Introduction to Ethicsand Moral Philosophy      A General Overview...   Prof. Mario V. Cardone, PhL.
What is Ethics?
What is Ethics?  Ethics involves asking questions about the good life; itrequires examining “right” and “wrong” conduct, “...
What is Ethics?  Ethics involves asking questions about the good life; itrequires examining “right” and “wrong” conduct, “...
What is Ethics?  Ethics involves asking questions about the good life; itrequires examining “right” and “wrong” conduct, “...
What is Ethics?  Ethics involves asking questions about the good life; itrequires examining “right” and “wrong” conduct, “...
What is Ethics?
What is Ethics?Ethics (also known as moral philosophy is a branch ofphilosophy which seeks to address questions aboutmoral...
Ethics’ Three Basic Aspects
Ethics’ Three Basic AspectsHuman Nature    What are the physical / metaphysical correlates that permit    humanity to be e...
Ethics’ Three Basic Aspects
Ethics’ Three Basic AspectsEthics is comprised of three areas that are interdependent:Theory incorporates its understandin...
Simply Put...
Simply Put...Socrates said, “Ethics concerns no small matter buthow we ought to live.”Are there ethical and non-ethical ac...
Simply Put...
Simply Put...Ethics is an everyday aspect of human life,and in order to live the ethical life one hascertain commitments a...
Simply Put...  Ethics is an everyday aspect of human life,  and in order to live the ethical life one has  certain commitm...
Why Study Ethics? Some of the Big Issues:
Why Study Ethics?             Some of the Big Issues:Abortion                   Just War TheoryMurder: Capital           T...
Why Study Ethics? Some of the Big Issues:
Why Study Ethics?     Some of the Big Issues:Rape? Child Abuse? Genocide?         Plagiarism???
Why Study Ethics? Some of the Big Issues:
Why Study Ethics?                   Some of the Big Issues:  Being able to determine the ethical nature of these and many ...
Why Study Ethics?                   Some of the Big Issues:  Being able to determine the ethical nature of these and many ...
Why Study Ethics? Some of the Big Issues:
Why Study Ethics?           Some of the Big Issues:More importantly, can you contribute to these  great debates of our tim...
Ethical Language
Ethical LanguageWhen starting to think about ethics, you should think about theimportance of the words you use: it’s impor...
Ethical LanguageWhen starting to think about ethics, you should think about theimportance of the words you use: it’s impor...
Ethical LanguageWhen starting to think about ethics, you should think about theimportance of the words you use: it’s impor...
Ethical LanguageWhen starting to think about ethics, you should think about theimportance of the words you use: it’s impor...
Ethical Language
Ethical LanguageEmotionally loaded language assumes that one already           knows what is right and wrong.
Ethical LanguageEmotionally loaded language assumes that one already           knows what is right and wrong.Instead of pl...
Circular Reasoning
Circular ReasoningCircular Reasoning: Is any train of argumentin which the conclusion being argued for isalready stated, i...
Labeling
LabelingLabeling: Is the term used to put actions,people, or objects into overly simplistic categoriesor stereotypes.e.g. ...
Ethical Dilemmas
Ethical DilemmasA dilemma arises whenever a choice has to bemade in which something good has to be givenup or something ba...
Ethical Dilemmas
Ethical Dilemmas  Remember that what on first glance seems to be anethical dilemma with no happy solutions might not be. Al...
Ethical Dilemmas  Remember that what on first glance seems to be anethical dilemma with no happy solutions might not be. Al...
Values Vs. Preferences
Values Vs. PreferencesValue: is something that has worth, at least for somepeople. It points out a good that we should go ...
Values Vs. Preferences
Values Vs. Preferences(1) Values are the result of evaluations, or valuejudgements. Evaluations judge things, situations, ...
Values Vs. Preferences(1) Values are the result of evaluations, or valuejudgements. Evaluations judge things, situations, ...
Values Vs. Preferences(1) Values are the result of evaluations, or valuejudgements. Evaluations judge things, situations, ...
Values Vs. Preferences(1) Values are the result of evaluations, or valuejudgements. Evaluations judge things, situations, ...
Values Vs. Preferences
Values Vs. Preferences Ethical values come in degrees from less to more, but not allvalues fit this model: others are “all ...
Values Vs. Preferences Ethical values come in degrees from less to more, but not allvalues fit this model: others are “all ...
The Big Picture and Meta-Ethics
The Big Picture and            Meta-EthicsMeta-ethics concerns itself with the meaning ofethical judgments and/or prescrip...
The Big Picture and             Meta-EthicsMeta-ethics concerns itself with the meaning ofethical judgments and/or prescri...
Ethical Semantics
Ethical SemanticsThe ethical semantics (dealing with language and words)divides into descriptivism and non-descriptivism.
