Plant reproduction final


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Plant reproduction final

  1. 1. All living things will eventually leave our planet, either by dying of old age, disease or accidents. If living organisms did not reproduce, life would cease to continue in our planet until each member of life forms become extinct. Nature ensures that life continues in every type of living organism through the process of reproduction.
  2. 2. Reproduction Process by which organisms replace themselves, the “old circle of life”. Reproduction in Lower life forms Plants, just like other living organisms, are also part of the “circle of life”. They cannot live forever and therefore each species of plants must replace themselves with younger members. Plants do this in two ways, asexually and sexually.
  3. 3. Plant Reproduction Asexual • does not involve the fusion of sex cells •only one parent is required •offspring are genetically identical to parents known as clones Natural Vegetative Reproduction •Rhizome •Bulb •Corm •Runner/Stolo n •Tuber Artificial Vegetative Propagation •Cutting •Budding and Grafting •Tissue Culture Sexual •involves fusion of two sex cells to form a zygote •usually requires two parents •offspring shows variations or not the exact copy of parents Reproduction by Flowers Parts of the Flowers Accessory •Pedical (flower stalk) •Sepal •Petals Male Organ (pollen producing) Stamen •Filament •Anther (produces haploid pollen grains) Female Organ (egg producing) •Stigma •Style •Ovary •Ovules (each containing haploid ovum)
  4. 4. Advantage of Sexual and Asexual Reproduction
  5. 5. Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
  6. 6. Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
  7. 7. Vegetative parts: Stems Roots Leaves
  8. 8. •The new plant that results is genetically identical to its parent plant. • •Can occur naturally or artificially with the aids of humans
  9. 9. ◘ Reproduction in plants from its vegetative parts or specialized reproductive structures Modified stem Description Representative Species Tuber New shoots arise from axillary bud on swollen, short, fleshy, underground stem Potato Runner New plants arise at nodes of above-ground horizontal stem Bermuda Grass, Strawberry plants Corm New plants arise from every short thickened, underground stem with thin, scaly leaves Gladiolus Rhizome New plants arise at nodes of underground horizontal rootlike stem Sugar cane, ginger Bulb New bulbs arise from axillary bud on very short stem with thick fleshy leaves (only in monocots) Onion, Garlic
  10. 10. -various types of modified plant structures that are enlarged to store nutrients
  11. 11. stems which grow at the soil surface or just below ground that form adventitious roots at the nodes, and new plants from the buds.
  12. 12. Strawberries Bermuda Grass
  13. 13. -is a short, vertical, swollen underground plant stem that serves as a storage organ used by some plants to survive winter or other adverse conditions such as summer drought and heat (estivation).
  14. 14. Gladiolus
  15. 15. -characteristically horizontal stem of a plant that is usually found underground, often sending out roots and shoots from its nodes. Rhizomes may also be referred to as creeping rootstalks or rootstocks.
  16. 16. a short stem with fleshy leaves or leaf bases. The leaves often function as food storage organs during dormancy.
  17. 17. -Asexual methods practiced with a little help from humans. - Often faster than growing plants from seeds. - Farmers propagate plants by using a piece of plant material. - Each plant generated that is identical and genetically the same as the parent tree is said to be a clone
  18. 18. Method Description Examples Cutting Leaves or pieces of stems or roots are cut from one plant, planted in soil and used to grow new individuals Ornamental trees and shrubs (grapes, apples) Budding and Grafting Small stems from one plant are attached to larger stems or roots of another plant. Some fruit and nut trees (oranges) Tissue culture (laboratory technique only) Pieces of tissues from one plant are placed on a sterile medium and used to grow new individuals in mass numbers Orchids, potatoes, many house plants Methods of Vegetative Plant Propagation
  19. 19. Methods of Vegetative Plant Propagation
  20. 20. Methods of Vegetative Plant Propagation
  21. 21. Methods of Vegetative Plant Propagation
  22. 22. Methods of Vegetative Plant Propagation
  23. 23. - Vascular joining
  24. 24. •All flowering plants reproduce sexually •Sexual Reproduction happens in the sexual organs of flowering plants. •Most plants are Hermaphrodites •Involves the fusion of sex cells from parent plants.
  25. 25. Simplified overview of angiosperm life cycle
  26. 26. Male Organs: Stamen- male reproductive part Anther- makes tiny grains (pollens) which contain sex cells Filament- holds up the anther
  27. 27. Female Organs: Carpel- female reproductive part Stigma- top part of the carpel with sticky surface to trap pollen Style- joins the stigma and the ovary Ovary- contains female sex cells called ovules
  28. 28. -Transfer of pollen grains from the stamen to the stigma -Pollen grains produced in the anther of one plant land of the stigma of the flower of another plant. -The stigma is often quite sticky, so the pollen grains stick to it easily.
  29. 29. It is the transference of the pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of either the same or of another flower borne on the same plant.
  30. 30. Autogamy- The pollen grains are transferred from the anther to the stigma of the same flower. It occurs in bisexual flowers.
  31. 31. Geitonogamy- Flower is pollinated by pollen from another flower on the same plant.
  32. 32. It is the transference of the pollen grains from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower borne on a different plant of the same species. It is also known as allogamy or xenogamy.
  33. 33. Cross pollination increases variety and can give rise to changes that help species survive.
  34. 34. In order to prevent overcrowding and competition for basic needs, such as space, light, and water, seeds together with its fruit are sometimes carried away from the parent plant in a process called dispersal.
  35. 35. The process in which a new plant grows from a seed.
  36. 36. -Water – is needed for metabolism. The uptake of water by seeds is called imbibition. -Oxygen- is needed for respiration, which breaks down food, releasing energy for growth. -Temperature- affects the cellular metabolic and growth rate.