0
The State of Logistics Outsourcing
                           2009 Third-Party Logistics
          Results and Findings of...
Contents



  About the Study

  Current State of the 3PL Market

  Economic Volatility

  Supply Chain Orchestration

  I...
About the Study
Expanded Focus in 2009 to Include 3PL Users and Providers




                                            ...
This year’s 3PL study incorporated three major
research thrusts



  E-Mail Survey of Executives from 3PL user and provide...
Survey respondents represented range of geographies
and industries
Shipper respondents

                                  ...
Current State of the 3PL Market
3PLs and Shippers – Different Perspectives to Ongoing Issues




                         ...
Shippers currently outsource a wide variety of
  logistics services


                                                % Us...
Shippers and 3PLs have similar evaluations of success of
       their relationships


           75%
                     ...
Shippers report a number of continuing problems with 3PL
services
                                                        ...
There continue to be significant opportunities for outsourcing
of IT-based services

       Transp Mgt (Execution)
       ...
Economic Volatility
Shippers Thinking Both Short- and Long-Term




                                                      ...
Unpredictable demand is the most difficult challenge to
managing a supply chain in an economic downturn


                ...
In response, companies use different strategies, where for
  some they need the help of a 3PL

           Strategies used ...
It’s significant that 30% of the shippers think they need more
3PL services to help them weather the storm
What is the net...
Shippers are re-evaluating their 3PL relationships and
making changes where required

        Strategies used to mitigate ...
Supply Chain Orchestration
The Case for Rethinking Shipper / 3PL Relationships




                                       ...
Inventory as a percent of total logistics costs has been rising
  for almost 5 years

      120%

      100%

       80%

...
Costs associated with global supply chains have proven to be
highly volatile and will continue to be unpredictable




   ...
Is the current global economic situation a possible inflection
point between 3PLs and shippers?


                        ...
What is preventing you as a shipper from outsourcing more
to your 3PLs?



 Supply chain is a core competency             ...
Which of the following critical capabilities would you like
your 3PL to bring as a strategic partner



    Total Landed C...
What value do you think you would realize by developing a
strategic relationship with your 3PL?



           Reduce total...
What is necessary to make strategic relationships work ?




                               19%
    Number 1 overall of wh...
IT Capability Gap
Shippers and 3PLs: Contrasting Perspectives




                                                        ...
CIOs face daunting challenges …
The IT performance gap, complex architecture, business alignment


                    Cha...
IT demand and supply: What IT services are shippers
outsourcing and what IT services are 3PLs offering today …

          ...
Shippers face a number of challenges with
3PL IT capabilities …



Lack of integration among
internal 3PL systems         ...
Integration challenges stymie 3PL – Shipper collaboration
Manual and unique integrations, long lead times, differing prior...
Integration challenges limit 3PL – Shipper collaboration
Manual and unique integrations, long lead times, differing priori...
Bridging the IT Gap: Shipper and 3PL perspectives

 Timely KPIs and performance data                                      ...
What shippers and 3PLs want – An open flexible platform to
support logistics planning and execution …

 Rationalize and mo...
Strategic Assessment
Shippers and 3PLs Adapting to Economic Volatility




                                               ...
The recession signaled that the last two decades represented
exceptional conditions, unlikely to return


   Previously, u...
To continuously adapt to the “new normal”, shippers and
3PLs need to bridge some fundamental gaps


   Shipper Perspective...
Shippers and 3PLs must proactively take steps to maximize
their chances to succeed in the new economy

        3PLs need t...
Thank You!
2009 Fourteenth Annual Third Party Logistics Study Team




Check out our website at www.3plstudy.com

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CapGemini, Panalpina & Oracle on 'The Hidden Opportunities of Economic Crisis - Findings from the 14th Annual Third-Party Logistics Study'

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Dennis Wereldsma, Global Distribution Sector Leader, Capgemini; Dennis de Waard, Corporate Supply Chain Manager, Supply Chain Strategy, Panalpina; Dominic Regan, Senior Director, Oracle speak on 'The Hidden Opportunities of Economic Crisis - Findings from the 14th Annual Third-Party Logistics Study' at the 7th European 3PL Summit in Brussels, November 25th 2009.

