Selection is the second stage in a normal
organisation entry scheme and starts at
the end of recruitment. It involves
identifying candidates who meet key
requirements through a battery of tests
and purposeful interview; then picking
The selection policy of an organisation
determines the procedures that should be
utilized in picking the right person for
available job opening therein. In it’s absence,
selection would depend on the whims and
caprices of the managers.
The purpose of drilling candidates through
the selection process is to ascertain
competency and degree of commitment.
While the former can be easily effected,
the latter demands deep scrutiny. Even
so, commitment can become eroded due
to environmental or psychographic
“A competency is an underlying
characteristic of a person which is
causally related to effective or superior
performance in a job or role.”
This is used for uncovering the personality
characteristics of applicants, thereby assessing their
relationship with the performance of a specified job.
The personality traits of a person depict ability to
develop interest in other people, and strength of
focus to work with them. Certainly, this is a strong
determinant of environmental adjustability and
tendency to operate without overbearing cloud of
phobia. Other personality traits that can be
appraised are emotional stability, motivational
system, openness to experience, conscientiousness,
gregariousness, amiability and introversion.
Examples of Personality Test
• Personality Attribute Inventory
• Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory
• Personality Adjective Checklist
Advantages of Personality Test
(i) It facilitates identification of people with the
interpersonal traits required for jobs.
(ii) It can aid discovery of the intrinsic abilities of
(iii) It is a vital tool for overall assessment of a
person, when combined with other
Disadvantages of Personality Test
(i) The cost of test administration may be very
(ii) The result of the test may not reflect reality,
due to the tendency of applicants to behave as
if they have certain traits that are needed for
(iii) There could be difficulty in measuring some
(iv) If all the applicants have the same personality
traits, it can lead to lack of diversity.
Another name of proficiency tests is
achievement tests, and they are used for
measuring an applicant’s knowledge or skills,
in relationship with the ones needed for a
Types of Proficiency Tests
• Knowledge Tests
• Work Sample Tests
These tests usually involve questions aimed at
discovering the depth of an applicant’s
knowledge about certain tasks and
responsibilities as contained in a specific job.
Work Sample Tests
These tests require applicants to perform tasks,
which are similar to that of a particular job.
The use of these tests is based on the fact that
observed work behaviour of applicants under
standard job situations, are appropriate
indicators of their most probable performance
ratings, when placed in such capacities.
Examples of Work Sample Tests
• Simulation of Events
• Work-Sample Tests of Traininability
Advantages of Work Sample Tests
(i) Applicants can not easily pretend to have high
proficiency, because it’s a practical orientated
(ii) It has a high reliability and validity.
(iii) The content of the test is similar to that of
the actual job.
(iv) The equipment used in administration of the
test is similar to the one used on that
Disadvantages of Work Sample Tests
(i) The administration of these tests is costly,
especially if equipments would be used.
(ii) It’s not effective in measuring the aptitude of
applicants, because it focuses on ability of
(iii) It’s only useful for jobs that can be
completed within a short time, since it can not
be used for assessing applicants on jobs which
require days or weeks for completion.
Cognitive Abilities Tests
These are assessment tools used for
measurement of intelligence and aptitude of
applicants. They are the most widely accepted
selection tests used in industries.
Types of Cognitive Abilities Tests
(i) General Intelligence Test.
(ii) Aptitude Test.
Types of Aptitude Tests
(i) Test of Verbal Ability
(ii) Test of Abstract Reasoning
(iii) Test of Clerical Aptitude
(iv) Test of Perceptual Ability
(v) Test of Spatial Ability
(vi) Test of Numerical Ability
(vii) Test of Mechanical Aptitude
(viii) Test of Creativity
(ix) Test of Dexterity
Qualities of a Good Test
(i) The right selection decisions can be made
from results obtained.
(ii) The ability of the test to measure what it was
set out to measure.
(iii) There is consistency in the measurement
system of the test.
(iv) It must have a high degree of job relevance.
Validity of Test
Validity refers to the extent which a test
measures the specific characteristics which it’s
supposed to measure, and the quality of
measurement. It shows whether a test can be
used for effective prediction of job
performance. In fact, it defines the nature of
linkage between performance in the test and
job performance. Hence, showing if there is
an acceptable correlation, that can justify its
applicability and usefulness for that selection.
