Managing Conflicts in Departments, Cross-Functional Teams, Committees and Boards.
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Managing Conflicts in Departments, Cross-Functional Teams, Committees and Boards.

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Building Conflict Management Competence as Crucial Leverage for Developing Leadership Competence.

Building Conflict Management Competence as Crucial Leverage for Developing Leadership Competence.

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Managing Conflicts in Departments, Cross-Functional Teams, Committees and Boards. Managing Conflicts in Departments, Cross-Functional Teams, Committees and Boards. Presentation Transcript

  • Managing Conflicts in Departments, Cross-Functional Teams, Committees and Boards. Dr. Elijah Ezendu FIMC, FCCM, FIIAN, FBDI, FAAFM, FSSM, MIMIS, MIAP, MITD, ACIArb, ACIPM, PhD, DocM, MBA, CWM, CBDA, CMA, MPM, PME, CSOL, CCIP, CMC, CMgr
  • “Conflict management is the process of limiting the negative aspects of conflict while increasing the positive aspects of conflict. The aim of conflict management is to enhance learning and group outcomes, including effectiveness or performance in organizational setting.” - Afzalur Rahim
  • “Conflict is a struggle or contest between people with opposing needs, ideas, beliefs, values, or goals.” - Emily Pia and Thomas Diez, Conflict and Human Rights View slide
  • Elements of Conflict • Power • Norms • Interests • Perceived Worth • Organizational Demands • Sociocultural Alignment View slide
  • The Process of Conflict Latent Conflict Perceived Conflict Felt Conflict Manifest Conflict Conflict Aftermath
  • Latent Conflict This is the stage in which there are differences between individuals or groups. The differences are potential areas of conflicts.
  • LATENT CONFLICT Expectations Capabilities Interests Wills Social Distances Awareness Meanings, Values, Norms, Status, Class SUB-PHASES TRANSFORMERS SITUATION OF CONFLICT STRUCTURE OF CONFLICT SOCIOCULTURAL SPACE STIMULATED NEEDS CONTACT, COMMUNICATION, PROPAGANDA, INDOCTRINATION ACCULTURATION AND EXPERIENCE Source: R.J. Rummel, Understanding Conflict and War
  • Perceived Conflict At this point, the involved parties have become reasonably aware of looming conflict as a result of tendency to obstruct goals.
  • Felt Conflict At this stage various parties experience indicators of emotional surge opposing their interests, giving rise to discomforting pressure for goal assurance.
  • Manifest Conflict Conflict becomes manifest through transformation of tension into clear confrontation, verbal and physical challenge, antagonism, indifference, submission with deep- seated reservation and voluntary withdrawal.
  • Conflict Aftermath At this stage the feasibility of cooperation between parties involved become vivid through clear action paths. Where the observed conflict had been successfully managed, then relative harmony shall characterize their activities. If the observed conflict was suppressed, then point of contention could be stretched beyond elastic strength of their relationship to a breaking point.
  • Sources of Workplace Conflict • Conflicting Interest • Competition for Scarce Resources • Personal Identity Stability • Lack of Cooperation • Perceived Excessive Dependence on a Person or Bloc • Mafia War • Unfounded Rules • Sociocognitive Limitations • Codependent Tasks • Fight for Dignity • Fight for Values • Animosity • Incompatible Personalities • Decision Inequity • Negative Effect of Consensus in Decision-Making • Expectations • Blurry Job Description • Communication Barrier • Previous Conflict Baseline • Bandwagon Syndrome
  • Exercise List sources of conflict in your team. ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………
  • Types of General Conflicts • Interest-Based Conflict • Process-Based Conflict • Structure-Based Conflict • Data-Based Conflict • Value-Based Conflict • Relationship-Based Conflict • Task-Based Conflict
  • Common Types of Team Conflicts • Process-Based Conflict • Relationship-Based Conflict • Task-Based Conflict
  • Process-Based Conflict This stems from work systems, work-flow and obligations. Key Problem Areas (KPA): •Commencement of Work •Termination of Work •Definitive Work Method •Process Identity •Ownership of Process •Ownership of Sub-Processes •Dissonance in Identity of Cross-Functional & Functional Responsibilities
  • Forms of Processes Cross-FunctionalProcess Intra-FunctionalProcess Intra-JobProcess
  • Relationship-Based Conflict This is a conflict fuelled by emotional sentiments. List Examples:……………..................................... ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………..