To download all of the slides from the conference for free visit www.3PLsummit.com/eu_2009ppts

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Transcript of "CapGemini, Panalpina & Oracle on 'The Hidden Opportunities of Economic Crisis - Findings from the 14th Annual Third-Party Logistics Study'"

  1. 1. The State of Logistics Outsourcing 2009 Third-Party Logistics Results and Findings of the 14th Annual Study Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Contents About the Study Current State of the 3PL Market Economic Volatility Supply Chain Orchestration IT Capability Gap Strategic Assessment 2 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. About the Study Expanded Focus in 2009 to Include 3PL Users and Providers 3 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. This year’s 3PL study incorporated three major research thrusts E-Mail Survey of Executives from 3PL user and provider firms • User survey targeted VP, Director, Manager of Logistics or Supply Chain Management • Provider survey targeted CEO’s and Executives Focus Interviews with Executives and Industry Observers • Interviews pertained directly to “special” topics included in 2009 study Capgemini Accelerated Solutions Environment® (ASE) Facilitated Workshop Session • Chicago, USA and Utrecht, Netherlands • Workshop in Singapore 4 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. Survey respondents represented range of geographies and industries Shipper respondents Industry % Europe 1. High-Tech / Electronics 14 (250) 2. Consumer Products 12 North America 33% (248) 3. Food and Beverage 10 32% Asia-Pacific (155) 4. Life Sciences and Pharma / Healthcare 10 20% 5. Automotive and Transport Equipment 10 6. Industrial Manufacturing 8 Latin America (103) 7. Retail 6 13% 8. Chemical 6 Other Additional Industries (13) 13 (16) 2% Other 11 + 279 Survey respondents from 3PL provider firms. 5 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. Current State of the 3PL Market 3PLs and Shippers – Different Perspectives to Ongoing Issues 6 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Shippers currently outsource a wide variety of logistics services % Users % Users Outsourced Logistics Services All Regions Outsourced Logistics Services All Regions Domestic Transportation 86 Freight Bill Auditing and Payment 33 Transportation Planning International Transportation 84 32 and Management Customs Brokerage 71 Information Technology (IT) Services 30 Warehousing 68 Fleet Management 22 Supply Chain Consultancy Services Forwarding 65 21 Provided by 3PLs Cross-Docking 39 Customer Service 13 Product Labeling, Packaging, Order Entry, Processing 38 13 Assembly, Kitting and Fulfillment Reverse Logistics 38 LLP / 4PL Services 12 (defective, repair, return) 7 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Shippers and 3PLs have similar evaluations of success of their relationships 75% 64% 60% 51% 45% 45% 30% 25% 15% 9% 3% 1% 1% 1% 0% Extremely Somewhat Neither Somewhat Extremely successful successful successful nor unsuccessful unsuccessful unsuccessful 3PL Users 3PL Providers Note: 3PL users and 3PLs were asked to rate success on a five-point scale, with “somewhat successful” and “extremely successful” representing the two most positive categories 8 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. Shippers report a number of continuing problems with 3PL services Percentages Top “Seven” continuing problems reported by shippers Lack of continuous, ongoing improvements and achievements in offerings 46% Service level commitments not realized 46% Information technology capabilities not sufficient 43% Cost reductions not realized 36% Lack of project management skills 35% Unsatisfactory transition during implementation stage 31% Lack of global capabilities 30% 9 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. There continue to be significant opportunities for outsourcing of IT-based services Transp Mgt (Execution) WH-DC Mgt Global Trade Mgt Yard Management Transportation Sourcing Transp Mgt (Planning) EDI Web Portals Visibility Bar Coding SC Network Opt SC Event Mgt RFID Customer Order Mgt SC Planning 0 20 40 60 80 100 Currently use 3PL Internally managed 10 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Economic Volatility Shippers Thinking Both Short- and Long-Term 11 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Unpredictable demand is the most difficult challenge to managing a supply chain in an economic downturn Unpredictable demand 71% Fuel price volatility 47% Excessive inventory in supply chain 46% Currency exchange rate volatility 46% Supplier financial risk 45% Commodity price volatility 30% (other than fuel prices) Difficulty securing capital to 23% fund improvement initiatives Loss of key supply chain 19% skills due to corporate downsizing Labor rate volatility 11% Other 4% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 12 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. In response, companies use different strategies, where for some they need the help of a 3PL Strategies used by Shippers Top 3 strategies used by 3PLs 1. Reduce Operating Costs (89%) Reduce operating costs 82% 2. Expand to New Markets or Offer Improve forecasting & inventory management 77% New Products 59% Renegotiate 3. Renegotiate Supplier Contracts 58% supplier contracts 66% Restructure supply chain network 61% Reduce order-to-cash cycle time 60% Expand to new markets or … other coping strategies 56% offer new products Increasing Control Rationalize product 42% catalog (SKUs) Risk / Gain sharing Increase use of contract Improve Integration with 3PLs 29% manufacturing and BPO Horizontal Integration 0% 50% 100% 13 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. It’s significant that 30% of the shippers think they need more 3PL services to help them weather the storm What is the net effect of current economic uncertainties on your company’s need for 3PL services? 