What is Legislature (PAD170)

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What's Legislature??and what types of legislature it have..find out more throughout this slide..

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What is Legislature (PAD170)

  1. 1. © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010 PAD170 GOVERNMENT & POLITICS CHAPTER 2 LEGISLATURE
  2. 2. <ul><li>At the end of this chapter, you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the meaning of legislature; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the functions & features of legislature; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To understand the legislative process in Malaysia. </li></ul></ul>Lesson Outcomes © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  3. 3. 2.1 – Definitions & Functions 2.2 – Appointment & Removal of Legislature 2.3 – Types of Legislature 2.4 – Differences between Legislature in U.S U.K & Malaysia 2.5 – Legislative Process & Constitutional Amendments 2.6 – Delegated/Subsidiary Legislation 2.7 – Direct Legislation CONTENT © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  4. 4. 2.1 – Definitions & Functions © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  5. 5. <ul><li>Elected , multi-member official government agencies that debates & ratifies laws ; </li></ul><ul><li>A branch of govt that formulates & expresses the will of the state ; </li></ul><ul><li>A type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create , amend and ratify laws ; </li></ul><ul><li>An organized body having the authority to make laws for a political unit. </li></ul>Definitions © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  6. 6. <ul><li>Legislative function (Law-making): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make, amend or replace laws; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws are introduced as ‘bills’ in the legislature; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislature debates the bill; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If bill is approved it becomes a law. </li></ul></ul>Functions © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  7. 7. <ul><li>Representative function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main forum of public opinion; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents the people in the govt; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents the various groups/interests within a nation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act as the eyes, ears & voice of the people. </li></ul></ul>Functions © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  8. 8. <ul><li>Amending the constitution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes & amends the constitution; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 methods of amending constitution: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct vote; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amendment proposal followed by ratification by constitutional convention; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proposal followed by ratification of states. </li></ul></ul></ul>Functions © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  9. 9. <ul><li>Supervision: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor & supervise the executive branch; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has the power to reject bills; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parliamentary Q&A sessions. </li></ul></ul>Functions © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  10. 10. <ul><li>Financial function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory of “no taxation without representation”; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control & regulation of national finances by the legislature; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation, consideration & authorization of national budget. </li></ul></ul>Functions © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  11. 11. <ul><li>Electoral function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some legislatures act as electoral college; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Become the tie-breaker in cases of deadlock. </li></ul></ul>Functions © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  12. 12. <ul><li>Judicial function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some have power to adjudicate the behaviour of administrative officials; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can remove judges from office; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Court of impeachment. </li></ul></ul>Functions © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  13. 13. <ul><li>Inquest/Investigative function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make inquiries into matters of national interest; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appoint commisions of inquiry. </li></ul></ul>Functions © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  14. 14. 2.2 – Appointment & Removal of Legislature © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  15. 15. <ul><li>Members of the unicameral legislature & lower house in the bicameral legislature are appointed through elections/by-elections; </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysia: members of upper house are appointed by the govt and YDPA; </li></ul><ul><li>Method of membership may be different in other countries. </li></ul>Method of Appointment © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  16. 16. <ul><li>Termination : refers to the process that causes a person to be disqualified from being a member of the legislature; </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysia: Article 48 of the Federal Constitution provides for the disqualification for membership of Parliament; </li></ul><ul><li>The method may be different for other countries. </li></ul>Method of Removal © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  17. 