  • Task-Based Conflict This is a conflict driven by core issues about form, structure, dimensions, performance metrics and ownership of task. List Examples:…………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………..
  • Conflicts in Terms of Usefulness Constructive Arguments Based on Alternatives for Performance Improvement Unwholesome Arguments Based on Personal or Group Differences & Idiosyncrasies
  • Depiction of Conflict Phases Based on Multiple Schools of Thoughts Intensity Time Latent Conflict Conflict Emergence Conflict Escalation Failed Peacemaking Efforts Institutionalization of Conflict Exacerbation of Violence (Hurting) Stalemate Complex Emergency Enmity Agitation Cutback De-escalation/ Negotiation Tentative Settlement Post-Settlement Peace Building Experimental Peace
  • Exercise List the effects of Enmity Agitation Cutback on De-escalation/Negotiation and Tentative Settlement Phases. ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………
  • Strategies for Managing Conflicts • Applicable Styles • Improving Organizational Practices • Special Roles and Structure • Confrontation Techniques
  • 5 Applicable Styles in Conflict Management • Competition • Collaboration • Compromise • Avoidance • Accommodation
  • Focus Areas for Improving Organizational Practices as Conflict Management Strategy • Job Rotation • Corporate Culture Realignment • Internal Communication Assessment and Repositioning • Organizational Restructuring • Corporate Authority and Power Restructuring • Organisation-Wide Job Redesign • Improving Clarity of Structural Positioning and Inter-Job Relationships • Performance and Reward Realignment • Employee-Employee Social Value Optimization • Zero Tolerance Against Discrimination, Glass Ceiling & Antisocial Behaviours • Unbiased Central Budgetary Control System • Effective Team Structuring • Development of Workable Policies, Procedures and Rules • Establishment of Internal Dispute Resolution Model
  • Special Roles and Structure Empowerment of Managers to own their internal processes, lead effectual transformation towards set goals, take responsibility for compliance, and be integrators that ensure harmony. Sometimes, a particular manager can be placed to conduct critical review and ensure compliance during meetings.
  • Confrontation Techniques
  • Notable Areas of Differences in Team Members • Age • Race • Gender • Communication Flair • Learning Flair • Thinking Flair • Financial Background • Educational Background • Professional Affiliation • Ethnicity • Physical Ability • Work Experience • Job Function • Management Status • Work Location • Marital Status • Family Status • Religious Beliefs • Political Beliefs • Languages
  • The primary school of excellence in conflict management consist of mindset & understanding for identification and acceptance of differences.
  • From Diversity Appreciation to High Performing Organisation
  • Functions of Nonverbal Communication  Accent: Punctuating or drawing attention to a verbal message  Complement: Expressions/gestures that support but could not replace verbal message  Contradict: Expressions or gestures that convey meaning opposite to that of verbal message  Regulate: Expressions or gestures that control the pace or flow of communication  Repeat: A gesture or expression that can be used alone to send the same meaning as verbal message  Substitute: A nonverbal cue that replaces verbal message
  • Examples of Nonverbal Cues  Accent: Touching someone’s shoulder in empathy  Compliment: Smiling in approval or frowning with disdain  Contradict: Reading paper while saying “I am listening”  Regulate: Looking confused by too much information  Repeat: A stern look or pointing along with a verbal command  Substitute: Nods and shakes of the head
  • Types of Nonverbal Cues 1. Facial expression 2. Eye behaviour 3. Posture 4. Gesture 5. Proxemics 6. Touch 7. Personal appearance 8. Vocal features of speech
  • Real Nonverbal Cues  Facial Expression: Happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, anger and disgust  Eye Behaviour-Functions: Regulatory, monitoring, cognitive and expressive  Posture: Indicative of attention, involvement, relative status and rapport  Gestures: Speech related and independent  Proxemics: Use space  Touch: ‘of self’ indicates emotion, and ‘of others’ indicates relationship  Personal Experience: Indicators of personality, values and lifestyle  Vocal Features of Speech: Tone, stress, accent, loudness and rate of speech
  • Common Signs of Conflict in Non-Verbal Cues i. New body movements ii. Touching of self/fidgeting iii. Hesitation iv. Blinking, eye shifting and dilation of pupils v. Lack of spontaneity vi. Speech errors vii. High vocal pitch viii. Negativity ix. Bulging eyes x. Severe Frown
  • Common Signs of Conflict in General Behaviour • Rejection • Incommunicado • Nastiness • Vindictiveness • Combativeness • Indignation • Disrespectfulness • Animosity
