Ratiocinative Analysis of Budd's Model 
for Effective Partnership 
(efficiency, equity & voice) 
Dr. Elijah Ezendu 
FIMC, ...
“Partnering can range from just sharing 
information between two parties to full 
decision-making on the strategic busines...
“The economic aspect of employment emphasizes 
competitiveness, productivity, and profitability (in 
other words, efficien...
The Budd’s Model
Voice 
• A Constituent of Basic Human Right 
• Unfettered Participation 
• A Leverage for Effective Community Evolution 
•...
Budd’s Two Dimensions of Voice 
Collective Voice 
Individual Voice 
Individual Voice 
Individual Voice Individual Voice 
I...
Unanimity in Group of Individual Voices 
CV 
IV 
IV IV 
IV IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV IV 
IV 
IV
Small Dissent in Group of Individual Voices 
SCV 
IV 
IV IV 
IV IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV IV 
IV 
IV 
IV
Large Dissent in Group of Individual Voices 
SCV 
IV 
IV IV 
IV IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV
Multifocal Dissent in Group of 
Individual Voices 
SCV 
IV 
IV IV 
IV IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
I...
Self Determination Versus Industrial Democracy 
SCV 
IV 
IV IV 
IV IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
Grea...
Exercise 
Review the merits and demerits of industrial 
democracy without self determination
Equity 
This focuses on justice and the fairness of 
outcomes generated by action, processes, policy 
and procedures.
The Place of Voice & Equity in a Process 
Voice 
Equity 
Equity 
Equity 
Equity 
Equity
Indicators of Equity Assurance 
in a Process 
• Dispassionate Focus 
• Neutrality 
• Equal Accessibility 
• Absence of Fav...
Indicators of Equity Assurance 
in Individual Transactions 
• Recognition of Rights 
• Appropriate Representation 
• Oppor...
Efficiency 
Efficiency is the standard of performance that 
depends on appropriate management of 
resources in the course ...
Efficiency Rating 
Efficiency 
Used Resources
Applicability of Budd’s Model for Evaluation 
• Bargaining System 
• Unionism 
• Staff Recognition System 
• Codes of Cond...
Process Polarization 
A balanced process should satisfy requirements 
of the three metrics of employment governance. 
In r...
The Geometry of Dispute Resolution 
Voice 
UGM 
ELM 
UEA UGA 
NPR ELL 
NOM 
NMA ELA 
NOD 
NUD 
UGA Unionized Grievance Arb...
The Geometry of Dispute Resolution 
Voice 
UGM 
ELM 
UEA UGA 
Efficiency Equity 
KEY 
UGA Unionized Grievance Arbitration ...
The Geometry of Dispute Resolution 
Voice 
NUD 
Efficiency Equity 
KEY 
NUD Nonunion Unilateral Decision-Making 
Greatest ...
The Geometry of Dispute Resolution 
Voice 
ELL 
Efficiency Equity 
KEY 
ELL Employment Law Litigation 
Greatest Equity, Ne...
Exercise 
Using the Geometry of Dispute Resolution based 
on voice, equity and efficiency as a scorecard, 
determine the g...
Dr. Elijah Ezendu is Award-Winning Business Expert & Certified Management Consultant with expertise 
in HR, OD, Competitiv...
Thank You
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Ratiocinative Analysis of Budd's Model for Effective Partnership

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Rational Evaluation and Applicability Ascertainment of Budd's Model of Employment Governance as Appropriate Tool for Effective Partnership Assessment.

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Ratiocinative Analysis of Budd's Model for Effective Partnership

