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  • 1. Word 1. Producer Definition Makes its own food through sunlight (plants) 2. Consumer Eats other organisms for food (animals) 3. Herbivore Consumer that eats plants only 4. Carnivore Consumer that eats other animals 5. Omnivore Consumer that eats plants and animals
  • 2. Word Definition 6. Scavenger Consumers that eat the bodies of already-been-killed animals 7. Decomposer Breaks down remains of dead organisms 8. Food Chain A food chain shows how each living thing gets its food Each link in this chain is food for the next link. A food chain always starts with plant life and ends with an animal. 9. Food Web A graphic that shows the organisms that eat and get eaten in an environment
  • 3. Food Chains
  • 4. Food Web
  • 5. 10. Energy Pyramid A graphic that shows the loss of energy at every level in an environment Less energy More energy
  • 6. Word Definition 10. Habitat Environment where something lives 11. Niche An organism’s way of life in an ecosystem, including habitat, food, predators, and competition 12. Limiting Factors 13. Carrying Capacity Anything that keeps a population from growing too large. Ex: food, living space, water The largest population that a given environment can support over a long period of time
  • 7. Word Definition 14. Competition When two or more individuals or populations try to use the same limited resource, such as food, water, shelter, space, or sunlight 15. Ecology The study of the environment and the interactions of organisms in the environment 16. Organism Living thing 17. Population A group of the same species living together. Example: pride of lions, Christmas tree farm
  • 8. Word 18. Community 19. Ecosystem Definition A group of the different species (2 populations) living together. Example: coral reef, forest floor Living and non-living things in an area Examples: forest with river and rocks, coral reef with sand and water 20. Biosphere The part of earth that supports living organisms. 21. Biotic Having to do with living things 22. Abiotic Having to do with non-living things
  • 9. Word 23. Autotroph 24. Heterotroph Definition Another word for producer Another word for consumer
  • 10. Population ecology 1. Populations can be described according to certain characteristics. - size of population - spacing (how organisms are arranged in a given area) - density – how many individuals there are in a specific area
  • 11. Population Density 2. The size of a population occupying an area of a specific size is called population density - the more individuals = more dense of a population - less individuals = less dense of a population
  • 12. Limiting Factors 3. Limiting factor – any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the number of individuals in a population - examples: food, temperature, living space, other resources - populations cannot grow uncontrolled forever - what affects one population can affect others living in same area
  • 13. Competition 4. Competition – contest among organisms to obtain the resources they need to survive and reproduce - population density increases = increase in competition
  • 14. Carrying Capacity 5. Carrying capacity – the largest number of individuals an environment can support and maintain for a long period of time - when this happens – some individual may not be able to compete, and will die or have to find another place to live
  • 15. Biotic Potential 6. Biotic potential – the number of individuals each female of a population can produce under the best possible conditions - plenty of food and shelter - ideal weather, no disease or enemies - populations never reach biotic potential in the wild
  • 16. 7. Niche and habitat 1. Niche – all of an organism’s relationships with its environment (both biotic and abiotic factors) a. Relationships with others, its offspring, time of day its most active, and where it finds shelter b. An organism’s “lifestyle” – how it contributes to and fits into its environment 2. Habitat – the actual place an organism lives
  • 17. Ecological Succession 1. Ecological Succession – process of gradual change from one community of organisms to another Ex. Lakes~~ponds~~marshes~~swamps ~~dry areas Ex. Rock~~mosses~~ grasses~~ trees 2. Take place in a predictable order and involve animals, plants and other organisms (and abiotic factors)
  • 18. Primary Succession 3. Primary succession - Ecological succession that begins in a place that does not have soil - new community – pioneer community – first organisms that move into a new environment - sunlight, temperature and moisture affect what plants can live in a certain area (limiting factors) - usually hardy organism that can survive drought, extreme heat and cold and other harsh conditions - change conditions in their entireness – support new organisms to come
  • 19. Secondary Succession 4. Succession that takes place that already has soil and had living organisms is called secondary succession - after forest fire, natural disasters
  • 20. Climax Communities 5. Climax Communities – when a community has reached the final stage of ecological succession - species will remain the same as long as the ecosystem does not change too drastically - Examples: forest of redwoods