  • Turner & Weed Profiling of Communication (Response) Styles in Conflict Management • Addressers: - First Steppers - Confronters • Concealers: - Feeling-Swallowers - Subject-Changers - Avoiders • Attackers: - Up-Front Attackers - Behind-The-Back Attackers
  • “In organized group situations, the art of good communication helps build trust and respect. It fosters a positive learning environment and can set the stage for the group to achieve its identified mission, vision, and goals. In any group setting, members may share a common interest and commitment, yet also may see things from a variety of perspectives. Effective communication is one means for a group of diverse individuals to share ideas, construct solutions, and make appropriate decisions.” - Karla Trautman, Effective Group Communication
  • “Poor Communication is a direct result of ignorance…….people do not know what to say, when to say it, how to say it, or to whom to say it.” - Peter Drucker
  • General Problems in Organisational Communication • Bias • Halo Effect • Devil’s Horn • Ambiguity • Chain of command • Size • Technical Content • Emotional Interference • Personal limitations • Human nature • Conflict of Interest • Level of Knowledge • Power • Inadequate Feedback • Cultural Disparity • Hierarchy • Lack of Empathy • Quantity of Information • Language • Lack of Confidence • Inappropriate Medium
  • Communication competence in conflict management highlights effective listening skills and appropriate use of the three communication impacts to build bridges for feasible connectivity.
  • Types of Impact
  • Dressing Eye contact Grooming Facial expression Posture Gestures Elements of Visual Impact
  •  Pronunciation: Caliber of intonation  Modulation: Coordination of sound pitch and clarity  Projection: Loudness  Rapidity: Speed of speech  Repetition: Saying same again  Articulation: Coordination of words  Enunciation: Level of Emphasis on syllable Elements of Vocal Impact
  •  Positive words  Negative words Elements of Content Impact
  • Communication Competence & Conflict Resolution Competence are prerequisites for Conflict Management Competence. Communication Competence Conflict Resolution Competence Conflict Management Competent Conflict Averse Filling Capacity Gap
  • Conflict Management Competence & Great Leadership Quotient are prerequisites for Leadership Competence. Conflict Management Competence Leadership Quotient Leadership Competent Leadership Incompetent Filling Capacity Gap
  • Role Play Session Sub-Teams Contest for Overarching Goal of The Full Team. Thereafter, each Sub-Team Debriefs.
  • Dr. Elijah Ezendu is Award-Winning Business Expert & Certified Management Consultant with expertise in HR, OD, Competitive Intelligence, Strategy, Restructuring, Business Development, Sales & Marketing, Interim Management, CSR, Leadership, Project & Programme Management, Cost Management, Outsourcing, Franchising, Intellectual Capital, eBusiness, Social Media, Software Architecture, Cloud Computing, eLearning & International Business. He holds proprietary rights of various systems. He is currently CEO, Rubiini (UAE) and Hon. President, Worldwide Independent Inventors Association. He functioned as Chair, International Board of GCC Business Council (UAE); Senior Partner, Shevach Consulting; Chairman (Certification & Training), Coordinator (Board of Fellows), Lead Assessor & Council Member, Institute of Management Consultants, Nigeria; Lead Resource, Centre for Competitive Intelligence Development; Turnaround Project Director, Consolidated Business Holdings Limited; Lead Consultant/ Partner, JK Michaels; Technical Director, Gestalt; Chief Operating Officer, Rohan Group; Director, Fortuna, Gambia; Director, The Greens; Chief Advisor/ Partner, D & E; Vice Chairman, Refined Shipping; Director of Programmes & Council Member, Institute of Business Development, Nigeria; Member of TDD Committee, International Association of Software Architects, USA; Member of Strategic Planning and Implementation Committee, Chartered Institute of Personnel Management of Nigeria; Adjunct Faculty, Regent Business School, South Africa; Adjunct Faculty, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Nigeria; Editor-in-Chief, Cost Management Journal; Council Member, Institute of Internal Auditors of Nigeria; Member, Board of Directors (Several Organizations). He holds Doctoral Degree in Management, Master of Business Administration and Fellowship of Several Professional Institutes in North America, UK & Nigeria. He is an author & widely featured speaker in workshops, conferences & retreats. He was involved in developing Specialist Master’s Degree Course Content for Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (Nigeria) and Jones International University (USA). He also works as Adjunct & Visiting Professor of Universities and holds Interim Management Assignments on Boards of Companies as Non-Executive Director.
  • Thank You