Alex2

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Alex2

  1. 1. 10743-05_Annex 1.qxd 10/11/07 4:20 PM Page 51 Courtesy, ICLEI Aerial view of Alexandria, Egypt. ALEXANDRIA GOVERNORATE EGYPT Municipal Profile a key factor in prioritising the environment within a development strategy. In Alexandria, Alexandria has a population of 4 million, and the sustainable development of the community is a total area of nearly 2,300 square kilometres. seen as an opportunity for economic growth and The population density is 1,739 per square social inclusion. kilometre, and the Gross National Income per capita is approx. US$1,570 (2005). Urban Context Key economic Port, textile, chemical, Alexandria is one of the major cities on the areas fuel, primary metal, food, Mediterranean Sea, and plays an essential role and tobacco industries in Egyptian economy and cultural life as the Urban manage- City Development country’s oldest and largest port. Most of ment approach Strategy Egypt’s foreign trade passes through the port, Environment entry Integrated in CDS which has 75 percent of the total capacity of point Egypt’s Mediterranean ports. The city has a coastline of 70 kilometres and lies between the Mediterranean and Lake Marriout. Why this Case Study Is Important Alexandria is a powerful industrial base, The Alexandria case study shows how a CDS can home to over 4,500 industrial firms with an be used to integrate environmental issues in city estimated workforce of 201,000. This represents planning processes. It also shows how the leader- 17.3 percent of the total labour force of the city. ship of an elected local government official can be Industrial output in Alexandria’s production Case Studies 51
  2. 2. 10743-05_Annex 1.qxd 10/11/07 4:20 PM Page 52 represents 40 percent of Egypt’s total. Its most important industries are iron and steel, petro- Alexandria CDS Vision, 2005–2017 leum, cement, chemicals, petrochemicals, spinning Alexandria will take advantage of its competi- and weaving. tive endowments, better manage local assets, remove constraints to private sector-led growth, and ensure the socioeconomic integration of Urban Management Approach the poor in the development processes. Alexandria is focusing on integrated strategies for certain sectors and environmental issues using CDS approach promoted by the Cities Alliance. The physical priority was to develop a par- ticipatory urban upgrading strategy for the Case Study squatter areas and a land use plan for the Lake Under the leadership of its Governor, Alexandria Marriout area, within a sustainable urban devel- embarked on a City Development Strategy in opment framework. The strategy was to include 2004. During the 2004–2006 phase, the Gov- definable measures to improve the living condi- ernorate prepared a Comprehensive Strategic tions of residents and prevent further environ- Development Plan for the city within the mental deterioration of the Lake area. It was also framework of the Alexandria CDS, developed to help to establish a sound regulatory framework using methodology tested by the World Bank, for the Governorate to manage the Lake and pur- based on best practices developed by Cities sue participatory approaches to urban upgrading Alliance, Cities of Chance and other donors. The and security of tenure. first step of the CDS process, ‘organising the The Partnership Forum established three CDS effort’, aimed to ensure the most appropriate insti- Pillars: tutional set up for a participatory process which Ⅲ Formulate a local economy development would allow partners from the public, business strategy; and non-governmental sectors to work together. Ⅲ Devise a comprehensive strategic development This ‘Partnership Forum’ identified economic and plan for Lake Marriout and the surrounding physical priorities for the city’s development. area; The economic priority was to develop a Ⅲ Develop a comprehensive urban upgrading medium to long-term economic development strategy for squatter settlements. strategy, which would investigate and build on the city’s competitiveness. The aim was to diver- Local and international consultants prepared sify and augment the economic base of the city, five reports8, which were used, together with enhance productivity and establish an enabling 8“Alexandria Local Economy and Competitiveness Assessment”, business environment. Specific strategies and “A Comprehensive Strategic Development Plan for Lake Mar- initiatives were to be designed to create eco- riout Zone”, “A Strategic Development Plan for Land Sur- rounding Lake and Wadi Marriout”, “A Squatter Settlements nomic development opportunities, especially in and Urban Upgrading Strategy”, “Alexandria Tourism Devel- low-income areas and squatter settlements. opment Strategy”. Liveable Cities 52
  3. 3. 10743-05_Annex 1.qxd 10/11/07 4:20 PM Page 53 stakeholder consultations, to develop a shared long-term vision and key local economic devel- opment programmes for the city. One of the major results of the CDS work was the development of the Alexandria Gov- ernorate Pole Project, which focused on sustain- able economic growth and equity. Considerable attention was given to the environment in two areas: a) sustainable use of natural re- sources, and, b) environmental improvement and protection. Three project development objectives were identified: Ⅲ Supporting Alexandria’s economic development © Ahmed Eiweida/World Bank and utilisation of local assets through invest- ments in environmental regeneration and land use development; Ⅲ Supporting private sector development through removing infrastructural and admin- istrative constraints; and, An Alexandria squatter settlement. Ⅲ Improving access of residents in squatter set- tlements to infrastructure, basic services and income-generating opportunities. Several new projects have emerged as a result of the implementation of CDS: Several component areas were identified to achieve Ⅲ Integrated coastal zone management—the these objectives: policy aims to ensure that the protection of the coastal zone resources remains an integral part Ⅲ Priority infrastructure to support local eco- of the development priorities. It also aims at nomic development—financing work and the coordination of the sometimes conflicting related services aimed at enhancing the waste- interests and uses of the coastal zone; water treatment system surrounding Lake Ⅲ Environmental Pollution Abatement Proj- Marriout’s main basin; ect (EPAP) Phase II—the second phase of Ⅲ Upgrading of squatter settlements to improve EPAP aims to demonstrate that market-based living conditions of residents in six settlements financial/technical approaches are effective in by providing basic infrastructure, community reducing industrial pollution in selected hot facilities and services, and increasing access to spots areas in and around the Alexandria and micro-credit and business support. Greater Cairo areas; Case Studies 53
