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Qualitative Marketing Research Methods

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A select palette of qualitative research methods, …

A select palette of qualitative research methods,
conference presentation at ODTU MS Business Conference, Ankara, Turkey 2010

Published in Marketing
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  • Guidance for those who want to take a macro look and comparative approach to the techniques
  • Positivist vs. relativistic approaches
    Rather than law-like generalizations
    Quantitative for data analysis part
    Standardization of data and replicability issues
    Small samples are OK since it is theoretical sampling
    Rather than competing approaches they should be regarded as complementary methodologies
    First do qualitative and verify with quantitative or do quantitative and dig deeper with qualitative
    Data analysis zaten quantittative olmalı
  • Create synergy and the outcome is more than sum of individual inputs
    Useful in obtaining general background information about a topic of interest.
  • Create synergy and the outcome is more than sum of individual inputs
    Useful in obtaining general background information about a topic of interest.
  • Thinking and Managing: A Verbal Protocol Analysis of Managerial Problem SolvingDaniel J. Isenberg-Harvard UniversityAcademy of Management Journal, 1986, Vol.29, No.4,P.775-788
  • Create synergy and the outcome is more than sum of individual inputs
    Useful in obtaining general background information about a topic of interest.
  • Create synergy and the outcome is more than sum of individual inputs
    Useful in obtaining general background information about a topic of interest.
  • Satisfaction and dissatisfaction in services issues especially use this
    Classification of satisfaction sources / dissatisfaction sources
  • Satisfaction and dissatisfaction in services issues especially use this
    Classification of satisfaction sources / dissatisfaction sources
  • Satisfaction and dissatisfaction in services issues especially use this
    Classification of satisfaction sources / dissatisfaction sources

