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Consumer Learning


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  • 1. Prepared by Ezgi Merdin
  • 2.
    • Consumers can learn about:
      • where to buy
      • how to use
      • how to maintain
      • how to dispose of products
    • “ Learning is the change in behavior as a result of past experience.”
    • “ Learning Theory” aims to identify conditions that provide consistent behavior over time.
    • “ The process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experience that they apply to future related behavior .”
    AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
  • 3. AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
  • 4. AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
  • 5.
    • Associative Learning is the essence of Conditioning.
    • Ex. Marlboro cigarettes – Cowboy association
    • Ex. Miller Lite Beer – Sporting events association
    AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
  • 6.
    • The association can be established through
    • Repetitive advertising
    • Contiguity
    • Requirements of classical conditioning
    • No other stimuli to cause overshadowing effect (ex.Marlboro ad horse becomes more important than cowboy)
    • No previous association for the stimulus to cause blocking effect (ex. Beer brand can’t use cowboy after Marlboro)
    • No overly familiar stimulus to cause preexposure effect (ex. Overuse of Michael Jordan for Nike, McDonald’s, Gatorade…)
    • New conditioned stimulus (ex. successful for new product entry)
    AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
  • 7.
    • A behavioral theory of learning based on a trial-and-error process,
    • with habits forced as the result of positive experiences ( reinforcement ) resulting from certain responses or behaviors.
    AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
  • 8.
    • The reinforcement can be given in following types:
    • Positive (repeated satisfaction)
    • Negative (offensive salesperson)
    • Forgetting (stimulus is no longer repeated or percieved)
    • Extinction (elimination of the link btw product and satisfaction)
    • Marketing strategy should fight against forgetting and extinction, by
    • Repetition
    • Delivering sufficient benefits
    AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
  • 9.
    • Holds that the kind of learning most characteristic of human beings is problem solving , which enables individuals to gain some control over their environment.
    • Emphasizes process rather than the results.
    • Emphasizes goal achievement.
    • Relevant for important and involving products, rather than low involvement which is more in the domain of behavioral learning.
    AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
  • 10. AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin Attention Cognitive Action Conative Purchase Postpurchase Evaluation Trial Adoption Decision Confirmation Affective Evaluation Interest Evaluation Persuasion Knowledge Awareness Awareness Knowledge Interest Desire Innovation Adoption Model Decision-Making Model Tricompetent Model Innovation Decision Process Promotional Model
  • 11.
    • Vicarious (Observational) Learning
    • A process by which individuals observe how others behave in response to certain stimuli and reinforcements. Also known as modeling.
    • Based on imitating others like celebrities.
    AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
  • 12. AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
  • 13.
    • Frequency of Occurrence of Stimuli: Frequently seen brands are chosen also outside of in-store context (recall) whereas less frequently encounterd brands are chosen in-store settings (recognition).
    • Plans for Learning: How subjects go about the task. Simple tasks may require more use of recall and more complex tasks require more recognition.
    • Rehearsal and Transfer Times: Recall takes more time than recognition. Commercials should be planned according to their aim.
    • Effects of Arousal Level: Under high arousal, recognition response speeds are facilitated but recall response speeds are hindered.
    AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
  • 14. AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
    • Level of conscious intent
      • * Explicit memory
        • Deliberate attempt to retrieve information
      • * Implicit memory
        • Information automatically recalled
          • E.g., associations
          • E.g., routine information (social security and phone numbers, web site addresses)
    • Associative Network of Knowledge
      • Pieces of experience and information (nodes) are tired together
      • “ Activating” one node will tend to activate others which in turn will activate still more nodes
        • E.g.,
          • Thinking of marketing class may activate name of a soft drink always consumed by the instructor
  • 15.
    • C onsumer expertise ( includes both the cognitive structures e.g., beliefs about product attributes and cognitive processes e.g., decision rules for acting on those beliefs) required to perform product-related tasks successfully )
    • is distinguished from product-related experience ( advertising exposures, in f ormation search, interactions with salespersons, choice and decision making, purchasing, and product usage in various situations. )
    • 5 distinct dimensions of expertise :
    • cognitive effort (automatic detection)
    • cognitive structure (size and structure of consideration set, attributes and catgorization)
    • a nalysis (from analytic, rule-based to holistic, similarity-based processing)
    • Elaboration (less reliance on generalizations, infer benefits more easily, deep structure problems)
    • Memory (recognition and recall)
    AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
  • 16.
    • C ustomer-based brand equity is defined as “ the differential effect that brand knowledge has on consumer response to marketing activity (price, promotion, advertising etc) for that brand. ” If it is positive, consumers react more favorably to marketing mix activity for the brand, c o mp ared to when the same marketing activity is attributed to a n unnamed version .
    • Manipulating brand equity results in
    • the ability to command larger margins from consumers,
    • elicits increased consumer information search,
    • improves marketing communication effectiveness,
    • licensing opportunities
    • consumers' responsiveness to brand extensions.
    AD644 - Branding - Ezgi Merdin
  • 17. AD644 - Branding - Ezgi Merdin
  • 18.
    • Brand Awareness :
    • Strength of the brand node or trace in the memory. How well does brand identity serves its function?
    • Brand recall is the cosumer’s ability to retrieve the brand given product category or need.
    • Brand Image:
    • Types of brand assocations
    • - Attributes (descriptive features). They can be product- related or non-product related (price, packaging, user imagery, usage imagery)
    • - Benefits (personal value attached). They can be functional, experiential or symbolic.
    • - Brand Attitudes (consumer’s overall evaluation)
    AD644 - Branding - Ezgi Merdin