  4. 4. 10743-05_Annex 1.qxd 10/11/07 4:20 PM Page 54 Ⅲ Upgrading of three slum areas—the objective Ⅲ Interest from other donors in contributing to is to improve the standard of living for the the strategic development plan increased; inhabitants of El-Amrawy, El-Hadra and Naga Ⅲ The central government was supportive. El-Arab. The following operations began in April 2006, and some have already been accomplished. Environment Entry Point The CDS process proved to be an effective vehi- A number of unexpected opportunities arose cle for integrating environmental considerations from the CDS process. into Alexandria’s development plan. Early on in the process, the CDS team benefitted from the Ⅲ A large number of enthusiastic stakeholders Governor’s strong support to improving local wanted to take part in the strategic planning environmental quality. In addition, the multi- process; stakeholder approach to the Alexandria CDS Ⅲ A democratic and cooperative atmosphere meant that citizens became aware of the impor- dominated the workshop dialogues and dis- tance of sustainable development and the need to cussions; manage natural resources wisely. Ⅲ There were beneficial outputs from the Cost-benefit analysis relating to the environ- exchange of ideas and knowledge between ment for any development project was used dur- local and international consultants; ing the CDS process. Environmental protection Highlights of Upgrading in Three Slum Areas in Alexandria, Egypt Naga El Arab El Amrawy Hadra El Gedida Health Centre Tree planting Land for health centre (made available) Police Station Health centre (done) Land for youth & sports (made available) Primary school Youth centre Land for two schools (made available) Youth & sports activities Sanitary drainage Sanitary drainage (done) Fund for roads and public Paving roads Water network lighting (made available) Wall off railway line (done) Pedestrian bridge Road paving Tree planting (done) Covering canals Street lighting Community centre Market & workshops Street widening and resettlement Bus stops Liveable Cities 54
  5. 5. 10743-05_Annex 1.qxd 10/11/07 4:20 PM Page 55 became a top priority for both citizens and the local government, and programmes for pollution abatement became mainstream. Environmental concerns were a common feature in the stake- holder workshops, and preventing the further degradation of Lake Marriout was highlighted © Ahmed Eiweida/World Bank as a priority. The Alexandria Governorate Pole Project focused on sustainable economic growth and equity. Within this, considerable attention was given to the environment, focusing on the sus- tainable use of natural resources, and on envi- Families of Lake Marriout fishermen. ronmental improvement and protection. senior government officials, the Alexandria Busi- Results nessmen’s Association, the University of Alexan- Although it was not the primary driver for the dria, and major civil society organisations of the Comprehensive Strategic Development Plan, the Governorate, is still intact and overseeing the plan succeeded in incorporating the environ- implementation of the plan. mental dimension in all components, pro- Through the CDS process, the municipality grammes, projects and activities. Social and of Alexandria recognised the importance of coor- economic achievements are clearly visible in the dination, stakeholder participation, and of hav- upgrading of slum areas. Stakeholder councils ing a realistic approach towards implementation have been formed for each slum community, and as part of the planning process. they take part in managing the upgrading process. It is clear that when residents fully par- Replicability ticipate in the process which touches upon their livelihoods, sustainability is possible. The Alexandria experience shows that City Devel- opment Strategy offers an excellent opportunity for citizens and urban managers to integrate Lessons Learned environmental issues into an overall city devel- Support and leadership from the Governorate were opment framework. However, each city has its essential elements. The cooperation of both the own unique needs, and it is necessary to under- Governor and Secretary-General has been a key stand the local community culture in order to tai- factor in achieving a highly significant improve- lor the CDS process successfully. The Alexandria ment in the quality of life for Alexandrians. case highlights the importance of having a local The solid, multi-stakeholder CDS team played champion for the process who is interested in an important role. The team, which included environmental issues. It is also important to have Case Studies 55
  6. 6. 10743-05_Annex 1.qxd 10/11/07 4:20 PM Page 56 a CDS team with developed communication Key Contacts skills to ensure that stakeholders, regardless of Ahmed Eiweida their background or affiliations, participate ac- Sr. Urban Management Specialist tively in the process. Environmental issues are The World Bank Room H9-133, Mailstop: H9-900 clearly important to urban stakeholders, who are Tel.: (1-202) 458 9046 likely to support the integration of environmen- Fax: (1-202) 522 2151 tal issues within the CDS process in other cities. Email: aeiweida@worldbank.org Liveable Cities 56

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