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Social Marketing

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On two diverse research streams on social marketing

On two diverse research streams on social marketing

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Social Marketing Social Marketing Presentation Transcript

  • Social Marketing Foundations, different approaches and recent ideas AD 640 Marketing Theory Presentation Ezgi Merdin
  • Outline
    • PIONEERS : Kotler, Levy, Zaltman, Roberto, Andreasen...
    • Kotler, Philip & Zaltman, Gerald (1971) Social Marketing : An Approach to Planned Social Change . Journal of Marketing , 35, 3-12
    • Kotler, Philip & Levy, J. Sidney (1969) Broadening the Concept of Marketing. Journal of Marketing , 33, 10-15
    • SOCIAL MARKETING ON AGENDA : Marketing Theory Special Issue Vol (3), 2003.
    • Hastings, G. and Saren, M. The critical contribution of social marketing: Theory and application, Marketing Theory , 3.3,305-322
    • S. Peattie and K. Peattie (2003) Ready to Fly Solo? Reducing social marketing’s dependence on commercial marketing theory, Marketing Theory , 3.3, 365 – 385
    • RECENT DISCUSSERS: Wood, Domegan , Wayman et. al., Hawke et. al ... (nearly half of the literature coming from public health journals but marketing theory related ones are chosen for the purpose here)
    • Wood, Matthew (2008) Applying Commercial Marketing Theory to Social Marketing: A Tale of 4Ps (and a B), Social Marketing Quarterly (14), 76-85
    • Domegan, T. Christine (2008) Social marketing: implications for contemporary marketing practices classification scheme, Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing 33/3, 135-141
  • Citation Map Kotler & Zaltman, 1971 Saren & Hastings, 2003 Peattie & Peattie, 2003 Domegan, 2008 Wood, 2008 Kotler & Levy, 1969
  • Leading the Way (Kotler & Levy, 1969) WHAT’S NEW? In 1969, Kotler and Levy suggested the broadening of marketing to include other organizations running marketing-like activities (like churches, associations, universities), which is still controversial and objected by some, like Luck (1969). Concepts for Effective Marketing Management in Nonbusiness Organizations Broad and need-based Not too broad, specified Differentiated products for different targets Identifying motive Creating special value In overall coordination Collecting vital information Be sensitive to changing needs and problems.
  • Social Marketing Defined (Kotler & Zaltman, 1971)
    • WHAT’S NEW?
    • The new field was given the name “Social Marketing” in this article (1971) and defined as will be quoted in the future many times as:
    • “ the design, implementation and control of programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas and involving considerations of product planning, pricing, communication, distribution, and marketing research.”
    • Source: Kotler & Zaltman 1971
  • Social Marketing Defined (Kotler & Zaltman, 1971)
    • WHAT’S NEW?
    • 4P of Social Marketing
    4P Kotler & Zaltman, 1971 Product core product (idea ) and various tangible products and services "buyable” Price money costs, opportunity costs, energy costs, and psychic costs Place accessible outlets which permit the translation of motivations into actions. Promotion advertising, personal selling, publicity, sales promotion
  • Social Marketing Defined (Kotler & Zaltman, 1971)
    • WHAT’S NEW?
    • 4P of Social Marketing
    4P Kotler & Zaltman, 1971 Product core product (idea ) and various tangible products and services "buyable” Price money costs, opportunity costs, energy costs, and psychic costs Place accessible outlets which permit the translation of motivations into actions. Promotion advertising, personal selling, publicity, sales promotion Smoking ban / Swine flu crisis
  • Social Marketing Defined (Kotler & Zaltman, 1971) information message 4P results
  • Social Marketing Defined (Kotler & Zaltman, 1971)
    • On The Social Marketing Planning Process:
    • In the systematic representation of a nonbusiness organization’s social marketing planning process, continuous information from the environment is taken as input and processed to develop plans by the change agency . Plans and messages that are created are transmitted to audiences through various channels like mass media or selling agents. The continuously tracked results are taken as feedback again to the research unit of the change agency .
    • Overall, authors argue that social marketing is harder than commercial marketing because:
    • “ It deals with core beliefs or preferences”
    • “ Its channel systems are less defined”
    • “ Overt marketing of social objectives will be resented and resisted.”
  • Seperating Social Marketing (Peattie & Peattie, 2003)
    • It emphasizes the differences between commercial and social marketing, and the urgent need for creating unique tools, theories and vocabulary for social marketing.