  1. 1. Ratiocinative Analysis of Budd's Model for Effective Partnership (efficiency, equity & voice) Dr. Elijah Ezendu FIMC, FCCM, FIIAN, FBDI, FAAFM, FSSM, MIMIS, MIAP, MITD, ACIArb, ACIPM, PhD, DocM, MBA, CWM, CBDA, CMA, MPM, PME, CSOL, CCIP, CMC, CMgr
  2. 2. “Partnering can range from just sharing information between two parties to full decision-making on the strategic business issues of a company. The problem begin when the concept of partnership is thrown out on the table with little regard for intent and clarity”. - Scott Gorgon, Effects of Comparative Labour Management Relationships
  3. 3. “The economic aspect of employment emphasizes competitiveness, productivity, and profitability (in other words, efficiency). But work is more than an economic transaction- it is a fully human activity with material and psychological rewards undertaken by human beings in a democratic society. As such, employees want and are entitled to fair treatment (equity) and opportunities to have input into decisions that affect them (voice).” - John Budd, Employment with a Human Face: Balancing Efficiency, Equity, and Voice
  4. 4. The Budd’s Model
  5. 5. Voice • A Constituent of Basic Human Right • Unfettered Participation • A Leverage for Effective Community Evolution • A Symbol of Involvement in Decision-Making
  6. 6. Budd’s Two Dimensions of Voice Collective Voice Individual Voice Individual Voice Individual Voice Individual Voice Individual Voice Individual Voice
  7. 7. Unanimity in Group of Individual Voices CV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV
  8. 8. Small Dissent in Group of Individual Voices SCV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV
  9. 9. Large Dissent in Group of Individual Voices SCV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV
  10. 10. Multifocal Dissent in Group of Individual Voices SCV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV
  11. 11. Self Determination Versus Industrial Democracy SCV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV Great Contribution Great Contribution Great Contribution IV Great Contribution
  12. 12. Exercise Review the merits and demerits of industrial democracy without self determination
  13. 13. Equity This focuses on justice and the fairness of outcomes generated by action, processes, policy and procedures.
  14. 14. The Place of Voice & Equity in a Process Voice Equity Equity Equity Equity Equity
  15. 15. Indicators of Equity Assurance in a Process • Dispassionate Focus • Neutrality • Equal Accessibility • Absence of Favoritism • Absence of Prejudice • Reasonable Decision • Effective Remedies • Consistency • Transparency • Accountability
  16. 16. Indicators of Equity Assurance in Individual Transactions • Recognition of Rights • Appropriate Representation • Opportunity to Appeal • Involvement • Sensitivity • Impartiality • Respect • Privacy
  17. 17. Efficiency Efficiency is the standard of performance that depends on appropriate management of resources in the course of process execution.
  18. 18. Efficiency Rating Efficiency Used Resources
  19. 19. Applicability of Budd’s Model for Evaluation • Bargaining System • Unionism • Staff Recognition System • Codes of Conduct • Social Partnership • Labour Market Competitiveness • Employee-Employer Negotiation • Staff Control • Employee Empowerment • Human Resource Development • Government Regulation
  20. 20. Process Polarization A balanced process should satisfy requirements of the three metrics of employment governance. In reality, some processes satisfy voice and efficiency but fail in equity assessment, while some satisfy efficiency but fail in assessment of equity and voice.
  21. 21. The Geometry of Dispute Resolution Voice UGM ELM UEA UGA NPR ELL NOM NMA ELA NOD NUD UGA Unionized Grievance Arbitration UEA Unionized Expedited Arbitration UGM Unionized Grievance Mediation NUD Nonunion Unilateral Decision-Making NMA Nonunion Management Appeal Procedures NOD Nonunion Open Door Policies NPR Nonunion Peer Review NOM Nonunion Ombudsperson ELL Employment Law Litigation ELA Employment Law Arbitration ELM Employment Law Mediation Efficiency Equity KEY Source: John Budd and Alexander Colvin, Improved Metrics for Workplace Dispute Resolution Procedures
  22. 22. The Geometry of Dispute Resolution Voice UGM ELM UEA UGA Efficiency Equity KEY UGA Unionized Grievance Arbitration UEA Unionized Expedited Arbitration UGM Unionized Grievance Mediation ELM Employment Law Mediation Centroid Resolution Systems
  23. 23. The Geometry of Dispute Resolution Voice NUD Efficiency Equity KEY NUD Nonunion Unilateral Decision-Making Greatest Efficiency, Poorest Equity & Most Suppressed Voice
  24. 24. The Geometry of Dispute Resolution Voice ELL Efficiency Equity KEY ELL Employment Law Litigation Greatest Equity, Nearly Medial Voice & Poorest Efficiency
  25. 25. Exercise Using the Geometry of Dispute Resolution based on voice, equity and efficiency as a scorecard, determine the governance position of dispute resolution in your organization.
  26. 26. Dr. Elijah Ezendu is Award-Winning Business Expert & Certified Management Consultant with expertise in HR, OD, Competitive Intelligence, Strategy, Restructuring, Business Development, Sales & Marketing, Interim Management, CSR, Leadership, Project & Programme Management, Cost Management, Outsourcing, Franchising, Intellectual Capital, eBusiness, Social Media, Software Architecture, Cloud Computing, eLearning & International Business. He holds proprietary rights of various systems. He is currently CEO, Rubiini (UAE); Hon. President, Worldwide Independent Inventors Association; Special Advisor, RTEAN; Director, MMNA Investments Limited. He had functioned as Chair, International Board of GCC Business Council (UAE); Senior Partner, Shevach Consulting; Chairman (Certification & Training), Coordinator (Board of Fellows), Lead Assessor & Governing Council Member, Institute of Management Consultants, Nigeria; Lead Resource, Centre for Competitive Intelligence Development; Turnaround Project Director, Consolidated Business Holdings Limited; Lead Consultant/ Partner, JK Michaels; Technical Director, Gestalt; Chief Operating Officer, Rohan Group; Executive Director (Various Roles), Fortuna, Gambia & Malta; Director, The Greens; Chief Advisor/Partner, D & E; Vice Chairman, Refined Shipping; Director of Programmes & Governing Council Member, Institute of Business Development, Nigeria; Member of TDD Committee, International Association of Software Architects, USA; Member of Strategic Planning and Implementation Committee, Chartered Institute of Personnel Management of Nigeria; Adjunct Faculty, Regent Business School, South Africa; Adjunct Faculty, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Nigeria; Editor-in-Chief & Chairman of Editorial Board, Cost Management Journal; National Executive Council Member, Institute of Internal Auditors of Nigeria; Member, Board of Directors (Several Organizations). He holds Doctoral Degree in Management, Master of Business Administration and Fellowship of Several Professional Institutes in North America, UK & Nigeria. He is an author & widely featured speaker in workshops, conferences & retreats. He was involved in developing Specialist Master’s Degree Course Content for Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (Nigeria) and Jones International University (USA). He holds Interim Management Assignments on Boards of Companies as Non-Executive Director.
  27. 27. Thank You
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