• Man Specification Based Interview
• Biographical Based Interview
• Structured Behavioural Competency
• Structured Psychometric Interview
• Structured Situational Based Interview
• Performance-Based Interview
• Stress Interview
• Depth Interview
Its a process of verifying the information given
by applicants. Records of qualifications,
employment and achievement provided by
applicants on a resume, the application blank
and during interview would be investigated, in
order to confirm rightness.
It’s used for assessing how well applicants
satisfy the physical requirements of specific
jobs. This examination is useful in identifying
people who would be able to perform the
physically demanding aspects of a job, and
those whose conditions are too adverse for
employment in certain capacities.
Offer of Employment
This is the last stage of selection process, and
can only be done after decision must have
been concluded based on applicant’s
performance in the selection process.
Normally, the decision is established by
Human Resource Department in accordance
with criteria pinpointed by the department of
that targeted job opening. Sometimes an
external consultant may be required to take
the final decision.
“On-boarding involves integrating and
acculturating new employees into the
organisation and providing them with the
tools, resources, and knowledge to become
successful and productive, from accepted
offer to end of first year.”
(Source: US Department of Defence)
Placement Orientation Induction
Source: Elijah Ezendu, Selection and On-Boarding
This involves specific positioning of new
employee on a defined job role after he
or she must have accepted the offer of
employment and endorsed the
statement of job description which
highlights key performance areas.
Orientation is a social function which serves
as a familiarization programme provided
to new employees. It’s not actually
structured to be a training programme. It
stands as a ‘getting to know us’
“Orientation involves processes and programs
that normally begin on the first day of
employment and extend from one day to
several weeks; On-boarding provides a more
in-depth and comprehensive assimilation
process that normally extends from three
months to one year. This additional time can
be used to connect the employee to the job,
team and organizational values.”
- Barbara Richman
Topics for an Orientation Programme
• Overview of organisation
• Employee and Union
• Compensation and Benefits
• Organizational Chart and Company Facilities
• Department Functions
• Assigned Duties and Responsibilities
• Policies, Procedures, Rules and Regulations
• Health, Safety and Environment
• Tour of Facilities
Content of Orientation Kit
• Copies of Performance Appraisal Forms
• Policy and Procedures Handbook
• Copy of Organizational Chart
• Career Path Manual
• Independent Development Plan
• Health, Safety and Environment Manual
• Staff Telephone and Email Brochure
• Copy of Company Newsletter
This is a structured training programme
aimed at infusing key knowledge, skills
and abilities into new employees, so as to
sharpen and fine-tune them for effective
Key Topics for Induction Course
• Work Ethics
• Emotional Intelligence
• Esprit De Corp
• Software & Technology
• Service Excellence
• Performance Management
• Relationship Management
• Effective Communication
At this stage, a mentor would be assigned to
each new employee for developing and
administering institutional and experiential
guidance, which nurtures talent and
promotes the bond between mentor and
protégé, in that way giving the employee a
sense of belonging and room for growth as
well as expertise development.
Employee Engagement Propagation
Herein clearly structured engagement
programmes must be deployed for improving
the rapidity of bonding between a firm and its
new employees; wherefore providing the right
platform for optimizing productivity through
Employee engagement programmes aid in
influencing employees to adopt an
organisation’s brand and stand in that identity
with a measure of loyalty, which reduces staff
turnover rate thereby enhancing retention.
“We embarked on consciously building Virgin
into a brand which stood for quality, value,
fun and a sense of challenge. We also
developed these ideas in the belief that our
first priority should be the people who work
for the companies, then the customers, then
the shareholders. Because if the staff are
motivated then the customers will be happy,
and the shareholders will then benefit
through the company’s success.”
- Richard Branson
Measuring Elements of Employee Engagement
• Do you know what is expected of you at work?
• Do you have the materials and equipment you need to do your work right?
• At work, do you have the opportunity to do what you do best every day?
• In the last seven days, have you received recognition or praise for doing good
• Does your supervisor, or someone at work, seem to care about you as a
• Is there someone at work who encourages your development?
• At work, do your opinions seem to count?
• Does the mission/purpose of your company make you feel your job is
• Are your associates (fellow employees) committed to doing quality work?
• Do you have a best friend at work?
• In the last six months, has someone at work talked to you about your progress?
• In the last year, have you had opportunities at work to learn and grow?
(Source: The Gallup Organization)
Relationship Reinforcement & Review
The ensuing relationship between employees
and that organisation must be managed and
reviewed for improvement in order to
optimize goal congruency. The Human
Resource Department plays this role either
through an employee relationship manager or
The organisation delivers
resources, and tools to
ensure the new hire is
properly integrated to
impact their performance.