    • They also emphasize that social marketing is different also from CSR (corporate social responsibility) and CRM (cause related marketing) because it “seeks to utilize tools, techniques and concepts derived from commercial marketing in the pursuit of social goals” which also has some drawbacks like:
    • Misunderstandings stemming from the use of words “product, place and price” metaphorically in social marketing.
    • Facing ethical challenges like deciding what is good for a number of people, as opposed to morally neutral attitude of businesses.
    • They agree that social marketing is more challenging, like Kotler & Zaltman (1971).
  • Seperating Social Marketing (Peattie & Peattie, 2003)
    • On exchange: It is not an exchange mechanism that connects marketer and target. Use of exchange can be problematic. Social marketers aim a response but do not market “in exchange” for that response. Plus, there are a lot of unidirectional transfers of value (like information provision) There is interaction .
    • This also makes evaluating the effectiveness of social marketing extremely difficult because measuring costs and benefits are too hard. “ A lack of success can even represent a success, if it prevents the worsening of a particular problem.”
    • Authors offer Social Exchange Theory (Janic & Zabkar, 2002) because social marketing’s aim is “to alert, inform... Influence and support their targets... Towards behavioral change.”
  • Seperating Social Marketing (Peattie & Peattie, 2003)
    • On services marketing :
    • “ In developing its own unique theoretical base and vocabulary, social marketing would be following the path of other marketing sub-disciplines such as services marketing.”
    • Services marketing is the outcome of a need for a seperate marketing sub-discipline for intangibles rather then theories and principles for physical products. Its success in creating its unique tools like SERVQUAL and unique volcabulary can pave the way for Social Marketing towards being independent.
  • Social Marketing 4P Criticism (Peattie & Peattie, 2003) Similarity with commercial marketing 4P Kotler & Zaltman, 1971 Peattie & Peattie, 2003 Product core product (idea ) and various tangible products and services "buyable” Social propositions Do not force-fit! Price money costs, opportunity costs, energy costs, and psychic costs Transaction cost or cost of involvement Place accessible outlets which permit the translation of motivations into actions. Accessibility Promotion advertising, personal selling, publicity, sales promotion Communication as a social process
  • Social Marketing 4P Criticism (Peattie & Peattie, 2003) smoking cessation democracy campaigns
  • Social Competition (as battle of ideas) (Peattie & Peattie, 2003) Apart from the social marketing mix, competition is said to be fundamental to social marketing, with different forms like “combating competition” (working for opposing social goals) or being in competition against the common behavior of your target.
    • Mainly, Wood takes a critical view towards the application of the exchange concept and the marketing mix concepts in social marketing. Value is another concept he finds problematic due to measurement concerns.
    • Rather, he proposes enriching social marketing theory through the use of
      • Relationship marketing (which is growing and largely neglected before)
      • Interactive communications (because exchange takes place within individual while changing his/her behavior)
      • Impact of branding (proven successful utilizations in previous social campaigns like drug awareness, etc...)
    Recent Seperationism (Wood, 2008)
  • Recent Seperationism (Wood, 2008)
    • on Kotler: They are traditionalists.
    • “ Social marketing cannot employ commercial marketing tools like 4P.”
    • On Ex c hange: There is a paradigm shift from transaction to establishing long-term relationships. “ If anything.. . target people are exchanging one behavior with another as an individual rather than participating in a transaction between two parties. ...The social marketer may have a role in helping, encouraging, or facilitating that change but it is not the same thing as an exchange.”
    • WHAT’S NEW?
    • Branding: “Seen as manipulative, exploitative and unethical but social marketers should consider how branding may help in the promotion of for ex. healthier choices.”
    • (ex.yellow bracelet movement?)
  • Recent Seperationism (Wood, 2008) Kotler & Zaltman, 1971 Peattie & Peattie, 2003 Wood, 2008 Product Core product (idea ) and various tangible products and services "buyable” Social propositions Do not force-fit! Moving target to the contemplation stage may be enough. Social propositions Price Money costs, opportunity costs, energy costs, and psychic costs Transaction cost or cost of involvement Perceived time, effort, change and impact on social relations. Even negative pricing. Place Accessible outlets which permit the translation of motivations into actions. Accessibility Distribution of information, not physical goods. Promotion Advertising, personal selling, publicity, sales promotion Communication as a social process Through interactivity and relationship building.