Transcript

  • 1. A Select Palette of Qualitative Research Tools for Marketing and Management Sciences Ahmet Aydemir, Ezgi Merdin, N. Çağla Mutlucan, Zeren Özeralp-Oray, Mina Seraj Boğaziçi University 1
  • 2. Aim of Study  Discuss less frequently used qualitative methods and how they can add value to marketing and management studies  Comparing selected qualitative research methods based on their strengths and weaknesses 2
  • 3. Qualitative Paradigm  Paradigm shift in managerial sciences  Contribution to what, how and why questions  Exploratory approach  Increases explanatory power of theory  Experiences of subjects, rich data access  Validity and reliability issues, sampling  Triangulation approach 3
  • 4. Selected Qualitative Methods  Focus Group Interviews  Verbal Protocol Analysis  Cognitive Mapping  Critical Incident Technique 4
  • 5. Research Scope and Objectives  Hypothesis formulation, construct development  Useful for exploratory and developmental phases  Within group homogeneity and between group heterogeneity  Synergy through interaction and strength of collectivity Critical Incident Technique Cognitive Mapping Verbal Protocol Analysis Focus Group Interviews 5
  • 6. Data Collection and Analysis  Cost-effective and time-saving  Purposive selection rather than random or convenience  Saturation determines the number of groups  Moderator as a critical element  Coding transcripts of audio and/or video recording  Field notes analysis  Online focus groups emerging as a new method Critical Incident Technique Cognitive Mapping Verbal Protocol Analysis Focus Group Interviews 6
  • 7. Research Scope and Objectives  Purpose is to make inferences about the cognitive processes from the verbalizations made on a given task  The goal is to reflect the short-term memory contents and to gain some insights into mental events accurately Critical Incident Technique Cognitive Mapping Verbal Protocol Analysis Focus Group Interviews 7
  • 8. Data Collection and Analysis  “Think aloud” method  Concurrent vs. retrospective  Mediated vs. non-mediated Critical Incident Technique Cognitive Mapping Verbal Protocol Analysis Focus Group Interviews 8 RETROSPECTIVECONCURRENT MEDIATED MEDIATEDNON MEDIATED VPA NON MEDIATED
  • 9. Limitations  Subjects can verbalize only conscious thoughts  Nonverbal knowledge is not likely to be reported  Self-presentation issues (social desirability bias)  Time consuming and labor intensive  Limited sample size Critical Incident Technique Cognitive Mapping Verbal Protocol Analysis Focus Group Interviews 9
  • 10. An Example Study (Isenberg, 1986)  Aim is to understand managerial problem solving process  12 GMs + 3 Students (comparison group)  Short business cases  Transcripts scored using a 17-category scheme developed through a pilot study Critical Incident Technique Cognitive Mapping Verbal Protocol Analysis Focus Group Interviews Isenberg , D.J., (1986) “Thinking and Managing: A Verbal Protocol Analysis of Managerial Problem Solving,” Academy of Management Journal, 29, 4, 775-788. 10
  • 11. Research Scope and Objectives  Purpose is to analyze series of psychological transformations by which an individual acquires, codes, stores, recalls, and decodes information  The objective is to represent an understanding of the environment and forces that work within Critical Incident Technique Cognitive Mapping Verbal Protocol Analysis Focus Group Interviews 11
  • 12. Data Collection and Analysis  Interviews are used to collect data  Content analysis is used in the formulation of the concepts that form the cognitive maps  Cognitive maps formed by  Number of elements in a map (Comprehensiveness)  Number of connections between the elements (Connectedness) Critical Incident Technique Cognitive Mapping Verbal Protocol Analysis Focus Group Interviews 12
  • 13. Limitations  Complex and time consuming  Not suitable for large samples  Subjective interpretation of maps Critical Incident Technique Cognitive Mapping Verbal Protocol Analysis Focus Group Interviews 13
  • 14. An Example Study (Calori et al., 1994)  12 French & 14 British companies  24 CEOs, 2 General Managing Directors  Open ended interviews  Cognitive mapping after content analysis  Comprehensiveness & Connectedness Critical Incident Technique Cognitive Mapping Verbal Protocol Analysis Focus Group Interviews Calori, R.; Johnson, G. & Sarnin, P. (1994), “CEOs’ Cognitive Maps and the Scope of The Organization,” Strategic Management Journal, 15, 437-457. 14
  • 15. Research Scope and Objectives  Exploratory purpose with the aim of answering questions of what, how and why about certain phenomena  Belk (2006) - collecting realistic accounts of the world  Retrieves stories or critical incidents as its main data  The main aim is to reach a classification scheme  Based on stories or critical events  Emergent common patterns or themes Critical Incident Technique Cognitive Mapping Verbal Protocol Analysis Focus Group Interviews 15
  • 16. Data Collection and Analysis  Flexible design that depends on the aims of the researcher (open-ended questions, online short surveys)  Content analysis accompanied by inductive delineation of major groupings within the answers  Quantification (%) to reach more sound categories  Two way comparisons and multiple judges Critical Incident Technique Cognitive Mapping Verbal Protocol Analysis Focus Group Interviews 16
  • 17. Limitations  Pre-determined and focused technique that allows for collecting only the answers of specific questions  Selective memory bias Critical Incident Technique Cognitive Mapping Verbal Protocol Analysis Focus Group Interviews 17
  • 18. An Example Study (Meuter et al., 2000)  The sources of customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction in encounters involving Self Service Technologies (SST)  How satisfying and dissatisfying encounters with SSTs are related to attributions, complaining, word of mouth and repurchase intentions is also analyzed for triangulation purposes  823 incidents collected - a list of resulting categories Critical Incident Technique Cognitive Mapping Verbal Protocol Analysis Focus Group Interviews Meuter, M.L.; Ostrom, A.L.; Roundtree, R.I. and Bitner, M. J. (2000), “Self-Service Technologies: Understanding Customer Satisfaction with Technology-Based Service Encounters,” Journal of Marketing, 64, 50-64. 18
  • 19. Comparative Analysis: Research Scope and Objectives 19
  • 20. Comparative Analysis: Data Collection 20
  • 21. Comparative Analysis: Data Analysis 21
  • 22. Comparative Analysis: Verification of Results 22
  • 23. Conclusion  All methods are exploratory and have rich content  Different application styles  Answering what, how and why questions  For gaining insight about a phenomenon by choosing right method for the research purpose 23
  • 24. THANK YOU For further questions please contact: ezgi.merdin@gmail.com 24