17. 2.3 – Types of Legislature © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  18. 18. <ul><li>A one house or chamber legislative assembly . </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows speedy action & decision-making; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarity of responsibility; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No duplication or confusion of responsibility; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less expensive; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members are appointed by the people; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better representation of the will of the people. </li></ul></ul>Unicameral © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  19. 19. <ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less check on hasty/ill-considered legislation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk of a despotic legislature; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy workload; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of intelligent discussion or criticism. </li></ul></ul>Unicameral © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  20. 20. <ul><li>A two house/chamber legislative assembly . </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides check of hasty/ill-considered legislation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoids despotic legislature; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighter workload; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better representation of various classes, minorities & professional interests; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More feedback, discussion & criticisms. </li></ul></ul>Bicameral © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  21. 21. <ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duplication of responsibility; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slower legislative process; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divides the legislature. </li></ul></ul>Bicameral © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  22. 22. Unicameral & Bicameral Countries © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  23. 23. 2.4 – Difference between Legislature in U.S, U.K & Malaysia © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  24. 24. Lower House © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010 Malaysia U.S U.K <ul><li>Dewan Rakyat </li></ul><ul><li>House of Representatives </li></ul><ul><li>House of Commons </li></ul><ul><li>222 MPs </li></ul><ul><li>435 reps </li></ul><ul><li>646 MPs </li></ul><ul><li>Law-making; </li></ul><ul><li>Amend constitution; </li></ul><ul><li>National forum; </li></ul><ul><li>Check & balance. </li></ul><ul><li>Law-making; </li></ul><ul><li>Impeach federal officials; </li></ul><ul><li>Elect president if no majority in electoral college. </li></ul><ul><li>Law-making; </li></ul><ul><li>Impeach ministers; </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor executive branch. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Upper House © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010 Malaysia U.S U.K <ul><li>Dewan Negara </li></ul><ul><li>Senate </li></ul><ul><li>House of Lords </li></ul><ul><li>70 senators </li></ul><ul><li>100 senators </li></ul><ul><li>746 </li></ul><ul><li>Law-making; </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss various issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Law-making; </li></ul><ul><li>Judges impeachment cases; </li></ul><ul><li>Advise president on govt appointments. </li></ul><ul><li>Law-making; </li></ul><ul><li>Highest court of appeal; </li></ul><ul><li>Judges impeachment cases. </li></ul>
  26. 32. 2.5 – Legislative Process & Constitutional Amendments © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  27. 33. <ul><li>Provided under Article 66 of Federal Constitution & the Standing Orders of both Houses; </li></ul><ul><li>3 types of Bills: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Bills: affects the community or alters general laws; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private Bills: local or personal matters; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid bills: introduces as public Bills but deals with private bill matters. </li></ul></ul>Legislative Process in M’sia © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  28. 34. <ul><li>A bill is usually introduced by the minister related to the topic of the bill; </li></ul><ul><li>Minister usually consults the Attorney General’s Chamber; </li></ul><ul><li>Consults various ministries & government agencies that may have interests in the bill; </li></ul>Preliminary Stages © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  29. 35. <ul><li>Minister brings up proposed bill into Cabinet meeting to obtain feedback & endorsement; </li></ul><ul><li>If Cabinet agrees, minister informs Secretaries of both Houses; </li></ul><ul><li>Bills may be introduced in any House. </li></ul>Preliminary Stages © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  30. 36. Stages First Reading Second Reading House Committee Third Reading Other House Royal Assent Govt Gazette LAW © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  31. 37. <ul><li>The minister will read the title of the bill & the reasons for its introduction; </li></ul><ul><li>No debate or amendment; </li></ul><ul><li>No debate or amendment; </li></ul><ul><li>The Bill is printed & circulated. </li></ul>First Reading © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  32. 38. <ul><li>The general principles of the bill are debated; </li></ul><ul><li>If accepted, it proceeds to the next stage; </li></ul><ul><li>If rejected, it could be modified & presented again or stops at this stage. </li></ul>Second Reading © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  33. 