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Week6 understanding groups and teams

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  • Productivity is about efficient use of resources
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    • 1. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 1 Principle of Management Week 7 Understanding Groups and Teams.
    • 2. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 2 • Table of contents; – Reflecting last week. – Understanding group behaviour. • Stages of group behaviour. • Basic group concepts. • Team profiling test. • Group decision making. • Work group behaviour. – Turning Group into Effective Teams. – Developing and managing Effective Teams. – Reading assignment (Group Discussion and presentation). – Summary. – Motivating your self.
    • 3. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 3 Group Behaviour. Teams. Effective Teams
    • 4. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 4 • Group: – Two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve particular goals. • Formal – work groups established by the organization that have designated work assignments and specific tasks – Appropriate behaviors are established by and directed towards organizational goals • Informal – for social nature – occur naturally in the workplace in response to the need for social contact • Example of Formal Groups. – Command Group – Basic traditional work groups determined by formal authority relationships and depicted on the organisational chart. They typically includes a manager and those subordinates who report directly to the manager. – Cross-functional teams – These bring together the knowledge and skills of individuals from various work areas in order to come up with solutions to operational problems. Cross- functional teams also include groups whose members have been trained to do each other’s job. – Self Managed Teams – assembly of essentially independent groups that, in addition to doing their operating jobs, take on traditional management responsibilities such a hiring, planning and scheduling, and performance evaluations. – Task forces – These are temporary groups created to accomplish a specific task. Once the task is complete the group is disbanded.
    • 5. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 5 Example for Informal Groups • Among your department members • Discussion among employees at office pantry.
    • 6. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 6 • Forming. • The first stage of group development in which people join the group and then define the group’s purpose, structure and leadership. • Storming. • The second stage of group development which is characterised by intra - group conflict. • Norming. • The third stage of group development, which is characterised by close relationships and cohesiveness. • Performing. • The fourth stage of group development, when the group a fully functional. • Adjourning. • The final stage of group development for temporary groups during which group members are concerned with wrapping up activities rather than task performance. Stages of Group Development
    • 7. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 7 Basic Group Concepts: • Role – a set of behaviour patterns expected of some one occupying a given position in a social unit. • Norms – Acceptable standards or expectations shared by a group’s members. • Status system – A prestige grading , position or rank within a group. • Free rider tendency – a group phenomenon in which individual members reduce their individual efforts and contributions as the group increases in size. • Group cohesiveness – the degree to which group members are attached to one another and share the group’s goals. • Conflict – Perceived incompatible differences that result in interference or opposition.
    • 8. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 8 External Conditions Imposed on The group. Group members resources. Group structure. Group Processes. Group Tasks. Performance and satisfaction. Group Behaviour Model.
    • 9. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 9 • Work Group Behaviour. 1) External conditions imposed on the group, including the organization’s overall strategy, authority structure, formal regulations, employee selection criteria and etc) 2) Group members resources, including members’ knowledge, abilities, skills and personal characteristics) 3) Group structure. – (group are not unorganized crowds. – they have structure the shapes members behavior with group performance) 4) Group process.- (communication patterns used by members to exchange information, group decision process, conflict and so on) 5) Group tasks.
    • 10. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 10 The relationship between Cohesiveness and Productivity. (Group Structure) High. LOW. LOW. High. Cohesiveness AlignmentofMember’sandOrganisationalGoals Strong increase In productivity Decrease In productivity No significant effect on productivity Moderate increase In productivity
    • 11. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 11 • Group Decision Making: – Advantages over individuals decisions. • Group provide more complete information. • Group generate more alternatives. • Group increase acceptance of a solution. • Group increase legitimacy. – Disadvantages of group decision making. • Time consuming. • Risk minority domination. • There are pressure to conform. • Ambiguous responsibility. • Group Think: – A type of conformity in which group members withhold deviant, minority or unpopular views in order to appear to agreement.
