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  • Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 7 Family RelationshipsAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Chapter Overview Family lives Parent’s development at midlife Relationships with parents, siblings and extended family members Parenting styles Historical contexts of adolescent’s family lives Family problemsAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Family Systems Approach  To understand family functioning one must understand how each relationship within the family influences the family as a whole  The family system is composed of a variety of subsystems EXAMPLE: The subsystems in a family consisting of two parents and an adolescent would be: 1. Mother and adolescent 2. Father and adolescent 3. Mother and fatherAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Family Systems Approach  Based on 2 key ideas: 1. Each subsystem influences every other subsystem in the family 2. A change in any family member or family subsystem results in a period of disequilibrium until the family system adjusts to the changeAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Parents’ Development during Midlife  For most parents, their childrens development during adolescence and emerging adulthood overlaps with their own development during midlife Why is this the case? Median age of marriage and first childbirth in industrialized societies is quite high If adolescence begins about age 10, this means that most parents are nearly age 40 with their first child enters adolescenceAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Is there a “midlife crisis”?  For most people midlife is in may ways the prime of life (despite popular beliefs) • Job satisfaction peaks • Job status and power peaks • Earning power increases • Marital problems decline • Marital satisfaction increases • Gender roles become less restrictive • People’s tend to become more flexible and adaptive • Adolescents growing autonomy my be welcomed by parents (e.g. empty nest syndrome) … but that’s not the whole storyAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • The crisis of midlife .. Two illustrations  For men in blue-collar professions that require physical strength and stamina, such as construction or factory worker, job performance becomes more difficult to sustain in middle adulthood and job satisfaction declines  Only about one fourth of divorces take place after age 40 but midlife divorces tend to be even more emotionally and financially difficultAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Research Focus: The Daily Rhythms of Adolescents’ Family Lives Changes in time spent with others during adolescenceAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Sibling Relationships Five Common Patterns in Adolescents’ Relationships with Their Siblings 1. Caregiver relationship 2. Buddy relationship 3. Critical relationship 4. Rival relationship 5. Casual relationship In traditional cultures, the caregiver relationship between siblings is the most common form Adolescents in traditional cultures often have child-care responsibilitiesAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Extended Family Relationships  Traditional Cultures • Young men generally remain in their family home after marriage and young women move into their new husband’s home • This practice has been remarkably resistant to the influence of globalization • This pattern is typical in India, China and most traditional cultures in Asia and Africa • In these cultures children typically grow up in a house that includes parents, siblings as well as grandparents and often uncles, aunts and cousins • Similar patterns of closeness to grandparents have been found among adolescents in American minority culturesAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Extended Family Relationships  American Majority Culture • Adolescents’ contact with extended family members is relatively infrequent • Extended family members often live many miles away • American adolescents have significantly less contact with their extended family members as compared with adolescents in European countries because European extended family are more likely to live in close proximity • An exception to this pattern occurs among adolescents in divorced families who tend to have increased contact with grandparents during adolescence (especially with their maternal grandfather)Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Parenting Styles The kinds of practices that parents exhibit in relation to their children and the effects of these practices Parenting has been described in terms of two dimensions 1. Demandingness (i.e. control) • The degree to which parents set down rules and expectations for behavior and require their children to comply with them 2. Responsiveness (i.e. warmth) • The degree to which parents are sensitive to their children’s needs and the extent to which they express love, warmth, and concern for their childrenAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • The Interaction of Demandingness and Responsiveness High Demandingness Authoritarian Authoritative Low High Responsiveness Responsiveness Indifferent Indulgent Low DemandingnessAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • How parents might sound? Authoritarian Authoritative “No you can’t go to the mall today. You know the family “Do it my way made plans to go to see your because I said so! sick aunt. How about we drop Don’t argue with you off at your friend’s house me … it’s my house on the way home. Good and my rules” enough compromise?” Adolescent: “Mom are “Sure you can