14 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Shippers are re-evaluating their 3PL relationships and making changes where required Strategies used to mitigate risks with 3PLs Renegotiating payment terms / 54% contracts with 3PL provider(s) Switching 3PL provider(s) 26% … But 3PL users in larger Developing internal capabilities to companies are looking to 24% complement / replace 3PL provider(s) rationalize the number of 3PLs My company does not have a and intensify their proactive risk mitigation strategy 20% 3PL partnership directed toward 3PL provider(s) Investing in 3PL provider(s) 16% Other risk mitigating strategies 8% The economic crisis as an inflection point to rethink supply chain / 3PL relationships? 15 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Supply Chain Orchestration The Case for Rethinking Shipper / 3PL Relationships 16 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. Inventory as a percent of total logistics costs has been rising for almost 5 years 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 1986 1990 1995 2000 2005 2007 Inventory Tranportation Total Source: Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals 19th Annual State of Logistics Report (2008) Last 4-5 years inventory as a percent of total has been growing Inventory growth is unrelated to the current global economic situation Businesses recognize that long thin supply chains may not necessarily be the best answer Supply chains today are looking at alternatives to chasing the cheapest labor 17 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. Costs associated with global supply chains have proven to be highly volatile and will continue to be unpredictable Oil (fuel) 40 USD per barrel, 146 USD per barrel, now approx. 70 USD per barrel Floating currencies … USD and China Rapidly changing local labor rates … China, Mexico, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia Supply Chain capacity reductions… Ocean, North Pacific 30% this year, rail 12%, trucking 22% Changes coming with expansion of the Panama Canal 18 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Is the current global economic situation a possible inflection point between 3PLs and shippers? Not sure 19% 22% 59% No Yes A very high percentage of respondents feel this is the time in which to re-evaluate their relationships with their 3PLs to possibly drive the relationship deeper A significant number of respondents are somewhat confused by the current environment as to what it means about their business and 3PLs 19 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. What is preventing you as a shipper from outsourcing more to your 3PLs? Supply chain is a core competency 56% My 3PL does not have the business expertise 38% I want my 3PL to be execution focused 40% Many businesses still feel they are better at supply chain design and execution than their 3PLs, and they are not asking the 3PL to be anything other than execution focused … However … 20 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. Which of the following critical capabilities would you like your 3PL to bring as a strategic partner Total Landed Cost reporting and analysis 64% Deep business process and IT expertise 60% Supply Chain Network Design 46% These answers seem to indicate that business is looking closely at possible major changes in sourcing and / or networks, and would welcome a 3PL doing these if they had the skills and expertise None of these services would be typical of 3PL services offered today 21 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. What value do you think you would realize by developing a strategic relationship with your 3PL? Reduce total landed costs 75% Increase operational flexibility and become more demand driven 58% Reduce capital costs, head count and operational expenses 58% Research seems to indicate that companies are currently evaluating their processes and capabilities, and clearly see that their businesses could benefit from some non-traditional services being offered by their 3PLs However, they need to be shown that the 3PLs they are dealing with have the capabilities and deep business expertise needed to move to the strategic partner level 22 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. What is necessary to make strategic relationships work ? 19% Number 1 overall of what is required….Knowledge of the 56% business. If 3PL does not have deep knowledge and expertise, 22% 59% will not become a strategic partner 38% Incentives on both sides Joint investment, maybe harmonized IT systems 40% Guts to change, willingness to share data Executive sponsorship on all levels, both sides 23 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. IT Capability Gap Shippers and 3PLs: Contrasting Perspectives 24 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. CIOs face daunting challenges … The IT performance gap, complex architecture, business alignment Challenges / Wish List 100% 80% Complex applications and technology eco-system dominated by legacy ERP and operational systems that run on 60% mainframes / mid-range systems 40% Limited IT budgets predominantly focused on maintenance 20% Multiple data silos with duplicate and incorrect data 0% How can we ensure that the IT department can respond 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 quickly to the needs of the business? IT capabilities necessary element of 3PL expertise How can we allocate a higher percentage of resources to innovation versus maintenance projects? Satisfied with 3PL IT capabilities Alignment with the Business Shippers • More than 2/3 of shippers indicated that alignment between business and IT was NOT STRONG and could be BETTER 3PLs • Almost 2/3 of 3PLs indicated that alignment between business and IT was NOT STRONG and could be BETTER 25 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. IT demand and supply: What IT services are shippers outsourcing and what IT services are 3PLs offering today … Shipper Perspective 94% of shippers run and operate customer order management internally, only 5% outsource currently and only 5% would like to outsource in the future 91% of shippers run and operate supply chain planning applications internally, only 4% outsource currently and only 4% would like to outsource in the future 22% outsource EDI transaction processing for orders, ASNs, shipment status updates, and invoicing, 19% would like to do so in the future 3PL Perspective 75% of 3PLs offer Transportation Mgt. as an offering to shippers today, 14% offer a TMS on a subscription basis today, 4% expect to offer a TMS on a subscription basis in the future 81% of 3PLs offer Warehouse Mgt. as an offering to shippers today, 12% offer WMS on a subscription basis today, and 3% expect to offer WMS on a subscription basis in the future • 71% offer EDI services, visibility to orders, shipments, and inventory Shippers outsource “execution focused” applications TMS and WMS have become standard 3PL IT offerings 3PLs are adopting the software-as-a service model! 26 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. Shippers face a number of challenges with 3PL IT capabilities … Lack of integration among internal 3PL systems 50% Multiple operating platforms at 3PLs leading to • Varied service experience Inability to provide sufficient and processes 36% order / shipment / inventory visibility • Insufficient order / shipment / inventory visibility Lack of sufficient project management (PM) processes or trained PM personnel 27% Lack of project management expertise leads to schedule delays, budget overruns, Inability to correctly invoice Complex integrations result for services provided 26% in long lead times to onboard customers Incorrect billing driven by Too much time required disconnected quote-to-cash to onboard customer 25% processes 27 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  28. 28. Integration challenges stymie 3PL – Shipper collaboration Manual and unique integrations, long lead times, differing priorities Shippers 32.8% 24.6% 57.4% Purchase order management 42.6% 32.4% 24.1% 56.5% Inventory visibility 43.5% 33.1% 21.4% 54.5% Shipment status updates 45.5% 30.0% 18.1% 48.1% Transportation execution (Booking, tendering, document preparation and transportation) 51.9% 27.9% 18.6% 46.5% Invoicing 53.5% 21.3% 11.6% 32.9% Production schedules, transportation schedules 67.1% 18.4% 11.6% 30.0% Demand forecasts 70.0% 13.8% 9.9% 23.7% Capacity forecasts and availability 76.3% Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Manual Integration: Fax / phone / email Unique Integration with each 3PL Standardized integration with every 3PL EDI is primarily execution focused – Orders, Inventory, Shipment Status updates are the top EDI transactions EDI penetration is < 60% and is much lower for planning and scheduling data 28 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  29. 29. Integration challenges limit 3PL – Shipper collaboration Manual and unique integrations, long lead times, differing priorities 3PLs 47.9% 22.4% 70.3% Inventory visibility 29.7% Invoicing 43.6% 23.6% 67.2% 32.8% Purchase order management 44.2% 22.1% 66.3% 33.7% 38.4% 27.4% 65.8% Shipment status updates 34.2% 36.2% 23.5% 59.7% Transportation execution (Booking, tendering, document preparation and transportation) 40.3% 36.7% 17.2% 53.9% Production schedules, transportation schedules 46.1% 36.2% 8.8% 45.0% Demand forecasts 55.0% 35.7% 7.8% 43.5% Capacity forecasts 56.5% Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Manual Integration: Fax / phone / email Unique Integration with each Shipper Standardized integration with every Shipper 3PLs focus on supporting Shippers – Inventory visibility, invoice processing, purchase orders are the primary EDI transactions EDI penetration is higher than shippers but integrations are predominantly Unique 29 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  30. 