All about cell theory and cells!!!
Technology that is
used to see tiny objects
are the most powerful
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch lens
maker, used a homemade microscope to
look at some pond scum
He was the first person to see single
He called them “animalcules”
In 1665, Hooke, an English scientist, used a
microscope he had built to study a thin slice
He saw the outer layers of the piece of cork’s
He called the structures he saw “CELLS,” which
means little rooms in Latin
Looked at MANY slides of plant tissues
In 1838, concluded that all plants are made of
Observed many different kinds of cells.
In 1839, stated that all animal tissues are
made of cells
In 1858, concluded that all cells
developed from other cells
The Cell Theory
1. All living things are made of one or more
2. The cell is the basic unit of structure and of
function in all living things.
3. All cells come from other living cells.
Fats and oils. Composed of carbon and
hydrogen. They are used to store energy long
term. Examples: butter, vegetable oil, found
in cell membranes.
Smallest building block of a macromolecule.
Used to make other molecules. For example:
glucose and fructose are monomers of
carbohydrates. Glucose + Fructose together
Simple sugars. Glucose and fructose are
examples. Larger sugars are made by
combining the simple sugars together.
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and
phosphorous. Building blocks of DNA & RNA.
Used to store the genetic information of the
cell. Ex: DNA & RNA.
A protein that increases the rate at which
chemical reactions. The enzyme does not
Composed of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and
nitrogen, and sulfur. Building blocks of amino
acids. Examples: muscles in body, collogen in
skin, hemoglobin in blood.
Many simple sugars in very long chains. Create
molecules to be used for long-term energy storage.
Examples: glycogen & cellulose
Two simple sugars joined together.
Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose.
Long chains of monomers stuck
Molecules made up of carbon, hydrogen, and
oxygen. They provide energy for living things.
Examples: glucose, sucrose, cellulose.
1. No nucleus
2. No membrane covered
2. Membrane covered
3. Circular DNA
3. Linear DNA (line)
4. Examples: Bacteria!
4. Examples: Every other
type of cell: animal, plant
Nickname: “The Control Center”
Function: holds the DNA
Parts: Nucleolus: dark spot in the middle of the nucleus that
helps make ribosomes
Function: makes proteins
Found in all cells, prokaryotic and
Function: The internal delivery system of
Nickname: “Clean-up Crews”
Function: to break down food into
particles the rest of the cell can use
and to destroy old cells
Nickname: “The Powerhouse”
Function: Energy formation
Breaks down food to make ATP
ATP: is the major fuel for all cell
activities that require energy
Function: stores water
This is what makes lettuce crisp: When there is no
water, the plant wilts
Function: traps energy from the sun to
produce food for the plant cell
Green in color because of chlorophyll,
which is a green pigment
Function: provides support and protection to the cell
Found outside the cell membrane in plant cells
These three organelles are ONLY FOUND IN