have a party in you home … mom {no the house while we’re away – answer} … I guess I’m the key to the liquor cabinet in charge of dinner in is you father’s sock again drawer” Indifferent IndulgentAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • American Parenting Styles Authoritative parenting was somewhat more common in middle-class families and White families Authoritarian parenting was more common in minority families than in White familiesAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • American Parenting Styles  What beliefs are reflected in the parenting styles? • Research on child rearing goals shows that American parents tend to value independence highly as a quality they wish to promote in their children • Authoritarian parenting clearly discourages independence but the other three parenting styles which account for 85% (shown in the previous graph) reflect parents’ beliefs that it is good for adolescents to learn autonomyAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • A More Complex Picture of Parenting Effects  Reciprocal or Bidirectional Effects Adolescents not only are affected by their parents but also affect their parent in return  Complexity of Siblings Most research on the effects of parenting styles involves only one adolescent per family The few studies that have included more than one adolescent per family have shown that adolescent siblings within the same family often give very different accounts of what their parents are like toward themAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • A More Complex Picture of Parenting Effects  Differential Parenting • Parent’s behavior often differs toward siblings within the same family  Non-shared Environmental Influences • Differential parenting can result in non-shared environmental influences meaning that the adolescents experience quite different family environments and the consequences of these differences are evident in adolescents’ behaviour and psychological functioningAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Parenting in Other Cultures  The most striking difference in parenting styles is how rare the authoritative parenting style is in non-Western cultures  Parents expect that their authority will be obeyed, without question and without requiring an explanation  The role of the parent carries greater inherent authority than it does in the West  Parents are not supposed to provide reasons why they should be respected and obeyed Does this mean that the typical parenting styles in traditional cultures is authoritarian? No. The fact is they do not fit very will into the parenting scheme presented. They are generally closest to authoritative parents because like them they tend to be high in demandingness and high in responsiveness. However their demandingness is very different from authoritative parents in American or Western culturesAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Traditional Parenting Style  This is a term proposed to describe the kind of parenting typical in traditional cultures – high in responsiveness and high in a kind of demandingness that does not encourage discussion and debate but rather expects compliance by virtue of cultural beliefs supporting the inherent authority of the parental roleAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Traditional Parenting Style Two Examples Asian Americans  Latino Americans • Chao (2001) argues that • Latino parents in American White researchers society have also typically misunderstand Asian been classified as American parenting and authoritarian mislabel it as authoritarian • The Latino cultural belief • Asian adolescents show system places emphasis none of the negative effects on respecto (respect and typically associated with obedience to parents and authoritarian parenting elders – especially fathers) • They have higher • Latino cultural beliefs also educational achievement, believe is familismo (love, lower rates of behavioural closeness and mutual problems and lowers rates obligations of Latino family of psychological problems life) Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Attachment Theory  Originally developed by John Bowlby (1969, 1973, 1980)  Attachments between parents and children have an evolutionary basis in the need for vulnerable young members of the species to stay in close proximity to adults who will care for and protect them  Mary Ainsworth (1967, 1982) described two general types of attachment: • Secure attachment  In which infants use the mother as a ‘secure base form which to explore’ but seek physical comfort and consolation from her if frightened or threatened • Insecure attachment  Infants are wary of exploring the environment and resist or avoid the mother when she attempts to offer comfort or consolationAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Research on the Effects of Secure Attachment in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood Secure attachment to parents in adolescence is related to a variety of favorable outcomes  Effects on Adolescents  Effects on Emerging • Adolescents’ well being Adults • Higher self-esteem • Higher educational and • Better psychological occupational attainment and physical health • Lower psychological • Tend to have closer problems relationships with • Lower drug use friends and romantic partners • More autonomous and self-reliantAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Parent-Adolescent Conflict • G. Stanley Hall (1904) • Anna Freud (1946) • Both researchers made it sound as though it was universal and inevitable that ALL adolescents rebel against their parents and that ALL parents and adolescents experience intense conflict for many years How accurate are these early theories?Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Parent-Adolescent Conflict  Few scholars on adolescence believe this anymore!  Adolescents and their parents agree on many of the most important aspects of their views of life  Studies in the 1960’s (which were the first to dispel the stereotype of ‘storm and stress’) found that • a great majority of adolescents like their parents, trust and admire them • when disagreement does occur it was usually over seemingly minor issues (e.g. clothes, curfews)Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Conflict Details  Conflict with parents increases sharply in early adolescence and remains high for several years  Conflict in adolescence is especially frequent and intense between mothers and daughters  It is only in late adolescence and emerging adulthood that conflict with parents diminishes substantiallyAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Reasons for Conflict in Early Adolescence  Biological Changes • Adolescents become bigger and stronger physically making it more difficult for parents to impose their authority by virtue of their greater physical presence  Cognitive Changes • Increased abilities for thinking abstracting and with more complexity make adolescents better arguers and it becomes more difficult for parents to prevail quickly in arguments with their childrenAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Culture and Conflict with Parents  Conflict is not universal and “natural”  Biological and cognitive changes take place among adolescents in all cultures  Parent-adolescent conflict is not typical in all cultures T H E  Culture can take the raw R materials of nature and shape E FORE them in highly diverse waysAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Conflict in Traditional Cultures  It is rare for parents and adolescents to engage in the kind of frequent, petty conflicts typical of parent-adolescent relationship in the American majority culture  Reasons: • Economic: In non-industrialized traditional cultures, family members tend to rely a great deal on each other economically • Culture: Cultural beliefs about parental authority and the appropriate degree of adolescent independenceAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Parents and Emerging Adults  Typically relationships between parents and emerging adults improve once the young person leaves home  Emerging adults report greater closeness and fewer negative feelings toward their parents after moving • Those who had moved at least an hour away by car from their parents reported  highest levels of closeness to their parents  valued their parents’ opinions most highly • Those who remained home  Poorest relations with their parents in these respectsAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • A Brief Overview of ‘Living at Home’ in the United States  Most emerging adults move out of their parents’ home in their late teen  About 30% stay home through their early twenties  Staying at home is more common among Latinos, Blacks and Asian Americans than among White Americans  About 40% of American emerging adults “return to the nest” to live at least once after they leaveAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • A Brief Overview of ‘Living at Home’ in Europe  Emerging adults tend to live with their parents longer than in the U.S.  European university students are more likely than American students to continue to live at home while they attend university  Emerging adults who don’t attend university may have difficulty finding or affording an apartment of their own  European cultural vales that emphasize mutual support within the family while also allowing young people substantial autonomyAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Discussion Stop  How has your “living arrangements” with your parents been the same or different as the information presented in the text?Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Historical Change – Patterns over Two Centuries  Three changes over the past two centuries have influenced family life 1. Lower birth rate • In 1800, women in the U.S. had an average of 8 children • Today the average number of children is 2 2. Longer life expectancy • Up until 1900, the average life expectancy was about 45 • Now the average human life expectancy is over 70 3. Movement from rural to urban residence • As recently at 1830, 70% of children lived in farm families • By 1930, this figure had dropped to 30% • Today it is less than 2% Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • The Changing Functions of the Family Function Performing Institution, Performing Institution, 1800 2000 Educational Family School Religious Family Church/Synagogue Medical Family Medical Profession Economic Support Family Employer Recreational Family Entertainment Industry Affective Family Family The family in our time has mainly emotional or affective functions To provide love, nurturance and affection above all else.Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Historical Change – The Last 50 years  The most dramatic changes have been in the following three areas: 1. Divorce Rate  The current rate is so high that nearly half of the current generation of young people are projected to experience their parents’ divorce by the time they reach their late teens 2. Single Parent Households  Mothers represent 90% of custodial parents (parents who lives in the same household as the children)  Besides divorce there has been a rise in the proportion of children born outside of marriage 3. Dual-Earner Families  Employment among women with school-aged children has increased from about ¼ to over ¾Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Changes in Divorce Rate Americans have the highest divorce rate of any country in the worldAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Single ParenthoodAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Effects of Divorce  Young people whose parents have divorced are at higher risk for a wide variety of negative outcomes: • Behavior problems • Psychological distress • Lower academic achievement • Higher rates of drug and alcohol use • Initiate sexual intercourse at an earlier age • Depression and withdrawal • Anxiousness • Less likely to attend collegeAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Effects of Divorce  In emerging adulthood, the effects of parental divorce are evident in: • Greater problems in forming close romantic relationships • Wariness of entering marriage • Their determination to avoid divorce Interesting Footnote: The risk of divorce is higher for young people from divorced familiesAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Effects of Divorce – Family Process  Family process is the quality of family members’ relationships, how much warmth or hostility there is between them, and so on  Three factors of family process with regard to the effects of children and adolescents of divorce 1. Exposure to conflict between parents • Exposure to parents’ conflicts, more than the specific event of divorce is especially damaging 2. Affects on parenting practices • Divorce is stressful and painful to most of the adults who experience it and it affects their role as parents 3. Increases in economic stress • Money is tight in mother-headed households • Income in mother-headed households decreases by an average of 40% to 50%Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Effects of Remarriage  Adolescents typically take a turn for the worse when their mothers remarry  Adolescents in stepfamilies have a greater likelihood for a variety of problems: • Depression Girls tend to have an especially negative • Anxiety reaction to their mothers’ remarriage • Conduct disorders • Lower academic achievement • More likely to engage in delinquent activities • More problems adjusting to the remarriageAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Effects of Single Parenthood  Just as in divorced families, adolescents in never- married, single-parent households are at greater risk for a variety of problems • Low school achievement • Depression • Anxiety • Substance use • Early initiation of sexual activity Interesting Footnote: African American families have a long tradition of extended family household and an extended family structure has been found to provide important assistance to single parent familiesAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Effects of Dual-Earner Families The effects of dual-earner families depend on the gender of the adolescent  Effects on Girls  Effects on Boys • Often quite positive • More negative than the • Tend to become more effects on girls confident • Have more arguments • Have higher career with their mothers and aspirations siblings • Poorer school performance for boys in middle-class and upper-middle-class familiesAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Family Abuses  Factors related to Physical Abuse  Sexual Abusers • Abusive parents are more • Feel inadequate in their likely to have been abused relationships with adults themselves as children • They prefer to seek sexual • Family stresses or problems in satisfaction from children, who parents’ lives are easier to control • Parents tend to be poorly skilled at parenting  Sexually abused adolescents • Have difficulty trusting others and forming intimate  Abused adolescents relationships • Tend to be more aggressive in their interactions with peers • Experience depression, high anxiety and social withdrawal • More likely to engage in antisocial behavior and • May become either highly substance use avoidant of sexual contact or highly promiscuous • More likely to be depressed and anxious • Substance abuse • Perform more poorly in school • Suicidal thoughts and behaviors • Higher risk for psychological disorderAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Running Away from Home  About 1 million adolescents run away from home each year in the U.S.  About ¼ of these adolescents are Characteristics of “throwaways” – their parents have adolescents who forced them to leave run away 1. Involved in criminal activity  Adolescents who run away from 2. Use illicit drugs home have often experienced high 3. Had problems at school conflict with their parents 4. 5. Had psychological difficulties More likely to be gay or lesbian  Many have experienced physical or sexual abuse  Adolescents who run away tend to be highly vulnerable to exploitationAdolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • “Street Children” around the World  It is estimated that the total number of street children worldwide may be as high as 100 million  Main forces leading to adolescents on the street: • Family dysfunction • Poverty • War • Family breakdown due to AIDS • Parental substance abuse In Brazil estimates of • Physical and/or sexual abuse the number of street children range from 7 to 30 million. In India it is estimated there are 11 Some return home in million street children. the evening bringing what they’ve collected. About ½ Indian street children; of those Others return who are homeless 4 out of 5 families home rarely. are homeless.Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.