT (Flickr)
  30. 30. Synthesis PrincipleSeeds, CC-BY-NC-SA CIMMYT (Flickr)BismuthBismuth, Free Art Alchemist-hp (Wikipedia)
  31. 31. Synthesis PrincipleSeeds, CC-BY-NC-SA CIMMYT (Flickr)BismuthBismuth, Free Art Alchemist-hp (Wikipedia)Rows of Red, CC-BY-NC-ND (with permission) sea turtle (Flickr)580°C
  32. 32. BismutNano nes
  33. 33. Con tant Width✺n♠ 2 n♠4 ✟i di✠❡r✡ wid❡☛o✉☞✌❡ ❝hain o❢ ✍i di✠❡r✡
  34. 34. Tunable Density20 nmLow High
  35. 35. Micro✎eters Long1 μm 50 nm❩oo✏
  36. 36. sideviewtopviewHaiku StructureBiBi57575J.H.G Owen et al. J. Mater. Sci. 41, 4568 (2006)Si
  37. 37. Bi-Nanolines AdvantagesSelf-assembledMicrometers longTunable densityPotential templateWell know structureOn a semiconductorFlat surfaceFixed width
  38. 38. Haiku StripesAppl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093102 (2010)& Phys. Rev. B 84, 35328 (2011)
  39. 39. SynthesisHydrogenation380°C
  40. 40. sideview2 nm✑onoh✒✓ri✓e SiliconH H H H
  41. 41. 10 nm 1 nmHaiku Stripes
  42. 42. Hai✔u ✕tripe ✖o✗✘✙✚i✚i✛i✜e✢iew57575✣i
  43. 43. Haiku Stripe Model✤i✥e✦iew57575HH H H HHSi
  44. 44. Haiku Stripe Modelsideview57575HH H H HHSiField, CC-BY-SA skrewtape (Flickr)
  45. 45. Haiku Stripe Modelsideview57575HH H H HHSiField, CC-BY-SA skrewtape (Flickr) Bulbs, CC-BY-SA, brewbooks (Flickr)
  46. 46. How can we be sure that itis a silicon only structure?
  47. 47. X-Ray PhotospectroscopyEγX-ray e-EkinSpectrometerEkinEγCore levelsValence bandΦe-Binding energy(XPS)
  48. 48. X-Ray PhotospectroscopyBinding energy [eV][Electroncounts/s]O C B OSi SiSiSiSiClean Si monocrystal
  49. 49. X-Ray PhotospectroscopyBinding energy [eV][Electroncounts/s]O C B OSi SiSiSiSiClean Si monocrystalBiBiBiBiBi-exposed sample before H exposureBi
  50. 50. X-Ray PhotospectroscopyBinding energy [eV][Electroncounts/s]O C B OSi SiSiSiSiClean Si monocrystalBiBiBiBiBi-exposed sample before H exposureBiBi-exposed sample after H exposure
  51. 51. X-Ray PhotospectroscopyBinding energy [eV][Electroncounts/s]O C B OSi SiSiSiSiClean Si monocrystalBiBiBiBiBi-exposed sample before H exposureBiBi-exposed sample after H exposure
  52. 52. STM SimulationsIn collaboration with Prof. D. Bowler UCL & LCNRelaxed structureSTM simulationCharges densities
  53. 53. 1 nmFilled StatessimulationexperimentHigh current(200 pA)simulationexperimentLow current(80 pA)
  54. 54. simulationexperimentCross Section1.54 nm70pm5 pmHeightWidthsimulationoset -10 pmexperiment1 nm
  55. 55. Empty States+2.5 VSimulations+ 2.5 eVData
  56. 56. Empty States+2.5 VSimulations+ 2.5 eVData3 nm+2.0 V1 nm+ 1.0 eV
  57. 57. Charge Densities3 nmSideview
  58. 58. What else?
  59. 59. Air ResistantExposed to air for 25 min3 nm
  60. 60. Micrometer Long200 nm 50 nm
  61. 61. Self-assembledStable to 400°C(in UHV)Micrometer longProperties SummaryTunable densityInert in air
  62. 62. Self-assembledStable to 400°C(in UHV)Micrometer longProperties SummaryTunable densityInert in airDelocalizedelectronic state Perfectly matchingmodel
  63. 63. Self-assembledStable to 400°C(in UHV)Micrometer longProperties SummaryTunable densityInert in airDelocalizedelectronic state Perfectly matchingmodelContactingProbing 1D physics&
  64. 64. What about Physics?ContactingElectrodeClampSilicon1 mmMask deposition
  65. 65. 20 nmMarkers & ContactsAPL 100, 103103 (2012)Au markersGold depositionExample
  66. 66. Optical measurementDopingSpectroscopyI(+1.5 V)What about Physics?2 nmOutlook:
  67. 67. 1D Dan l nBon s Rows❆✧★ ◆ano (2013)
  68. 68. Hydrog✩nation42✵✪✫Synthesis
  69. 69. Assemb✬y InterestsMolecular moldsAtom assemblyAnnu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 60, 193 (2009)PRL 91, 136104 (2003)GalliumPhosphineBoth examples weresequentially made
  70. 70. Haiku DB ✯owsH Hπ* πsideviewHydrogenatedSi dimerDanglingBond (DB)
  71. 71. 10 nH✰B Rehydrogenated
  72. 72. Central Dimer Model✳3DviewSideviewHH HHBuckled FlatHH HH
  73. 73. H Binding EnergyH atom on Si(001)4.37 eV+0.16+0.13-0.10-0.15+-More stableLess stableEB/H[eV]sideviewHH HHBuckled FlatHH HH-0.15+0.13-0.10+0.16From DFT calculations
  74. 74. Missing Hydrogen6%Si terraces% of dehydrogenated Si atoms
  75. 75. Missing Hydrogen6%Si terraces% of dehydrogenated Si atoms85%Haiku stripe
  76. 76. Alternating Flat Dimers+ 1.8 V - 1.8 V
  77. 77. Alternating Flat Dimers+ 1.8 V - 1.8 VSpin-polarized structure?Test at room temperatureOutlook:
  78. 78. Properties SummaryMicrometer longHighly reactive templateSelf-assembledKnown structure
  79. 79. Properties SummaryMicrometer longHighly reactive templateSelf-assembledKnown structureAssembling 1D molecular or atomic chains
  80. 80. Con l s on
  81. 81. ✴✻mmarySelf-assemblyLego bricks, CC-BY-SA dbesham (Flickr)Haiku stripes Haiku DB rowsBismuth nanolines
  82. 82. SummaryHaiku stripes Haiku DB rows
  83. 83. FONDS NATIONAL SUISSESCHWEIZERISCHE NATIONALFONDSFONDO NAZIONALE SVIZZEROSWISS NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATIONFN NFS✼✾anks& ❏❛✿❀s ❁●❁❖we❂❃❄❣❅❊❂❍❁■öster◗❲oup photo, ➞❬❭❪❫❴❵❥♦s
  84. 84. "Atomic hashi.A pair of Bismuth dimers,On Silicon core.Remove all Bismuth,Silicon in silicon.Atomic template."James H.G. Owen57575HH H H HHSi
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