30. Bridging the IT Gap: Shipper and 3PL perspectives Timely KPIs and performance data 75% Shippers would like to see Real-time order and shipment visibility 71% 3PLs provide timely KPI and performance data, order and shipment Alerts for orders and shipments visibility, accurate billing, that deviate from plan 70% real-time inventory status Real-time interfaces to shipper order management systems 63% 3PLs need real-time integration so they have Timely demand forecasts 54% better visibility to demand, timely payments, collaborative planning, Real-time inventory status – what’s and frequent feedback coming inbound, what’s going 53% outbound, and what’s on-hand 30 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  31. 31. What shippers and 3PLs want – An open flexible platform to support logistics planning and execution … Rationalize and modernize applications, data repositories, and infrastructure Logistics Planning & Execution Platform Link systems using SOA to create a business process platform that drives key processes such as quote-to-cash, Service 2 Service 1 Service 3 procure-to-pay Client 1 Client 2 Client 3 Streamline collaboration with customers, partners, suppliers, regulatory authorities through collaboration hubs Partner Portals, Applications UI, Edge Devices Platform characteristics • Supports best-of-breed solutions Enterprise SOA, Workflow Mgt, Event Mgt • Can be configured • Leverages legacy applications Applications, Data Hubs, Infrastructure • Supports industry standards • Expandable, scalable A scalable, sustainable, differentiating platform … the technology exists today! 31 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  32. 32. Strategic Assessment Shippers and 3PLs Adapting to Economic Volatility 32 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  33. 33. The recession signaled that the last two decades represented exceptional conditions, unlikely to return Previously, unprecedented factors fostered significant commercial growth • Rapidly multiplying global manufacturing capacity • Free trade agreements • Ready access to credit • Enhanced IT capability The economic downturn has severely impacted supply chains globally • Diminished consumer demand • Excess capacity • Price pressures • Financing constraints Near term, shippers are focused on cost cutting, but longer term, they are seeking to understand and adapt to the “new normal” Shippers are re-evaluating the role 3PLs can play in helping them attain more agile, adaptable and efficient supply chains. 33 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  34. 34. To continuously adapt to the “new normal”, shippers and 3PLs need to bridge some fundamental gaps Shipper Perspectives 3PL Capabilities / Position Often focus on 3PL execution Do not want to be perceived as capabilities a “commodity service provider” Some question prospects of deeper May be able to provide industry business relationships with 3PLs specific business expertise Re-evaluating how to leverage 3PLs to survive (or thrive) in the economic Need to promote advanced downturn offerings, particularly total Many want price concessions landed cost analysis without additional business Legacy, business architectures commitments not delivering adequate KPIs, Need improved IT offerings alerts and visibility 34 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  35. 35. Shippers and 3PLs must proactively take steps to maximize their chances to succeed in the new economy 3PLs need to reinforce and productize advanced offerings, advertise these to shippers, and reinforce their value by showcasing results Shippers need to be open to tapping 3PLs’ internal expertise and to asking for the services they want 3PLs should consider new models and a new way of looking at their customer sets 3PLs and shippers need to adopt an open standards based logistics planning and execution platform that can be configured to support multiple services for multiple clients so they reduce the IT complexity, increase adaptability, and increase agility 3PLs and shippers need to develop new methods and frameworks for collaboration, including shared key performance indicators, joint brainstorming, longer-term commitments, and models that share both the risks and rewards of innovation The time is ideal for shippers to rethink how best to leverage 3PLs and for 3PLs to align their offerings with what shippers really need. 35 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
  36. 36. Thank You! 2009 Fourteenth Annual Third Party Logistics Study Team Check out our website at www.3plstudy.com Download copy of 2009 and earlier reports Additional information about the 2009 3PL Study 36 Copyright 2009 C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D. and Capgemini U.S. LLC. All rights reserved.
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