39. <ul><li>Debate on the details of the bill; </li></ul><ul><li>Less formal meeting; </li></ul><ul><li>Committee may call experts related to the bill; </li></ul><ul><li>May propose amendments; </li></ul><ul><li>Minister submits a report on the Bill to the House. </li></ul>House Committee © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  34. 40. <ul><li>Minister reports that the bill has been accepted with or without amendments; </li></ul><ul><li>Minister proposes that the bill be read a third time & voted on; </li></ul><ul><li>Amendments need to be put to a vote. </li></ul>Third Reading © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  35. 41. <ul><li>Goes through the same process; </li></ul><ul><li>If the other makes amendments to the Bill, it must get the approval of the first House. </li></ul>Other House © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  36. 42. <ul><li>The Bill is sent to the YDPA for the Royal Assent; </li></ul><ul><li>YDPA has to approve within 30 days; </li></ul><ul><li>If YDPA does not approve? </li></ul><ul><li>Bill becomes a law upon publication in the govt gazette. </li></ul>Royal Assent © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  37. 43. <ul><li>Amendment: the process of altering, correcting or changing for the better something or a document. </li></ul><ul><li>A constitution must be able to adjust to the ever-changing environment of a state; </li></ul><ul><li>Without amendments a constitution will become irrelevant & ineffective. </li></ul>Constitutional Amendments © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  38. 44. <ul><li>Kenneth Wheare – 4 guidelines in the amending process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should only be amended after careful deliberations; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The people should be consulted; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement btwn central & state govts (Federal system); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights of the minorities are protected. </li></ul></ul>Constitutional Amendments © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  39. 45. <ul><li>Reid Commission: “should not be too difficult as to produce frustration nor too easy as to weaken seriously the safeguards of the Constitution”. </li></ul><ul><li>Passed in each house by a majority of at least 2/3 of the members voting. </li></ul>Constitutional Amendments in M’sia © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  40. 46. <ul><li>4 different methods of amending the Federal Constitution (Article 159 & 161E): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple majority in both houses; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2/3 majority of members in both houses; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same condition as 2) & the consent of the Conference of Rulers; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same condition as 2) & the consent of either the YDPN Sabah or Sarawak (1963). </li></ul></ul>Constitutional Amendments in M’sia © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  41. 47. <ul><li>Another method (Article 150) – Give the executive power to declare emergency ; </li></ul><ul><li>The constitution does not specify which of the provisions those different methods apply; </li></ul><ul><li>Not required to obtain approval of the 11 peninsula states when amending provisions that may affect them; </li></ul><ul><li>Sabah & Sarawak: amendments require the consent of the head of state. </li></ul>Constitutional Amendments in M’sia © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  42. 48. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amendments to the Constitution in 1971; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutional Crisis of 1983; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judiciary Crisis of 1988; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Issue of Rulers Immunity in 1993. </li></ul></ul>Constitutional Amendments in M’sia © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  43. 49. <ul><li>Only the state legislative assembly can pass amendments; </li></ul><ul><li>Need at least 2/3 vote of the total members; </li></ul><ul><li>States with sultans: provisions regarding them & their families can only be amended by the sultan via proclamation; </li></ul><ul><li>Negeri Sembilan: ruler must act with the advice & agreement of the ruling chiefs; </li></ul><ul><li>States without sultans: YDPN virtually has no role. </li></ul>Amending State Constitutions © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  44. 50. 2.6 – Subsidiary Legislation © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  45. 51. <ul><li>“… any laws made by authorized person who has been given the power to do so…” (Tun Salleh Mohd Abas); </li></ul><ul><li>Any proclamation, rule, regulation, order, notification or by-law made under any Ordinance or Enactment & having legislative effect (Section 3 of Interpretation Acts 1948 & 1967); </li></ul><ul><li>Law passed by a subordinate authority under powers conferred by an Act @ parent/enabling Act. </li></ul>Subsidiary/Delegated Legislation © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  46. 52. <ul><li>Parliament & State Assemblies: confer/delegate some legislative powers to a person/body; </li></ul><ul><li>Reason: functions & responsibilities of govt are becoming more complex & expansive; </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance Act 1963 (Revised 1972): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Section 45: gives Minister power to make regulations to carry out objectives of the Act. </li></ul></ul></ul>Subsidiary/Delegated Legislation © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  47. 