The new hire is responsible
For ensuring that his/her
Integration into the new
Company is a success by
Learning as much as
He/she can, building the
Relationships needed, and
Ultimately performing to
Meet expectations of
His/her new organisations.
The holistic approach involves a combination
of the above with clear measures on these key
areas: role, relationship, culture and critical
Source: Mercer Delta Consulting, Executive On-Boarding
Strategic On-Boarding Model
Source: US Department of Defence
STEP ONE: We want new employees to feel a part of our team right from the start.
The Welcome Guide is the first step. It’s an introduction to Turner and explains
how to get ready for the first day. See the Paperwork section for a list of items
new employees need to read and/or complete, sign and return to Turner in
advance of their first day.
STEP TWO: Within the first few days as a Turner employee, new employees will
receive a comprehensive Getting Started Manual. This manual is designed to
provide valuable information to help new employees feel at home and
productive on their first day at work. Also, at on-boarding, new employees will
find out more about Turner, about people they will meet, items they will
receive, things they will learn about, and resources they can take advantage of
as a Turner employee. For example:
• First-day checklists to help make the most of the resources available
• A high level overview of Turner’s culture, philosophy, policies and procedures
• Information about the work group
• Places to know
STEP THREE: An important step in the on-boarding process is receiving a
more detailed introduction to Turner by taking the following learning
courses on the Turner Knowledge Network (TKN) within the first two
months of employment:
• On-Boarding: Getting Started at Turner
• Understanding Turner – On-Boarding for Experienced Hires
• Turner History and Culture
• Century of Excellence
• Career Counseling
• Business Meeting Etiquette
STEP FOUR: While the first month at Turner is significant in any career, we
think that life after on-boarding is even more critical. We plan to stay in
touch, and show new employees ways to manage their career at Turner.
Staying connected is important, so new employees need to get to know
colleagues within their business unit or job site, meet with various
department heads and reach out to a mentor.
Adapted from Turner
1. Develop a suitable onboarding model for
2. List 10 effective questions for conducting
3. What are the differences between
onboarding and orientation?
4. Review the use of GMAT as the only selection
5. List 10 selection tests and mention areas of
Dr. Elijah Ezendu is Award-Winning Business Expert & Certified Management Consultant with expertise
in HR, OD, Competitive Intelligence, Strategy, Restructuring, Business Development, Sales & Marketing,
Interim Management, CSR, Leadership, Project & Programme Management, Cost Management,
Outsourcing, Franchising, Intellectual Capital, eBusiness, Social Media, Software Architecture, Cloud
Computing, eLearning & International Business. He holds proprietary rights of various systems. He is
currently CEO, Rubiini (UAE); Hon. President, Worldwide Independent Inventors Association; Special
Advisor, RTEAN; Director, MMNA Investments Limited. He had functioned as Chair, International Board
of GCC Business Council (UAE); Senior Partner, Shevach Consulting; Chairman (Certification & Training),
Coordinator (Board of Fellows), Lead Assessor & Governing Council Member, Institute of Management
Consultants, Nigeria; Lead Resource, Centre for Competitive Intelligence Development; Turnaround
Project Director, Consolidated Business Holdings Limited; Lead Consultant/ Partner, JK Michaels;
Technical Director, Gestalt; Chief Operating Officer, Rohan Group; Executive Director (Various Roles),
Fortuna, Gambia & Malta; Director, The Greens; Chief Advisor/Partner, D & E; Vice Chairman, Refined
Shipping; Director of Programmes & Governing Council Member, Institute of Business Development,
Nigeria; Member of TDD Committee, International Association of Software Architects, USA; Member of
Strategic Planning and Implementation Committee, Chartered Institute of Personnel Management of
Nigeria; Adjunct Faculty, Regent Business School, South Africa; Adjunct Faculty, Ladoke Akintola
University of Technology, Nigeria; Editor-in-Chief & Chairman of Editorial Board, Cost Management
Journal; National Executive Council Member, Institute of Internal Auditors of Nigeria; Member, Board of
Directors (Several Organizations). He holds Doctoral Degree in Management, Master of Business
Administration and Fellowship of Several Professional Institutes in North America, UK & Nigeria. He is
an author & widely featured speaker in workshops, conferences & retreats. He was involved in
developing Specialist Master’s Degree Course Content for Ladoke Akintola University of Technology
(Nigeria) and Jones International University (USA). He holds Interim Management Assignments on
Boards of Companies as Non-Executive Director.