1763—Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years’ War in Europe and the French and Indian War in North America.
Britain gained all French land east of the Mississippi River, including much of what is now Canada.
Spain had allied with France. It gave up control of Florida to Britain. France gave Spain the Louisiana Territory.
France kept two islands near Canada and regained some Caribbean islands.
Effects of the War
Ironworkers, shipbuilders, and farmers profited by supplying the army.
Carolinian and Georgian slave owners benefited from the acquisition of Florida because runaway slaves could no longer seek haven there.
The war forced colonists to work together.
British officials thought the colonists should pay some of the war expenses.
George Grenville, the British prime minister in 1760, had strict policies that alienated the colonists more.
Pontiac, an Ottawa chief, wanted to drive the British out.
In 1762 Pontiac allied with most of the Native Americans in the Upper Midwest.
They attacked British forts and settlements for several years, but the British held on.
The chief agreed to a peace treaty in 1766.
Effects of the War
Proclamation of 1763
Reserved the land west of the Appalachian Mountains for Native Americans
Gave British officials control of westward migration
Slowed movement out of cities that were centers of trade and prosperity
Effects on Native Americans
Weakened by war
British felt the Iroquois did not fully support them and no longer felt friendly toward them.
Proclamation of 1763 took native lands.
Settlers often ignored the Proclamation.
The Navigation Act 1663 (also called the Act for the Encouragement of Trade) required all European goods bound for America (or other colonies) to be shipped through England or Wales first.
In England, the goods would be unloaded, inspected, paid duties, and reloaded. The trade had to be carried in English bottoms (i.e. vessels), which included those of its colonies. Furthermore, imports of 'enumerated commodities' (such as sugar, rice, and tobacco) had to be landed and pay tax before going on to other countries. This increased the cost to the colonies, and increased the shipping time.