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Consumer Learning
 

Consumer Learning

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    Consumer Learning Consumer Learning Presentation Transcript

    • Prepared by Ezgi Merdin
      • Consumers can learn about:
        • where to buy
        • how to use
        • how to maintain
        • how to dispose of products
      • “ Learning is the change in behavior as a result of past experience.”
      • “ Learning Theory” aims to identify conditions that provide consistent behavior over time.
      • “ The process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experience that they apply to future related behavior .”
      AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
    • AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
    • AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
      • Associative Learning is the essence of Conditioning.
      • Ex. Marlboro cigarettes – Cowboy association
      • Ex. Miller Lite Beer – Sporting events association
      AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
      • The association can be established through
      • Repetitive advertising
      • Contiguity
      • Requirements of classical conditioning
      • No other stimuli to cause overshadowing effect (ex.Marlboro ad horse becomes more important than cowboy)
      • No previous association for the stimulus to cause blocking effect (ex. Beer brand can’t use cowboy after Marlboro)
      • No overly familiar stimulus to cause preexposure effect (ex. Overuse of Michael Jordan for Nike, McDonald’s, Gatorade…)
      • New conditioned stimulus (ex. successful for new product entry)
      AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
      • A behavioral theory of learning based on a trial-and-error process,
      • with habits forced as the result of positive experiences ( reinforcement ) resulting from certain responses or behaviors.
      AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
      • The reinforcement can be given in following types:
      • Positive (repeated satisfaction)
      • Negative (offensive salesperson)
      • Forgetting (stimulus is no longer repeated or percieved)
      • Extinction (elimination of the link btw product and satisfaction)
      • Marketing strategy should fight against forgetting and extinction, by
      • Repetition
      • Delivering sufficient benefits
      AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
      • Holds that the kind of learning most characteristic of human beings is problem solving , which enables individuals to gain some control over their environment.
      • Emphasizes process rather than the results.
      • Emphasizes goal achievement.
      • Relevant for important and involving products, rather than low involvement which is more in the domain of behavioral learning.
      AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
    • AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin Attention Cognitive Action Conative Purchase Postpurchase Evaluation Trial Adoption Decision Confirmation Affective Evaluation Interest Evaluation Persuasion Knowledge Awareness Awareness Knowledge Interest Desire Innovation Adoption Model Decision-Making Model Tricompetent Model Innovation Decision Process Promotional Model
      • Vicarious (Observational) Learning
      • A process by which individuals observe how others behave in response to certain stimuli and reinforcements. Also known as modeling.
      • Based on imitating others like celebrities.
      AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
    • AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
      • Frequency of Occurrence of Stimuli: Frequently seen brands are chosen also outside of in-store context (recall) whereas less frequently encounterd brands are chosen in-store settings (recognition).
      • Plans for Learning: How subjects go about the task. Simple tasks may require more use of recall and more complex tasks require more recognition.
      • Rehearsal and Transfer Times: Recall takes more time than recognition. Commercials should be planned according to their aim.
      • Effects of Arousal Level: Under high arousal, recognition response speeds are facilitated but recall response speeds are hindered.
      AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
    • AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
      • Level of conscious intent
        • * Explicit memory
          • Deliberate attempt to retrieve information
        • * Implicit memory
          • Information automatically recalled
            • E.g., associations
            • E.g., routine information (social security and phone numbers, web site addresses)
      • Associative Network of Knowledge
        • Pieces of experience and information (nodes) are tired together
        • “ Activating” one node will tend to activate others which in turn will activate still more nodes
          • E.g.,
            • Thinking of marketing class may activate name of a soft drink always consumed by the instructor
      • C onsumer expertise ( includes both the cognitive structures e.g., beliefs about product attributes and cognitive processes e.g., decision rules for acting on those beliefs) required to perform product-related tasks successfully )
      • is distinguished from product-related experience ( advertising exposures, in f ormation search, interactions with salespersons, choice and decision making, purchasing, and product usage in various situations. )
      • 5 distinct dimensions of expertise :
      • cognitive effort (automatic detection)
      • cognitive structure (size and structure of consideration set, attributes and catgorization)
      • a nalysis (from analytic, rule-based to holistic, similarity-based processing)
      • Elaboration (less reliance on generalizations, infer benefits more easily, deep structure problems)
      • Memory (recognition and recall)
      AD643 - Consumer Behavior - Ezgi Merdin
      • C ustomer-based brand equity is defined as “ the differential effect that brand knowledge has on consumer response to marketing activity (price, promotion, advertising etc) for that brand. ” If it is positive, consumers react more favorably to marketing mix activity for the brand, c o mp ared to when the same marketing activity is attributed to a n unnamed version .
      • Manipulating brand equity results in
      • the ability to command larger margins from consumers,
      • elicits increased consumer information search,
      • improves marketing communication effectiveness,
      • licensing opportunities
      • consumers' responsiveness to brand extensions.
      AD644 - Branding - Ezgi Merdin
    • AD644 - Branding - Ezgi Merdin
      • BRAND KNOWLEDGE
      • Brand Awareness :
      • Strength of the brand node or trace in the memory. How well does brand identity serves its function?
      • Brand recall is the cosumer’s ability to retrieve the brand given product category or need.
      • Brand Image:
      • Types of brand assocations
      • - Attributes (descriptive features). They can be product- related or non-product related (price, packaging, user imagery, usage imagery)
      • - Benefits (personal value attached). They can be functional, experiential or symbolic.
      • - Brand Attitudes (consumer’s overall evaluation)
      AD644 - Branding - Ezgi Merdin