Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  4. 4. 1. The purposeful consideration of the future objectives of an organization or part thereof 2. The means and activities involved 3. The drafting and implementing of a plan to make the efficient achievement of the objectives possible WHAT IS PLANNING? It encompasses…
  5. 5. WHY PLAN? 1. Leaders are proactive 2. For the organization to reach its ultimate goal 3. Sets direction to other functions 4. Teamwork 5. Improves decision making 6. All management levels engage in planning 7. Adaptation to change IDENTIFYING OPPORTUNITIES AVOIDING PROBLEMS
  6. 6. Furthermore… 1. Reduce uncertainty 2. Focuses attention to the objectives 3. Improves performance 4. Makes financial control possible 5. Guides manager’s efforts 6. Prerequisite for control 7. Ensures coordinated actions
  7. 7. WHAT is to be done WHEN to do it HOW to do it WHO is to do it HOW TO PLAN SUCCESSFULLY? Consider the basic steps:
  8. 8. WHAT •Proper objectives are defined •Service to be delivered + assessment measures (QTY & QLTY) WHEN •Timetable for performance measure •Timing and order of events HOW •Operational planning •Specifics WHO •Allocation of responsibilities •Identify individuals – specific tasks, day-to-day operations
  9. 9. 3 2 1 PLANNING PROCESS •Long term objectives STRATEGIC PLANNING •Day to day operations OPERATIONAL PLANNING LINKED Stages in Planning
  10. 10. 3 2 1 PLANNING PROCESS LOGICAL AND ORDERLY SERIES OF STEPS  Rational and amenable to the scientific approach to problem solving
  11. 11. STEPS IN PLANNING PROCESS 1. Define Mission 2. Analyze Strengths 3. Analyze Weaknesses 4. Identify Opportunities 5. Identify Threats 6. Set Goals 7. Set Objectives 8. Develop Tactics 9. Develop Operations 10.Monitor Plan
  12. 12. STEPS IN PLANNING PROCESS 1. Define the Mission • Mission –purpose of the organization • Raison d'être = reason for its being • Clearly define your mission • Mission Statement • broad, yet clear and concise • no more than a single sentence • summarizing what the organization does • easily understood • easy to recite from memory
  13. 13. STEPS IN PLANNING PROCESS 1. Define the Mission  Directs the entire organization  Leads to supporting tactical and operational plans  Leads to supporting objectives  Guides employees to work independently and collectively
  14. 14. Mission Texas Woman’s University School of Library and Information Studies educates professionals to become leaders in practice and research in the field of library and information services; inspires intellectual curiosity, scholarship, and research to expand knowledge in library and information studies; and develops leaders who promote exceptional services in libraries within diverse communities. Mission The Library’s mission in the next decade is to lead the collaborative development of an academic information infrastructure that enhances and meets the changing needs of preservation, discovery, transmission, and the application of knowledge, creativity, and critical thought. Cornell University Library Mission The mission of the Library Science (LS) program is to contribute to the essential knowledge, skills, and values of librarianship, and to instill these in our students. University of Missouri
  15. 15. STEPS IN PLANNING PROCESS 2-5. Conduct SWOT Analysis • Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats • It begins with scanning the external environment • Sources of information: • customers, suppliers, governments, professional and trade associations (exhibitions, conventions), journals and reports • The assumptions and facts on which plan will be based • SW –internal assessment • OT –external assessment of the environment
  16. 16. STEPS IN PLANNING PROCESS 2-5. Conduct SWOT Analysis • Assess the STRENGTHS • How efficient? • How skilled are the staff? • Are the resources above the standards of quality? • Superior reputation?
  17. 17. STEPS IN PLANNING PROCESS 2-5. Conduct SWOT Analysis • Assess the WEAKNESSES • Vulnerable areas that can be exploited • Facilities outdated? • Collections adequate? • Technologies obsolete? • What does the competition do well?
  18. 18. STEPS IN PLANNING PROCESS 2-5. Conduct SWOT Analysis • Identify OPPORTUNITIES • Which area is the competition not meeting customer needs? • Possible new services? • Are the rivals weak? • What are the emerging technologies? • Possibility of growth of existing market for IT?
  19. 19. STEPS IN PLANNING PROCESS 2-5. Conduct SWOT Analysis • Identify THREATS • Which area does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? • New competitors? • Shortage of resources? • What are the new regulations? • What substitute products/services exist?
  20. 20. STEPS IN PLANNING PROCESS 2-5. Conduct SWOT Analysis • Best strategy is one that fits the organization’s strengths to opportunities in the environment • Baseline for future improvements & gap analysis • External benchmarks (best practices) comparison
  21. 21. STEPS IN PLANNING PROCESS 6-7. Set Goals and Objectives • To bridge the gap between current capability and the mission • Objectives – performance goals • Objectives elaborate the mission statement • Can be measured/assessed in the future • Whether the objective has been achieved
  22. 22. Goals The School of Library and Information Studies prepares students for professional roles in library and information services. • Develop professional competencies that reflect an appropriate balance between theory and practice. • Prepare students to use technological advances to meet the changing information needs of a diverse society. • Contribute to the improvement of library and information services through teaching, research, publication, and professional service. • Advance the information professions through the development of new knowledge in library and information studies.