    • 12. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 12 Techniques for improving group decision making Increased Creativity. Electronic Meeting. Nominal Group Technique (NCT). Brainstorming. In which group members are presented with a problem, each member independently writes down His or her ideas on the problem, then each member presents one idea until all ideas have been Presented. No discussion takes place until all ideas have been presented. An idea generating process That encourages alternatives While withholding criticism. Decision making groups that Interact by using linked Computers.
    • 13. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 13 • Traditional view of conflict: – The view that all conflict is bad and must be avoided. • Human relations view of conflict: – The view that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group. • Interactionist view of conflict: – Some conflicts are necessary for a group to perform effectively. • Functional Conflict: – Conflict that support a group’s goals and improve its performance. • Dysfunctional conflict: – Conflicts that prevent a group from achieving its goals. Conflict Management (under group processes – con’t)
    • 14. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 14 BA C LevelofGroup Performance Low High Level of Conflicts HighLow Situation: • Level of conflict. Low or none. Optimal. High. • Type of conflict. Dysfunctional. Functional. Dysfunctional. • Group’s internal Apathetic Viable Disruptive Characteristic. Stagnant Self critical Chaotic • Level of Group Performance. Low. High. Low. Conflicts & Groups Performance
    • 15. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 15 • Task Conflicts: – Conflicts over content and goals of the works. • Relationship conflict: – Conflict based on interpersonal relationship. • Process conflict: – Conflict over how work gets done.
    • 16. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 16 Assertiveness Cooperativeness Resolving conflict by satisfying one’s own needs at the expense of another’s Forcing Accommodating Collaborating Compromising Avoiding Resolving conflict by each party giving up something of values Resolving conflict by placing another’s needs and concerns above one’s own. Resolving conflict by withdrawing from or suppressing it. Resolving conflict by seeking an advantageous solution for all parties Conflict-Resolution Techniques
    • 17. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 17 Increases Performance Takes Advantage of Workforce diversity Allows Managers to Do more Strategic Management. Increases Flexibility Create Esprit de corps Why Use Teams ? Turning group into Effective Teams
    • 18. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 18 • Types of teams in organization. – Work teams – Formal groups made up of interdependent individuals who are responsible for the attainment of a goal. – Functional teams – A type of work team that is composed of a manager and his or her subordinates from a particular functional area. – Self managed team – A type of work team that operates without a manager and is responsible for a complete work process or segment. – Virtual team – A type of work team that uses computer technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve common goal. – Cross functional team – A type of work team that is a hybrid grouping of individuals who are experts in various specialties and who work together on various tasks.
    • 19. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 19 Purpose Duration Structure Membership • Product development. • Problem solving. • Reengineering. • Any other organisational purposes Desired. • Supervised. • Self managed. • Functional. • Cross – functional. • Permanent. • Temporary. Categories of Teams
    • 20. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 20 External support Internal support Appropriate Leadership Negotiating Skills Good Communication Unified Commitment Mutual Trust Relevant Skills Clear Goals Characteristic Of An Effective Teams
    • 21. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 21 • Communicate. • Be supportive. • Be respectful. • Be fair. • Be predictable. • Demonstrate competence. Six Suggestions to Help Managers Build Trust.
    • 22. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 22 • Planning. • Organising. • Leading. • Controlling. Managing Teams.
    • 23. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 23 • Gain Sharing. – A group incentive program that shares the gains of the efforts of group members with those group members.
    • 24. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 24 • Summary. 1. a. Formal groups are… b. Informal groups are… 2. The five stages of group developments are… 3. a. A role is … b. Norm is… 4. The five variables of group behaviour are… 5. a. The advantages of group decision making are… b. The disadvantages of group decision making are… 6. Why are teams become increasingly popular? 7. The four most common type of teams are… 8. Effective work teams are characterised by… 9. How manager can build trust?
    • 25. Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology Bachelor of Aviation Management 25 Motivating your self. • Personal Goals. • Negotiating – with the Inner You. • Keep practicing on your writing. Use the websites BAMG09.