4 “The trouble with market research isthat people don’t think how they feel, they don’t say what they think and they don’t do what they say” David Ogilvy
5 of brain activity is below thethreshold of consciousnessOver of what we “know” was learnedimplicitly (unconsciously)
It is essential to take emotions 6 into account The majority of our decisions and thoughts are a combination of emotion and reason
But emotions are difficult to 7 measure!Being capable of measuring:• Subtle (low intensity) emotions• Unconscious (hidden) emotions• Mixed (simultaneous) emotions
An enriched toolkit 8 EEG Skin IRM Neurofocus’ Mynd conductance (Affectiva’s Q sensor)Eyetracker (Tobii) Facial Coding Implicit Association Test (Paul Ekman’s FACS) (Harvard’s implicit project)
Measuring emotions at 9 REPERES Projective The analysis of Implicit tests qualitative non-verbalresearch among communication a large number in conjunction with of people What are the What happens What is the impact emotional bonds before I express an of a stimulus between a brand opinion? beyond what and consumers? consumers say?
102. The theory behind implicit tests
11What is perception?
Perception: a complex mechanism… 12 What do you perceive here? How did you recognize it was a shoe? The recognition of an object (sometimes in 20 milliseconds) whatever its position is possible because perception automatically draws on knowledge already stored in our memory. There is therefore a dual mechanism at work: extraction of perceptual information from the environment and implicit retrieval of information stored in our memory.
Perception: a matter of sense… 13 …and individuals The conclusion we arrive at will differ according to the information we retrieve from our memory! Recognition of an object is therefore very heavily influenced by the first pieces of information we retrieve from our memory, which tend to be the most frequent, recent… and/or (emotionally) striking ones!
Perception: a matter of sense… 14 …and available resources The whole recognition process is conditioned by the availability of our resources! Yet in a “modern” environment we no longer have the resources needed to process all the information that is constantly bombarding our brain. The brain therefore makes an (attentional) selection of the information and only part of it is truly analysed.
Perception process: a mechanism that is... 15 Perceptions ofthe outside world …highly subjective! …and largely unconscious! System 1 System 2 Quick Slow Automatic Conscious Unconscious Requires effort The emotional field The field of rationalisation
16Against thisbackground, how canwe evaluateperceived brandimage?
Traditional (declaration-based) questionnaires give 17access to a part of perception Questionnaire ! A certain number of well known biases exist… - Social desirability - Post-rationalisation - Checked responses Declared responses are not always predictive of behaviourInfo accessible to the consciousnessof the people interviewed
The challenge… 18To complete “traditional” measures with a non declarative measureFor a fuller and more reliable assessment Questionnaire Non declarative measureInfo accessible to the consciousness For accessing the unconsciousof the people interviewed
How? 19 Look for the values automatically associated with a product Principle: Measure reaction time Distract attention
Principle of implicit tests (example of priming) 20 Method: A test comprising a succession of sequences! Focus point Stimulus Response time measured Dog Target Cat Lexical decision task Is it a real word from the French language?
Principle of implicit tests (example of priming) 21 Focus point Focus point Stimulus Stimulus Target Target Pasta Car Fast “word” response Slower “word” response Focus point Stimulus Target “Pseudo-word” response – distraction sequence
Principle of the test carried out 22 Implicit test To reveal the values conveyed unconsciously Overall analysis Full diagnosis of the brand values perceived by consumers Explicit test To evaluate the inferred brand image, from a more rational point of view
233. Case studyPackaging & values
24 A brand wishes to develop new packs that will effectively convey certain key values ofBackground their brand. Preliminary in-depth qualitative research to identify the words used by consumers to express the values of the brand 5 packaging routes have been developed The aim is to evaluate the impact of each pack as regards its capacity to convey the different values of the brand
25 An implicit association test combined with traditional explicit questioningProtocol Hall test In Paris, Lyon, Marseille, Montpellier, Metz, Bordeaux and Nantes from 16 to 25 May 2011 On-street recruitment and in-hall interviews Self-completion CAWI 120 female consumers of the product category
26 20 minute questionnaire: Screener: eligibility questionsInterviews Implicit questionnaire Test of 6 stimuli (packs) and 5 target words (brand values) Explicit questionnaire For each pack, evaluation of the target words on an agreement scale Brand image inferred by the packs on a dozen items (CATA)
Purchase intent 28Pack 2 Pack 4 Pack 5 Pack 1 Pack 3 CURRENTPositive purchase intent 74% 76% 80% 79% 78% 85% + The current pack stands out in terms of positive PI The other packs are at parity
Comprehension of the packs and inferred image 29 Pack 2 Pack 4 Pack 5 Pack 1 Pack 3 CURRENT Credible pack QUALITY Clear, easy to Easy to understand understand pack pack TRUST PROXIMITY -- TRUST QUALITY-- PROXIMITY Pack is difficult to understand -- LOYALTY -- ADDED No particular outstanding points in VALUE Does not terms of inferred brand image match -- QUALITY expectations
How can we analyse the results? 31 Pack TRUST 5 Pack 3 LOYALTY CURR PROXIMITY Pack ENT 4 Pack ADDED 2 VALUE Pack 1 QUALITY Measure the PACK – WORD response time Variance analysis
Current pack performances 32 Reminder of the explicit results CURRENT Trust Proximity 85% PI + Current Credible pack pack TRUST PROXIMITY Loyalty Quality QUALITYStrength of the Added association value Confirms the good explicit results
Pack_3 performances 33 Reminder of the explicit results Pack 3 Trust No particular Proximity outstanding Current points in terms of pack brand image Quality Loyalty Added value A very impactful pack, whereas in the explicit results it was rather “lifeless”
Pack_1 performances 34 Reminder of the Trust explicit results Proximity Pack 1 No particular outstanding points in Current terms of pack brand image Régule Quality Added Loyalty value The pack struggles to convey the brand values effectively
35Action: crossthe implicitdata with theexplicit data
Summary of pack performances 36 Overall Implicit score for the pack association ++ Score = 3 Score = 5 Score = 6 In line withthe average Score = 2 Score = 4 Score = 5 -- Score = 1 Score = 2 Score = 3 Explicit association -- In line with the average ++
Summary of pack performances 37 Implicit association Less explicit activation No ++ Work on an explicit (long- reworking needed term) message In line with Less implicitthe average activation Work on “scripting the Pack that brand values” requires an -- in-depth Explicit reworking association -- In line with the average ++
Summary: current pack 38 Implicit association Score = 25 TRUST CURRE ++ PROXIMITY NT ADDED VALUE In line with QUALITYthe average LOYALTY -- Explicit association -- In line with the average ++
Summary: pack 3 39 Implicit association Score = 23 QUALITY Pack 3 ++ TRUST PROXIMITY ADDED VALUE In line withthe average LOYALTY -- Explicit association -- In line with the average ++
Summary: pack 1 40 Implicit association Score = 14 Pack 1 ++ ADDED VALUE In line withthe average QUALITY LOYALTY -- TRUST Explicit PROXIMITY association -- In line with the average ++
41Benefits ofthe method
42 Benefits• Innovatory results: • A complementary evaluation method to traditional tests that is well suited to FMCG • Precise reworking recommendations for excellence as regards pack execution
43 Benefits• A new dimension of the consumer that it is possible to quantify• A reliable measure already proven in the field of cognitive psychology• A simple measure to implement