  23. 23. Objectives The programs of study leading to the degrees of Master of Library Science and Master of Arts in Library Science are accredited by the American Library Association. The master’s degree programs are designed to prepare information professionals who will: • Articulate an understanding of the dynamic role of librarianship as a profession and the changing roles of libraries as agencies; • Demonstrate ability to apply the principles of acquiring, organizing, delivering, and preserving information and knowledge; • Use knowledge and skills to perform effectively in professional positions; • Employ technologies to meet information needs in a variety of contexts; • Analyze social issues that have an impact on professional practice; • Plan for continuous, career-long professional development; • Recognize the value of participation in professional organizations and activities.
  24. 24. Mission: The mission of the master's of library and information science program is to prepare qualified individuals for professional roles in libraries and other information environments with appropriate knowledge and skills to serve the information needs of their communities. GOAL 1: To foster and promote among master's degree candidates a knowledge of and commitment to ethical practice on the part of library and information professionals. OBJECTIVES As a result of this goal, candidates will: A. Discuss and defend the articles of the Library Bill of Rights. B. Develop policies on how to deal effectively and fairly with persons who seek to censor materials in libraries and information centers. C. Develop policies for providing libraries and information centers with a variety of viewpoints through a balanced selection of materials and services and fostering the patron's right to read. D. Analyze the needs of the community being served. The University of Southern Mississippi
  25. 25. Goal and Objectives Provide cutting-edge facilities and services to support research, teaching, learning, and scholarly communication across disciplines. •Renovate physical facilities, beginning with Olin Library, to support the evolving needs of current and future learners and researchers. •Provide the technology infrastructure, user services, and spaces for study, collaboration, teaching, and experimentation in all library buildings. •Conduct ongoing assessment to ensure services and facilities anticipate and match evolving academic expectations and needs.
  26. 26. STEPS IN PLANNING PROCESS 8-9. Develop Related Strategies • Tactical plans – based on strategic plans • Operational plans – based on tactical plans • Specific plans needed for each task • Monitor progress/follow up • To assure plans are carried out properly and on time • May need adjustments • Adapting to changes
  27. 27. • Top Level Management • General, long term goals that require more than one year to achieve • Long term growth, improved customer services • Middle Managers • Interpret the goals and develop tactical plans for their departments A. TACTICAL PLANS
  28. 28. • Middle Managers need detail reports to make tactical plans • Tactical Plans • Shorter time frames • Narrower scopes • Specific ideas for implementing strategic plan • Making detailed decisions about • What to do • Who will do it • How to do it A. TACTICAL PLANS cont
  29. 29. • Implemented by supervisors • Set standards, form schedules, secure resources, report progress • Short term, deal with day to day work • Support tactical plans • Samples: Work schedules, identifying needs of staff • Includes policies, procedures, methods and rules B. OPERATIONAL PLANS
  30. 30. B. OPERATIONAL PLANS cont POLICY General statement designed to guide employee’s actions in recurring situations; guidelines Provides initiative and discretion on supervisors Library policies PROCEDURE Sequence of steps; operations describing how to carry out an activity; customary way of handling a recurring activity; more specific than policy Less discretion permitted to the supervisors Sequence of steps in routing of parts METHOD Sets up the manner and sequence of accomplishing a recurring, individual task Almost no discretion is allowed Steps in cataloging and classifying RULE Established guide for conduct embracing definite things to do and not to do Holds no exception “No Smoking”
  31. 31. STEPS IN PLANNING PROCESS 10. Monitor the Plan • To continuously improve the strategic planning process • Monitoring Procedure: 1. Establish short-term standards that will validate the long-range estimates • Short term guidelines will indicate if the plan is unfolding as hoped
  32. 32. STEPS IN PLANNING PROCESS 10. Monitor the Plan Monitoring Procedure (cont): 2. Set up criteria as to decide when to change the strategy • Feedback –will determine if goals and objectives are feasible
  33. 33. OPERATIONAL PLANNING • Bottom level of the planning hierarchy • Short term programs • Make activities implementing long term objectives • First line and middle management • To measure progress of broader aims • S.M.A.R.T. – specific, measurable, attainable, relevant/realistic, tim e constrained
  34. 34. OPERATIONAL PLANNING cont • Basic steps: 1. Research – to understand; to clarify; to generate ideas and courses of action 2. Selection – selecting appropriate course of action 3. Design – emphasize quality, reliability and cost effectiveness (introduction of new service) 4. Implementation – training be planned for the staff and users (new tech)
  35. 35. TECHNIQUES TO ASSIST PLAN DEVELOPMENTS • Gantt Chart – planning the progress; y-axis: activities, x-axis: time line • PERT Network (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) – “critical path analysis”; more complex; computer software package • Modeling or Simulation – pretest plans; testing options; manual or using computer software
  36. 36. ACTION PLANNING • Operationally defines the objective by expressing it in terms of specific actions/operations • States what steps or tasks will be accomplished to achieve the objective • Schedule with definite deadlines, resources necessary and methods to measure objectives
  37. 37. EVENT/BUSINESS PLANNING • For special events (Book week, Book fair…) 1. Establish clear and prioritized goals 2. Sell event to staff and supervisors 3. Prepare schedule of activities 4. Decide upon the guests, location, activities, catering, etc 5. Draw up a budget as early as possible 6. Allocate staff and other resources 7. Market the event –promote 8. Conduct the event 9. Follow up and evaluate
  38. 38. -END-