Ammonification: Bacteria decomposers break
down amino acids from dead animals and
wastes into nitrogen ammonium.
•Form of nitrogen contained in fertilizer
•generated in soil by breakdown of organic
Atmosphere layer of gasses around the earth
carbon A non-metallic element found in coal, petroleum
and natural gas. Major component of life.
Carbon cycle Circulation of carbon through ecosystems
Process by which organisms create energy from
Glucose+ Oxygenà CO2+ H20+ Energy (ATP)
This is where warm and cold air collide and form
ice crystals that condense and form droplets of
Creates clouds in the air or fog on the ground.
condense to change from a gas to a liquid
Decomposition breakdown of matter by bacteria and fungi
Denitrification converts nitrates (NO3) in the soil
to atmospheric nitrogen (N2) replenishing the
- removal of nitrogen or nitrogen compounds
–Conversion of nitrogen to gaseous form
Evaporate to change from a liquid to a gas
Evaporation This is a process where the water is heated and
turned into a water vapor. The sun is the main
heat source for this process.
Fossil fuels Carbon-rich fuel from ancient animals and
examples: coal, gas, oil
Nitrates different form of nitrogen
•Found in plant nutrient and fertilizer
•Animal feed, manures, and sewage
Nitrification Nitrifying bacteria in the ground first combine
ammonia with oxygen to form nitrites. Then
another group of nitrifying bacteria convert
nitrites to nitrates which green plants can
absorb and use!
nitrogen Nitrogen is a non-metal, gaseous element
Nitrogen Fixation is when the nitrogen gets “fixed” and combines
with oxygen or hydrogen
Photosynthesis Process by which plants make sugar
Energy (sun)+ Water+ Carbon
dioxide Carbohydrates+ Oxygen
Precipitation When water droplets in clouds become to heavy
and begin to fall
Precipitation can be rain, hail, sleet or snow
depending on the temperature and wind
Respiration and decay -:
•Mechanisms in which animal life and bacteria
consume oxygen and release carbon dioxide
percolation When water seeps through the soil and ends up
in the water table. It then flows into the
streams, lakes, oceans, and other bodies of
water. The process is then repeated again and
Transpiration the process by which plants lose water through
the stomata of their leaves
Weathering Physical and chemical process in which solid
rock exposed at earths surface is changed to
separate solid particles and dissolved materials
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