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     sistem peredaran darah sistem peredaran darah Presentation Transcript

    • FUNGSI DARAH 1. Mengangkut gas, nutrien dan bahan kumuh 2. Mengangkut molekul yang diproses 3. Mengangkut molekul yang penting 4. Mengawal Ph dan osmosis 5. Memiara suhu tubuh 6. Menentang bahan asing 7. Pembentukan clot (darah beku)
    • COMPOSITION OF BLOOD 1. Tissue penyambung 2. Formed elements - 45 % 3. Plasma - 55 % 4. 4 - 5 liter - perempuan 5. 5 - 6 liter - lelaki 6. 8 % berat badan
    • KOMPOSISI DARAH
    • PLASMA 1. 91 % of water 2. 7 % protein 3. 2 % other substances (ions, nutrients, gases and waste products) 4. Plasma proteins (albumin, globulins and fibrinugen) 5. Kandungan sentiasa stabil 6. Kidney, lungs, digestive tract and skin.
    • BAHAN YANG ADA DI DALAM DARAH
    • FORMED ELEMENTS 1. 95 % red blood cells (RBCs) Erythrocytes 2. 5 % white blood cell (WBCs) Leukocytes 3. (RBCs 700 times > WBCs & 17 times - >platelets) 4. Platelets - thrombocytes
    • PRODUCTION OF FORMED ELEMENTS 1. Hematopoiesis 2. In the fetus - liver, thymus gland, spleen, lymph nodes and red bone marrow 3. After birth - (RBCs) red bone marrow (WBCs) lymphatic tissues 4. Stem cells
    • HEMATOPOIESIS
    • SEL DARAH MERAH SEL DARAH PUTIH
    • BENTUK DARAH
    • UKURAN DARAH
    • RED BLOOD CELLS (RBCs) 1. Disk-shaped 2. The greater space - gas in and out 3. Can bend or fold to pass more easily - small blood vessels. 4. Males - 120 days 5. Females - 110 days 6. Hemoglobin (protein) - red colour
    • FUNGSI DARAH 1. Mengangkut oksigen 2. Hemoglobin ( 4 proteins chain + 4 heme groups) 3. Setiap globin terikat dengan 1 heme 4. 1 heme + 1 ion atom 5. Hemoglobin + oksigen - berwarna merah cerah (tanpa + oksigen - berwarna merah gelap) 6. Hemoglobin (protein) - red colour 7. 98.5 % mengangkut oksigen 8. 2/3 ions - hemoglobin 9. Perempuan memerlukan lebih ion
    • 1. Mengangkut Co2 - bicarbonate , ions, hemoglobin and plasma 2. 70 % - Co2 - dalam bentuk bicarbonate ions 3. Enzime carbonic anhydrase ( in RBCs) menukarkan Co2 and H2o H+ and bicarbonate ions 4. 23 % - Co2 boleh terikat dengan globin 5. 7 % - Co2 berada di dalam plasma FUNGSI DARAH
    • KITARAN HIDUP SEL DARAH MERAH 1. Keadaan biasa - 2.5 millions dan akan musnah dalam beberapa saat 2. Stem cells membentuk proerythroblasts 3. Proses pembinaan sel - vitamin folate and B12 - synthesis of DNA 4. Penghasilan RBCs dirangsang oleh kekurangan oksigen di dalam darah 5. Kekurangan O2 - disebabkan penyakit di dalam paru-paru, ketinggian dan aktiviti senaman
    • 6. Kekurangan O2 - meningkat pembentukan glycoprotein erythropoeitin (kidney) 7. Erythropoeitin merangsang red bone marrow menghasilkan lebih RBCs 8. < O2 - meningkatkan penghasilan erythropoeitin > RBCs bertambah 9. Memiara homeostatis 10. RBCs yang tua, tidak normal dan rosak akan dikeluarkan drpd darah oleh macrophages (spleen & liver) KITARAN HIDUP SEL DARAH MERAH
    • KITARAN HIDUP SEL DARAH MERAH
    • 11. Bilirubin - pigment molecule (kuning) dibebaskan ke dalam usus kecil - bile 12. Bile - drpd hati akan menghalang bilirubin membentuk peredaran dan menghasilkan jaundice (a yellow color in skin) 13. Di dalam usus, bilirubin ditukar oleh bakteria kepada pigmen lain (brown color) 14. Kidney - air kencing berwarna kuning KITARAN HIDUP SEL DARAH MERAH
