UN - Extractive Industries Conflict
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UN - Extractive Industries Conflict

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Folleto de Naciones Unidas sobre conflictos en industrias extractivas.

Folleto de Naciones Unidas sobre conflictos en industrias extractivas.

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UN - Extractive Industries Conflict Document Transcript

  • 1. The United Nations Interagency Framework Team for Preventive ActionEXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES AND CONFLICT GUIDANCE NOTE FOR PRACTITIONERS with funding and support from the European Union
  • 2. Executive Summary Steps can be taken to: prevent such conflicts from occurring; mitigate their short and long-term effects when they do occur; and, harness the enormous potential ofNatural resources and conflict natural resources to rebuild societies in the aftermath ofConflict arises when two or more groups believe their conflict. The effective management of a society’s naturalinterests are incompatible. It is not in itself a negative resources is therefore a priority for all those committed tophenomenon. Non-violent conflict can be an essential the goal of conflict prevention and sustainable development.component of social change and development, and is a Consequently, it is important that immediate and longernecessary component of human interaction. Non-violent term steps are taken by United Nations (UN) and Europeanresolution of conflict is possible when individuals and Union (EU) development practitioners to prevent thegroups have trust in their governing structures, society Extractive Industries from being a source of conflict, andand institutions to manage incompatible interests. to address conflict in this domain in an effective manner when it does arise. This Guidance Note aims to addressConflict becomes problematic when societal mechanisms this challenge.and institutions for managing and resolving conflict breakdown, giving way to violence. Societies with weak Extractive Industriesinstitutions, fragile political systems and divisive social The Extractive Industry is a term that is often used torelations can be drawn into cycles of conflict and violence. describe non-renewable resources, such as oil, gas andPreventing this negative spiral and ensuring the peaceful minerals. This Guidance Note begins by explaining theresolution of disputes is a core interest of the international main reasons why the Extractive Industries can causecommunity. The challenge for UN, EU and other tensions at a local or national level, and how these tensionsinternational actors is to promote positive social can lead to conflict. It then offers guidance on strategiestransformation, while mitigating the risks and potential for mitigating the impacts of conflicts associate with theimpacts of violent and damaging conflict. Extractive Industry.Environmental factors are rarely, if ever, the sole cause The following six principles are identified as the main driversof violent conflict. However, the exploitation of natural of Extractive Industry-related conflicts:resources and related environmental stresses can beimplicated in all phases of the conflict cycle, from Poor engagement of communities and stakeholders:contributing to the outbreak and perpetuation of violence Where communities and stakeholders are poorlyto undermining prospects for peace. This Guidance Note engaged, marginalised or excluded from the dialogue inaccordingly focuses on the role of natural resources in the Extractive Industry development process, they aretriggering, escalating or sustaining violent conflict. Its aim almost certain to begin to oppose the development. Asis to provide practical guidance on the role that the UN and the conflict escalates, the use of strategies of violenceEU can play in early warning and assessment, structural as a coercive measure against the company, and aconflict prevention (long-term measures) and direct conflict means for addressing old grievances and mountingprevention (short-term measures). It is meant to provide a opposition against the government, are likely.combination of strategic advice and operational guidance, Inadequate benefit-sharing: If benefits are distributedas well as to unite existing tools and guidance under a in a manner that appears unfair as compared to thesingle framework. distribution of the costs, risks and responsibilities, then those who are disenfranchised or bearing risks andExtractive Industries and conflict responsibilities without fair compensation are likely to oppose the development, and possibly rebel.The Extractive Industries present particular challengesfor both fragile states and developing nations; the Excessive impact on the economy, society and theexploitation of non-renewable natural resources, including environment: Notwithstanding the promise ofoil, gas, minerals and timber has often been cited as a key prosperity often associated with Extractive Industry, thefactor in triggering, escalating or sustaining violent conflicts impacts on the local economy and the macroeconomicaround the globe. Violent conflict is most likely to occur conditions of the nation as a whole can be quitewhere local communities have been systematically excluded negative; in circumstances where governing institutionsfrom decision-making processes, when the economic are weak or underdeveloped, the consequences of thebenefits are concentrated in the hands of a few, when the “resource curse” are often magnified. Furthermore,burdens associated with Extractive Industries clash with while social and environmental assessment andlocal social, cultural, religious and environmental norms, management procedures in the Extractive Industryor align with pre-existing tensions. The price paid by sector are well developed, impacts on communitiessocieties threatened by, undergoing or emerging from and the environment continue to be a powerfulnatural resource-related violence is evident in the lives conflict driver.lost or touched by conflict, and amplified by fractured Mismanagement of funds and financing war:relationships, weakened institutions and destroyed Corruption and diversion of funds to satisfy individualinfrastructure. gains at the expense of national and community
  • 3. EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES AND CONFLICT interests can easily contribute to conflict. Too often the with enough information and training to be able to vast revenues from Extractive Industries have been engage in the process of dialogue in a meaningful way. diverted away from the public interest to satisfy Equitable benefit-sharing: Under the right conditions, personal gains and, in some cases, to finance armies the Extractive Industries can provide significant benefits and violent conflict. to communities and regions in the form of infrastructure, Inadequate institutional and legal framework: The employment, contracting opportunities, and general mismanagement of funds is symptomatic of the economic development. If these benefits are consistent broader institutional and legal capacities to manage with community interests, and are perceived to be the development of Extractive Industry for the benefit delivered fairly, they can help prevent conflict and of the country as a whole. compensate for the environmental and social impacts Unwillingness to address the natural resources of the development. question in peace agreements: If unaddressed in a Mitigating the negative economic, social, peace process, natural resources become a potential environmental and gender issues: Economic, source of the conflict in the future. Issues of social and environmental impact assessments and ownership, wealth-sharing and distribution are management procedures have evolved substantially important and will have significant effects on the in recent years; there are now substantial international capacity to achieve post-conflict stability. standards that provide direction in resolving these issues proactively. The rights of indigenous peopleIntervention framework and the gender implications of the Extractive Industry sector need close attention and recognition to mitigateBefore designing specific interventions, it is essential any violent conflict. Part of the long-term strategy forto construct an intervention framework that takes into conflict prevention in this sector is to ensure it becomesaccount the following key issues: an assessment of a foundation for employment generation and economicconflict dynamics; the alignment of key actors for positive development for local people.outcomes; and, the design of interventions that respondto the prevailing conflict causes, in a way that reflects the Transparent and effective management of revenues:particular stage in the broader conflict cycle. The paper Extractive Industries normally lead to vast increasesproposes a framework for designing intervention in government revenues and, if improperly managed,strategies; the framework consists of: these increases can stimulate corruption and undermine stability. A culture of transparency needs to be Natural resource assessment considerations that can encouraged and the Extractive Industries Transparency be integrated into assessments are already underway, Initiative (EITI) provides the platform to institutionalize including Post Conflict Needs Assessments (PCNA); the effective management of revenues. and, activities in support of Development Assistance Frameworks. Strengthening the institutional and legal framework: Establishing a robust institutional and legal framework Aligning and coordinating with other actors able to that governs the development and management of the make a constructive contribution to conflict prevention Extractive Industries is essential to ensure that there is and dispute resolution as they relate to natural a legal basis to administer the rights and demands of resources. These include national and local stakeholders. governments, non-government organizations (local, national and international), and the private sector Incorporating high-value natural resources into (both companies and associations). peace processes: Addressing extractive resources in the context of a peace process is an essential part Designing an intervention strategy that is responsive of the peace agreement, and essential for creating to the specific circumstances and nuances of the sustainable peace. The peace process often offers the conflict dynamics. opportunity to create a new constitutional arrangement that can address these structural issues in a way thatConflict prevention strategies may also help address the causes of the conflict.Experience shows that tackling these issues requires aconcerted and multifaceted approach that encompasses Additional Resourcesgovernance, macro- and micro-economic stability, The study of the Extractive Industry-conflict nexus and thecapacity enhancement, and creative approaches that design of possible intervention strategies to respond to it isincrease opportunities for dialogue and contribute to the gaining scholarly attention. There exist many organizationspeaceful resolution of conflict. The paper identifies six key and initiatives which address these issues and a wideopportunities for preventing conflicts related to Extractive variety of resources available to practitioners. A list ofIndustries, they are as follows: these organizations and resources can be found in the Effective engagement of communities and Guidance Note. stakeholders: Conflict can be prevented by establishing channels of communities between stakeholders, and by ensuring all parties are provided
  • 4. UN-EU PartnershipStrengthening Capacity for the Consensual and SustainableManagement of Land and Natural ResourcesThe management of land and natural resources is one of the most critical challenges facingdeveloping countries today. The exploitation of high-value natural resources, including oil,gas, minerals and timber has often been cited as a key factor in triggering, escalating orsustaining violent con icts around the globe. Furthermore, increasing competition andcon ict for diminishing renewable resources, such as land and water, is on the rise. This isbeing further aggravated by environmental degradation, population growth and climatechange. The mismanagement of land and natural resources is contributing to new con ictsand obstructing the peaceful resolution of existing ones.To improve capacity for land and natural resource management and con ict prevention, theEuropean Union partnered with the Expert Reference Group of the UN Framework Team (FT)in late 2008. The aim of this partnership was to develop and implement a strategicmulti-agency project focused on building the capacity of national stakeholders, the UnitedNations system, and the European Union to prevent land and natural resources fromcontributing to violent con ict. Six UN agencies, programme or departments have beeninvolved, including UNDP, DPA, UNEP, PBSO, UN-HABITAT and DESA. The partnership isalso designed to enhance policy development and programme coordination between keyactors at the eld level.The rst outcome of this project is an inventory of existing tools and capacity within the UNsystem and a set of four Guidance Notes on addressing natural resource management andcon ict prevention. These Guidance Notes cover: (i) Land and con ict, (ii) Extractiveindustries and con ict, (iii) Environmental scarcity and con ict, (iv) Capacity development formanaging land and natural resources.Based on the Guidance Notes, the second outcome of the project is to deliver a series oftraining modules for UN and EU eld staff, as well as local partners, to enhance theknowledge and skills needed to understand, anticipate, prevent, and mitigate potentialcon icts over land and natural resources. Participants will acquire the skills to formulate andoperationalize preventive measures in relation to natural resource management (NRM) andcon ict.In countries where speci c NRM and con ict challenges are identi ed, the project will aimto provide focused technical assistance in the development of con ict prevention strategies.This could include the deployment of staff and other experts to assist the UN Country Team(UNCT), including the Resident Coordinator (RC) or Peace and Development Advisor, inanalysing options and designing programmes. Where needed, dedicated follow-upmeasures will also be undertaken on an inter-agency basis, in partnership with the EU.For more information, please contact Mr. Mohamed Yahya at the Framework TeamSecretariat on: +1-212-906-6622 or mohamed.yahya@undp.org or Stephen Jackson of DPAat jackson3@un.org UN Interagency Framework Team for Preventive Action Hosted by: UNDP, Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery One United Nations Plaza, Rm. 2084, New York, NY 10017, U.S.A. Tel.: +1-212-906-5422 E-mail: framework.team@undp.org