  • Recent Seperationism (Wood, 2008) Kotler & Zaltman, 1971 Peattie & Peattie, 2003 Wood, 2008 Product Core product (idea ) and various tangible products and services "buyable” Social propositions Do not force-fit! Moving target to the contemplation stage is enough. Social propositions Price Money costs, opportunity costs, energy costs, and psychic costs Transaction cost or cost of involvement Perceived time, effort, change and impact on social relations. Even negative pricing. Place Accessible outlets which permit the translation of motivations into actions. Accessibility Distribution of information, not physical goods. Promotion Advertising, personal selling, publicity, sales promotion Communication as a social process Through interactivity and relationship building. Smoking ban / Swine flu crisis + remaining antibacterial ? + living long + social embarassment? + not travelling? + infolines? + cigarette packs? + opinion leaders? + e-mail chains?
  • Critical social marketing (Hastings & Saren, 2003)
    • WHAT’S NEW?
    • Constructivist: Social marketing bridges the gap between the corporate sector and public welfare and takes learning from generic marketing, feeds it back to the core discipline.
      • “ Social marketing has enormous potential to ‘do good’ in the arena of behaviour change and to make a real contribution to the field of critical marketing.”
      • “ Social marketers can bridge the gap between public health and commerce.”
      • “ The insight social marketers have means they can help devise solutions when problems are revealed.”
  • Critical social marketing (Hastings & Saren, 2003)
    • The authors have attempted to constructively analyze social, commercial and critical marketing thought and the relationship between them, focusing on mutual benefits these disciplines can provide for each other.
    • To contribute to the stream of critical marketing, social marketing can “provide realistic critiques of marketing and identify intelligent solutions.”
    • Sticking to the tobacco example followed in the paper, the authors provide some tools that tobacco producers employ and also the similar ways social marketers can use against tobacco to improve the negative outcomes of this process like “ social exclusion, material and social waste, hazard merchants activities...”
  • Critical social marketing (Hastings & Saren, 2003)
    • On Exchange :
    • They defend the exchange concept in social marketing against three levels of resistances.
    • Customer benefit is ambiguous -> Yes, social marketing involves symbolic exchange but this is also the recent issue in commercial marketing in form of symbolic consumption so benefit can be something consumer may never see.
    • Health promoters are seeking for benefit, actually -> Realistically, altruism is easy to be balanced with career seeking in health or some other benefit.
    • Consumers may not capable of accepting the offer (for example lacking fresh fruit to apply to diet)-> In an ethical way, this should be worked upon.
  • Critical social marketing (Hastings & Saren, 2003)
    • On Relationship Marketing :
    • Even though it is also criticed by some as offering nothing new, the authors are defending the novelty of this subarea and the innovations coming with the move towards relational practices.
    • “ Relational paradigms can bring new insights to social marketing” because the responses expected by social marketing practices like changing the lifestyle are more complex than accepting a specific product offering so “such behaviors are much more susceptible to strategic relationship marketing than traditional transactional thinking.”
  • Constructivism Continues (Domegan, 2008)
    • WHAT’S NEW?
    • This paper investigates the relevance of social marketing using the CMP lens .
    TM (Transaction Marketing) Traditional 4P Approach Passive consumers, in exchange of physical, tangible goods. Close to mass marketing. DM (Database Marketing) Personalizing the exchange process through database tools like loyalty cards. Aim is to attract and retain consumers through technological communication. eM (eMarketing) The role of customer shifts from being passive to active consumers making exchange through internet and interactive technologies. IM (Interaction Marketing) Highly participative consumers, in personal relationship. Face-to-face formal and informal communication. NM (Network Marketing) Active and participative consumers and firms in interpersonal and interorganizational relationships
  • Constructivism Continues (Domegan, 2008)
    • On behavior change and exchange: Social marketing manages change in three levels of analysis:
    • “ Hastings and Saren (2003, p. 315) believe this three-unit impact at different levels is social marketing’s biggest contribution, bridging the gap between the corporate sector and public welfare and understanding both worlds.”
  • Constructivism Continues (Domegan, 2008)
    • on Exchange: In social marketing, partnerships manifest complex multiple exchanges at five levels:
    • Intrapersonal / individual
    • Interpersonal (family and friends’ social support)
    • Institutional / organizational
    • Community (local or regional)
    • Public policy
    • This marketing process works upstream, downstream and in-stream.
  • Constructivism Continues (Domegan, 2008)
    • On exchange: