Week7 motivating employees

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Week7 motivating employees

  1. 1. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 1 Principle of Management Week 8 Motivating Employees.
  2. 2. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 2 • Table of contents; – Reading exercise – Grupo M.. – Motivation and motivations theory. • Early theories of motivation. – Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs. – McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y. – Herzberg’s Hygiene Theory. • Contemporary theories of motivation. – Three Needs Theory – Contents versus process theories. – Goal setting theory. – Reinforcement theory. – Designing Motivating jobs. – Equity theory. – Expectancy theory. – Current issues on motivation. – Motivation: from theories to practice. – Reading assignment (Group Discussion and presentation). – Summary. – Motivating your self.
  3. 3. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 3 Motivation Theories. Current Issues. Theories into Practice.
  4. 4. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 4 • Motivation: – The willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organisational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual needs. • Need: – An internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive. Unsatisfied Need Tension Drives Search behaviour Satisfied Need Reduction of Tension The Motivation Process
  5. 5. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 5 • Hierarchy of needs theory: • Maslow’s theory that there is a hierarchy of five human needs, physiological, safety, social, esteem and self actualisation. • Physiological. • Food, drink, shelter, sexual satisfaction and other physical requirements. • Safety needs. • Security and protection from physical and emotional harm, as well as assurance that physical needs will continue to be met. • Social needs. • Affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship. • Esteem needs. • Internal esteem factors such as self respect, autonomy and achievement and external esteem factors such as status, recognition and attention.. • Self actualisation needs. • Growth, achieving one’s potential and self fulfillment, the drive to become what one is capable of becoming. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  6. 6. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 6 Self Actualisation Esteem Social Safety Physical Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  7. 7. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 7 McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y. • Theory X: • The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, seek to avoid responsibility and must be coerced to perform. • Theory Y: • The assumption that employees are creative, seek responsibility and Can exercise self direction. • Assumptions: • Theory X: – Employees inherently dislike work and will attempt to avoid it whenever possible. – Employees must be coerced, controlled or threatened with punishment to achieve desired goals. – Employees will shirk responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible. – Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition. • Theory Y: – Employees view work as being as natural as rest or play. – Employees will exercise self direction and self control if they are committed to the objectives. – The average person can learn to accept, and even seek responsibility. – The ability to make good decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the ability solely of managers.
  8. 8. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 8 • Herzberg’s motivation: Hygiene Theory. – The motivation theory that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation, where as extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction. • Hygiene Factors: – Factors that eliminate job dissatisfaction but do not motivate. • Motivators: – Factors that increase job satisfaction and motivation.
  9. 9. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 9 Motivator Hygiene Factors • Achievement. • Recognition. • Work itself. • Responsibility. • Advancement. • Growth. • Supervision. • Company policy. • Relationship with supervisor. • Working conditions. • Salary. • Relationship with peers. • Personal life. • Relationship with subordinates. • Status. • Security. Extremely Satisfied Neutral Extremely Dissatisfied Herzberg’s Motivation Hygiene Theory
  10. 10. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 10 • McClelland’s Three Needs Theory: – The motivation theory that says that three needs – achievement, power and affiliation – are major motives in work. • Need for achievement: (nAch) – The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, and to strive to succeed. • Need for power: (nPow) – The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behave otherwise. • Need for Affiliation: (nAff) – The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationship.
  11. 11. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 11 • Goal setting theory: – The proposition that specific goals increase performance and that difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals. • Self Efficacy: – An individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. Specific Goals Difficult Self efficacy Motivation (Intention to work Towards goals) National Culture Committed to achieving. Participation In setting. Accepted. Higher Performance Plus Goal achievement. Goals are public. Individual has internal focus of control. Self set Goals. Goal Setting Theory
  12. 12. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 12 • Reinforcement theory: – The theory that behaviour is a function of its consequences. • Reinforcer: – Any consequence immediately following a response that increases the probability that the behaviour will be repeated.
  13. 13. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 13 • Designing Motivating Jobs: • Job design: – The way tasks are combined to form complete jobs. • Job scope: – The number of different tasks required in a job and the frequency with which those tasks are repeated. • Job enlargement: – The horizontal expansion of a job by increasing job scope. • Job enrichment: – Vertical expansion of a job by adding planning and evaluating responsibilities. • Job depth: – The degree of control employee have over their work.
  14. 14. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 14 • Designing Motivating Jobs: • Job characteristics model (JCM): – A framework for analysing and designing jobs that identifies five primary job characteristics, their interrelationships and their impact on outcomes. • Skill variety: The degree to which a job requires variety of activities so that an employee can use a number of different skills and talents. • Task identity: The degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work. • Task significance: The degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people. • Autonomy: The degree to which a job provides substantial freedom, independence and discretion to the individual in scheduling work and determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out. • Feedback : The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by a job results in the individual’s obtaining direct and clear information about his or her performance effectiveness.
  15. 15. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 15 Core Job Dimensions • Skill variety. • Task identity. • Task significance. • Autonomy. • Feedback. Critical Psychological states • Experienced Meaningfulness. Of the works. • Experienced responsibility For outcomes of the work. •Knowledge of the actual Results of the work activities. Personal and Work outcomes • High internal Work motivation. •High quality Work performance. •High satisfaction With the work. • Low absenteeism And turnover. Strength of employees growth need Job Characteristic Model
  16. 16. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 16 External Conditions Imposed on The group. Group members resources. Group structure. Group Processes. Group Tasks. Performance and satisfaction. Group Behaviour Model.
  17. 17. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 17 Suggested action Core job dimension Combine tasks Form natural work units Skill variety Establish client relationships Task identity Task significance AutonomyLoad vertically FeedbackOpen feedback channels Guidelines for Job Redesign
  18. 18. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 18 • Outcomes A < Outcome B Inputs A Inputs B • Outcome A = Outcome B Input A Input B • Outcome A > Outcome B Input A Input B • Inequity (Under rewarded) • Equity. • Inequity (Over rewarded) Equity theory: – The theory that an employee compares his or her job’s input-outcome ratio with that of relevant others and then correct any inequity. • Referents: – The persons, systems or selves against which individuals compare themselves to assess equity.
  19. 19. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 19 • Expectancy theory: – The theory that an individual tend to act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. Individual Effort Individual Performance Organisational Rewards Individual Goals A B C A = Effort – performance linkage. B = Performance – reward linkage. C = Attractiveness of reward. Simplified Expectancy Model
  20. 20. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 20 Individual Effort Individual Performance Organisational Rewards Individual Goals Equity Comparison High nAch Job Design. Dominant Needs Reinforcement Objective Performance Evaluation system Job Design. Ability Goal- direct behaviour Integrating Contemporary Theories Of Motivation
  21. 21. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 21 • Motivating diverse workforce: • Flexible working schedules: – Compressed work week: A workweek in which employee work longer hours per day but fewer days per week. – Flexible hours: A scheduling system in which employee are required to work a certain number of hours a week, but are free within limits to vary the daily hours of work. – Job sharing: The practice of having two or more people split a full time job. – Telecommuting: A job approach in which employees work at home and are linked to the work place by computer and modem. • Pay for Performance: – Compensation plan that pays employees on the basis of some performance measures. • Open book management: – A motivational approach in which and Organisational financial statements (the book) are shared with all the employees. • Employee share ownership: – A compensation program in which employees become part owners of the organisation by receiving shares as a performance incentive.
  22. 22. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 22 Motivating new workforce: • Motivating professional. • Motivating contingent workers. • Motivating low skilled, minimum wage employees. • Motivating in an international context.
  23. 23. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 23 Suggestions for motivating employees: • Recognise individual differences. • Match people to jobs. • Use Goals. • Ensure goals are perceived as attainable. • Individual rewards. • Link rewards to performance. • Check system for equity. • Do not ignore money.
  24. 24. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 24 Summary. 1. Motivation define. 2. Needs theory. 3. Theory X and Theory Y. 4. Motivation hygiene. 5. High achievers preferences. 6. Goals as motivation. 7. Reinforcement theory. 8. Job redesign. 9. Equity theory. 10. Expectancy theory. 11. Motivating diverse workforce. 12. Motivation in the management practice.

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