53. <ul><li>Ministerial regulations can be rescinded by the Minister if it becomes impractical or outdated (Eleventh Schedule of the Federal Constitution); </li></ul><ul><li>If parent Act is repealed, the subsidiary legislation will cease to exist. </li></ul>Subsidiary/Delegated Legislation © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  48. 54. <ul><li>Useful in times of emergency or circumstances which demand flexibility; </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Currency control during the 1998 financial crisis. </li></ul></ul>Advantages © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  49. 55. <ul><li>Too much legislative power with people who are not responsible to the Parliament or the people. </li></ul>Disadvantages © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  50. 56. <ul><li>Consultation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct consultations with organized interest groups or advisory groups before making regulations; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parent/enabling Acts can make consultations mandatory. </li></ul></ul>Control of Subsidiary Legislation © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  51. 57. <ul><li>Publicity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make rules/regulations available to the public; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsidiary legislation should be published in the Gazette. </li></ul></ul>Control of Subsidiary Legislation © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  52. 58. <ul><li>Parliamentary Control : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parliament may repeal the provision or the parent Act itself; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parliamentary questions to the minister; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present the rules/regulations to the Parliament. </li></ul></ul>Control of Subsidiary Legislation © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  53. 59. <ul><li>Judicial Review : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Declare subsidiary legislation invalid if it was made in excess of statutory authority conferred by the parent Act. </li></ul></ul>Control of Subsidiary Legislation © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  54. 60. 2.7 – Direct Legislation © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  55. 61. <ul><li>A process where the people are directly involved in the law-making process; </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with the concept of direct democracy; </li></ul><ul><li>Types of direct legislation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Referendum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recall </li></ul></ul>Direct Legislation © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  56. 62. <ul><li>Deciding on a law or constitutional amendment by means of popular vote at the request of govt or legislature; </li></ul><ul><li>Referendum must be ratified by the required majority of the people. </li></ul>Referendum © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  57. 63. <ul><li>Two types of referendum: </li></ul><ul><li>Facultative/Optional: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After law is passed by legisltr, it is submitted to specified number of people for endorsement. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compulsory/Obligatory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All bills must be referred to the people for endorsement before it becomes a law. </li></ul></ul>Referendum © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  58. 64. <ul><li>Maintains the principle of popular sovereignty; </li></ul><ul><li>Indicator of public opinion; </li></ul><ul><li>Minimizes importance of political parties; </li></ul><ul><li>Can resolve deadlock in a bicameral legislature; </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages patriotism & sense of responsibility; </li></ul><ul><li>Less radical process, avoids drastic changes. </li></ul>Advantages of Referendum © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  59. 65. <ul><li>Undermines the prestige of the legislature; </li></ul><ul><li>Average citizen not qualified to form an opinion on legislative issues; </li></ul><ul><li>Does not fairly represent public opinion; </li></ul><ul><li>Too frequent referendum can result in electoral fatigue. </li></ul>Disadvantages of Referendum © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  60. 66. <ul><li>A process where citizens can propose legislative or constitutional changes without regard to the opinion or wishes of the legislature; </li></ul><ul><li>Inherent right of the people. </li></ul>Initiative © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  61. 67. <ul><li>2 forms of initiative: </li></ul><ul><li>Formulative: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposal is formulated in a form of a bill complete in all aspects; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislature must consider the proposal. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General terms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposal is made in general terms; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislature must draft, consider & pass the law. </li></ul></ul>Initiative © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  62. 68. <ul><li>Necessary for the development of popular sovereignty; </li></ul><ul><li>People are ready & willing to obey laws; </li></ul><ul><li>Minimizes risk of political upheaval; </li></ul><ul><li>Gives people the right to propose laws that they really need. </li></ul>Advantages of Initiative © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010
  63. 69. <ul><li>Reduces the authority & responsibility of the legislature; </li></ul><ul><li>Law-making process is difficult & complicated; </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of the people proposing ‘unwise’ rules. </li></ul>Disadvantages of Initiative © Fairuz Hidayat Merican, 2010

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