    • KITARAN HIDUP SEL DARAH MERAH
    • SEL DARAH PUTIH (WBCs) 1. Berwarna keputihan < hemoglobin 2. Lebih besar drpd RBCs - a nucleus 3. WBCs bergerak ke dalam tisu dibantu oleh ameboid 4. 2 Fungsi WBCs: 1. Melindungi tubuh - serangan microorganisms 2. Mengeluarkan tisu mati dibantu oleh phagocytosis 5. WBCs - dikenali sebagai 1. Granulocytes 2. Agranulocytes
    • WHITE BLOOD CELLS (WBCs) 6. Granulocytes : 3 jenis - 1. Neutrophils 2. Basophils 3. Eosinophils 7. Agranulocytes : 2 jenis - 1. Lymphocytes 2. Monocytes - macrophages
    • PROSES PENGHASILAN SEL DARAH MERAH
    • PLATELETS 1. Platelets or thrombocytes 2. Dihasil di dalam red bone marrow daripada megakaryocytes 3. Fungsinya menghalang kehilangan darah dengan cara: i. Membentuk plug darah: seal holes in small vessels ii. Membentuk darah beku: seal off larger wounds in the vessel.
    • PREVENTION BLOOD LOSS 1. Blood Vessel Constriction Blood vessels contrict in response to injury, resulting in decreased blood flow 2. Platelet Plugs Minor damage to blood vessels is repaired by platelet plugs. Platelet use integrins to adhere to collagen, release chemical (ADP and thromboxanes) - connect to another to form platelet plugs.
    • PREVENTION BLOOD LOSS 3. Blood Clotting Blood clotting or coagulation - fibrin 3 step in the process: 1. Activating - prothrombinase 2. Conversion of prothrombin to thrombin by prothrombinase 3. Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin by thrombin
    • SEL DARAH PUTIH MENENTANG BAKTERIA
    • FORMASI CLOT (clot formation)
    • PREVENTION BLOOD LOSS 4. Control of Clot Formation Anticoagulation in the blood, such as antithrombin and heparin, prevent clot formation 5. Clot Retraction and Fibrinolysis Clot retraction condenses the clot, pulling the edges of damages tissues closer together. Serum is plasma without clotting factor Fibfinolysis (clot breakdown) is accomplished by plasmin
    • KUMPULAN DARAH 1. Determined by antigen 2. Antibodies can bind - aglutination or hemolysis ABO Blood Group 1. Type A - A antigen 2. Type B - B antigen 3. TypeAB - A & B antigen 4. Type O - neither A or B antigen
    • ABO BLOOD GROUP 1. Type A - has B antibodies 2. Type B - has A antibodies 3. Type AB - has neither A & B antibodies 4. Type O - has both A and B antibodies 5. Mismatching the ABO blood group can result in transfusion reactions
    • Rh BLOOD GROUP 1. Rh-positive blood has Rh antigen 2. Rh-negative blood does not 3. Antibodies against the Rh antigen are produced when an Rh-negative person is exposed to Rh-positive blood 4. The Rh blood group is responsible for hemolytic disease of the newborn
    • Rh BLOOD GROUP 1. Rh-positive blood has Rh antigen 2. Rh-negative blood does not 3. Antibodies against the Rh antigen are produced when an Rh-negative person is exposed to Rh-positive blood 4. The Rh blood group is responsible for hemolytic disease of the newborn
    • TERIMA KASIH DAN BANYAKKAN ULANGKAJI UNTUK LEBIH MEMAHAMI TERIMA KASIH DAN BANYAKKAN ULANGKAJI UNTUK LEBIH MEMAHAMI