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Leadership pom
 

Leadership pom

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    Leadership pom Leadership pom Presentation Transcript

    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 1 Principle of Management Week 9 Leadership.
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 2 • Table of contents; – Reading exercise – Christine Nixon. – Managers versus Leaders.. – Early theories of leadership. • Trait Theories. • Behavioural Theories. • The University of IOWA studies. • The OHIO state studies. • The University of Michigan studies. • The managerial grid. – Contingency theories of leadership. • The Fiedler model. • The Hersey – Blanchard situational theory. • Leader participation model. • Path Goal theory. – Cutting edge approaches to leadership. • Transformational transactional leadership. • Attributes theory of leadership. • Charismatic visionary leadership. • Team leadership. – Contemporary issues in leadership. • Leaders and power. • Creating a culture of trust. • Leading through empowerment. • Gender and leadership. • Leadership styles and different cultures. – Reading assignment (Group Discussion and submission). – Summary. – Motivating your self.
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 3 Leadership Theories. Leadership Issues. Leadership in Practice.
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 4 • Leader: – Someone who can influence others and who has managerial authority. • Leadership: – The process of influencing a group towards the achievement of goals. • Manager: – Someone who works with and through other people by coordinating their work activities in order to accomplish organisational goals.
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 5 Traits BehaviourBehaviour What is an effective leader? • What can you tell us about leadership?
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 6 • Trait Theories: – Leadership theories that tried to isolate characteristics that differentiated leaders from non leaders. • Drive: Leaders exhibit a high effort level. High desire for achievement. Ambitious. Tireless, persistent and show initiatives. • Desire to lead: Strong desire to influence and lead others. Demonstrate Willingness to take responsibility. • Honesty and integrity: Leaders build trusting relationships between themselves and followers. By being truthful and non deceitful. By showing High consistency between word and deed. • Self confidence: Followers look to leaders for an absence of self doubt. Leaders need to show self confidence to convince followers of the rightness Of goals and decisions. • Intelligence: Leaders need to be intelligent to gather, synthesise and Interpret large amounts of information. To be able to create visions, solve problems and make decisions. • Job relevant knowledge: Effective leaders have a high degree of knowledge about the company, the industry and technical matters. Decisions and understand its implications. Six Traits that Differentiate Leaders from Non-Leaders
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 7 TraitsTraits Behaviour What is an effective leader? • How can we train a person to be a leader?
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 8 • Behavioural Theories. – Leadership theories that identified behaviours that differentiated effective leaders from ineffective leaders.
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 9 1. The University of IOWA studies. – Autocratic Style: A leader who intended to centralise authority, dictate work methods, make unilateral decisions and limit employee participation. – Democratic Style: A leader who tended to involve employees in decision making, to delegate authority, to encourage participation in deciding work methods and goals, and to feedbacks as an opportunity for coaching employees. – Laissez - Faire Style: A leader who generally gave the group complete freedom to make decisions and complete the work in whatever way it saw fit.
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 10 2. The OHIO University studies. – Initiating Structure: The extent to which a leader was likely to define and structure his or her role and the group members in the search for goal attainment . – Consideration: The extent to which a person had job relationships characterised by mutual trust and respect for group members ideas and feelings. – High - High Leader: A leader high in both initiating structure and consideration behaviour.
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 11 3. The University of MICHIGAN studies. – Employees Oriented: Emphasising interpersonal relationship. Took personal interest on the well being of their followers and accepted individual differences. – Production Oriented: Tend to emphasise the technical and task aspects of the job. Concerned with accomplishing their group’s tasks. Regarded members as a means to their end.
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 12 4. Managerial Grids. – A two dimensional grid of two leadership behaviours (concern for people and concern for production) which resulted into five different management style.
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 13 The Managerial Grid 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 92 5.5 9.91.9 9.11.1 Concern for Production ConcernforPeople Task Management: Middle of the road Management: Team Management: Impoverished Management: Country Club Management: Efficiency in operations results from arranging Conditions of work in Such a way that human Elements interfere to a Minimum degree. Thoughtful attention to needs of people for satisfying Relationships leads to a Friendly organisational Atmosphere and work tempo. Exertion of minimum Effort to get required Work done is appropriate To sustain organisation membership Minimum degree. Adequate organisation performance Is possible through balancing the Necessary to get out work with Maintaining morale of people at A satisfactory level. Work accomplish are from committed people. Interdependence Through a ‘common stake’ in Organisation purpose leads to Relationships of trust and respect
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 14 Contingency Theories of Leadership 1. Fiedler Model. – Fiedler Contingency Model: A leadership theory that proposed that effective group performance depended on the proper match between a leader’s style of interacting with followers and the degree to which the situation allowed the leader to control and influence. • Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) questionnaire: A questionnaire that measure whether a person is tasks or relationship oriented. • Leader – member relations: One of Fiedler situation contingencies that described the degree of confidence, trust and respect subordinates had for their leader. • Task structure: One of Fiedler’s situational contingencies that described the degree to which job assignments were formalised and procedurised. • Position Power: One of Fiedler’s situational contingencies that described the degree of influence a leader had over power – based activities such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions and salary increases.
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 15 Findings of the Fiedler’s Model Category I II III IV V VI VII VIII Leader member relations. Good Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor Poor Task structure High High Low Low High High Low Low Position power Strong Week Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Good Performance Task Oriented Relationship Oriented Poor UnfavorableModerateFavorable
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 16 • The Hersey- Blanchard Situational Theory. • Situational Leadership Theory (SLT): A leadership contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness. • Readiness: The extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. • Four Leadership Style: 1. Telling: (High task low relationship) Leader define roles and tell people what, when, how and where to do the task. 2. Selling: (High task high relationship) Leader provides both directive and supportive behaviour. 3. Participating: (Low task high relationship) Leader and follower share in decision making. Main role of leader is facilitating and communicating. 4. Delegating: (Low task low relationship) Leader provides little direction and support.
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 17 Task Behaviour Low High Low High RelationshipBehaviour Selling Delegating Telling Participating High Relationship. High Task. Low Relationship. High Task. Low Relationship. Low Task. High Relationship. Low Task. S1S4 S2S3 High Low R4 R3 R2 R1 Able and Willing. Able and Unwilling. Unable and willing. Unable and Unwilling. Follower Readiness Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 18 • Leader participation model (VROOM): – A leadership contingency model that related leadership behaviour and participation in decision making. Leadership Styles in the Vroom Leader-participation model. – Decide: leader makes the decision alone. – Consult individually: leader present the problem to members individually, and make his decision. – Consult group: leader presents problem to the group in a meeting. Seek suggestions and make decision himself. – Facilitate: leader presents problem to the group in a meeting and acting as facilitator towards making decision together. – Delegating: leader permits the group to make the decision.
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 19 • Path-Goal Theory (Robert House): – A leadership theory that says it is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and t provide the direction and support needed to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the organisation. – Directive leader. – Supportive leader. – Participative leader. – Achievement oriented leader.
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 20 Leader Behaviour Outcomes. Subordinates Contingency Factors. Environmental Contingency Factors. PATH-GOAL Theory. • Locus of control. • Experience. • Perceived ability. • Directive. • Supportive. • Participative. • Achievement oriented • Task structure. • Formal authority system. • Work group. • Performance. • Satisfaction.
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 21 Cutting Edge Approaches to Leadership 1. Transformational-transactional Leadership. • Transactional leaders: Leaders who guide or motivate the followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. • Transformational leaders: Leaders who provide individualised consideration and intellectual stimulation and possess charisma. 1. Attribution Theory. – Making sense out of cause and effect relationship. When something happen people tend to attribute it to certain cause. – Attribution theory of leadership: an attribution that people tend to characterise leaders as having traits such as intelligent, outgoing, strong verbal skills, aggressiveness, understanding and industriousness.
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 22 • Cutting Edge Approaches to Leadership. 1. Charismatic-visionary Leadership. • Charismatic leaders: An enthusiastic, self confident leader whose personality and actions influence people to behave in certain ways. Key Characteristic of Charismatic Leaders. • Self confidence. • Vision. • Ability to articulate the vision. • Strong convictions about the vision. • Behaviour that is out of the ordinary. • Appearance as a change agent. • Environment sensitivity. • Visionary leaders: The ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible and attractive vision of the future that improves upon the present situation.
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 23 Conflict Manager. Coach. Liaison With External Constituencies. Troubleshooter. Team Leader Roles. Specific Team Leadership Roles. • Leader represent the team to others such as Upper management, other work team, customers and suppliers. • Leader identify source of conflict, who is involved, The issue at stake, the resolution options available. • Leader clarify expectations, teach, offer support Cheerlead and keep performance level high. • Leader try to help resolve problem. Team Leader responsibilities: 1. Managing the team external boundary 2. .Facilitating the team process.
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 24 • Contemporary issues: 1. Leaders and Power. – Legitimate power: The power a leader has as a result of his or her position in the organisation also called authority. – Coercive Power: The power a leader has because of his or her ability to punish or control. – Reward Power: The power that a leader has because of his or her ability to give positive benefits or rewards. – Expert Power: Influence that is based on expertise, special skill or knowledge. – Referent Power: Power that arises because of a person’s desirable resources or personal traits.
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 25 • Contemporary issues: 2. Creating a Culture of Trust. – Credibility: The degree to which followers perceive someone as honest, competent and able to inspire. – Trust: The belief in the integrity, character and ability of a leader. – Integrity : Honesty and truthfulness. – Competence: Technical and interpersonal skills and knowledge. – Consistency: reliability, predictability and good judgment in handling situation. – Loyalty: Willingness to protect and save face for a person. – Openness: Willingness to share ideas and information freely.
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 26 • Empowerment: – Increasing the decision making discretion of workers.
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 27 Summary. 1. Managers versus leaders. 2. Trait theory. 3. Behavioural leadership theory. 4. Fiedler’s contingency model. 5. Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership. 6. The path goal model. 7. Transactional leaders. 8. Charismatic leaders. 9. Power. 10. Creating a culture of trust. 11. Men and women on leadership style.
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 28 Motivating your self. • Read aloud to your friend. • Read a lot and share with friend. • Keep practicing on your writing. Send me e-mail and send your friend e-mail.
    • Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology 01st April 2009 Bachelor of Aviation Management 29 • Case study: Toyota Tough Boss. • Read the article in a group. • Discuss question no. 1 to 3. • Send me your answer through e-mail. • Deadline: 08th April 2009.