Ethical SemanticsThe ethical semantics (dealing with language and words)divides into descriptivism and non-descriptivism.D...
Ethical SemanticsThe ethical semantics (dealing with language and words)divides into descriptivism and non-descriptivism.D...
Ethical Epistemology
Ethical EpistemologyThe epistemology of ethics divides into cognitivism andnon-cognitivism.
Ethical EpistemologyThe epistemology of ethics divides into cognitivism andnon-cognitivism.Non-Cognitivism: (stronger) Eth...
Ethical EpistemologyThe epistemology of ethics divides into cognitivism andnon-cognitivism.Non-Cognitivism: (stronger) Eth...
Ontological Ethics
Ontological EthicsThe ontology of ethics is concerned with value-bearingproperties or any ideas, objects, and aspects of r...
Ontological EthicsThe ontology of ethics is concerned with value-bearingproperties or any ideas, objects, and aspects of r...
Ontological EthicsThe ontology of ethics is concerned with value-bearingproperties or any ideas, objects, and aspects of r...
Normative Ethics
Normative EthicsNormative Ethics: The study of what makes actions right andwrong. (Why is child abuse wrong? The answer is...
Normative EthicsNormative Ethics: The study of what makes actions right andwrong. (Why is child abuse wrong? The answer is...
Normative EthicsNormative Ethics: The study of what makes actions right andwrong. (Why is child abuse wrong? The answer is...
Normative EthicsNormative Ethics: The study of what makes actions right andwrong. (Why is child abuse wrong? The answer is...
Normative Ethics
Normative Ethics    Norms are regular ways of doing things thateverybody agrees on. Unlike other conventions, ethicalnorms...
Sentencing Vs. CulpabilitySentencing is when an individual is decidedly deserving ofpunishment in a court of law for break...
Which Ethical Norms should be put into
Which Ethical Norms should be put into  Should drinking in public be illegal? Is it  unethical?
Which Ethical Norms should be put into  Should drinking in public be illegal? Is it  unethical?  Should women legally be a...
Which Ethical Norms should be put into  Should drinking in public be illegal? Is it  unethical?  Should women legally be a...
Which Ethical Norms should be put into  Should drinking in public be illegal? Is it  unethical?  Should women legally be a...
Which Ethical Norms should be put into
Which Ethical Norms should be put into  Moral consciousness permits people to determine thedifferences between personal pr...
Which Ethical Norms should be put into
Which Ethical Norms should be put into    Moral conscience consists of the ability to almostautomatically empathize with o...
Which Ethical Norms should be put into    Moral conscience consists of the ability to almostautomatically empathize with o...
Which Ethical Norms should be put into    Moral conscience consists of the ability to almostautomatically empathize with o...
Which Ethical Norms should be put into
Which Ethical Norms should be put intoLaws are meant to guide behavior of a society, why are certain behaviors tolerable t...
Which Ethical Norms should be put intoLaws are meant to guide behavior of a society, why are  certain behaviors tolerable ...
The Point of Doing Ethics
The Point of Doing EthicsThe point of doing ethics is not to get people tochange their mind about things, or to get them t...
The Point of Doing EthicsThe point of doing ethics is not to get people tochange their mind about things, or to get them t...
The Point of Doing Ethics
The Point of Doing Ethics             Dogmatism:  Is the stubborn refusal to consider challenges to your own ethical point...
Authority and Ethics
Authority and EthicsWhy is murder wrong?
Authority and EthicsWhy is murder wrong?   A. Because your parents said so.
Authority and EthicsWhy is murder wrong?   A. Because your parents said so.   B. Because your pastor/rabbi/priest said so.
Authority and EthicsWhy is murder wrong?   A. Because your parents said so.   B. Because your pastor/rabbi/priest said so....
Authority and EthicsWhy is murder wrong?   A. Because your parents said so.   B. Because your pastor/rabbi/priest said so....
Authority and EthicsWhy is murder wrong?   A. Because your parents said so.   B. Because your pastor/rabbi/priest said so....
Authority and EthicsWhy is murder wrong?   A. Because your parents said so.   B. Because your pastor/rabbi/priest said so....
Authority and EthicsWhy is murder wrong?   A. Because your parents said so.   B. Because your pastor/rabbi/priest said so....
Authority and EthicsWhy is murder wrong?   A. Because your parents said so.   B. Because your pastor/rabbi/priest said so....
Authority and Ethics
Authority and EthicsReasons why authority is not the best solution forethical dilemmas and moral principles to live by.
Authority and EthicsReasons why authority is not the best solution forethical dilemmas and moral principles to live by.1. ...
Authority and EthicsReasons why authority is not the best solution forethical dilemmas and moral principles to live by.1. ...
Authority and EthicsReasons why authority is not the best solution forethical dilemmas and moral principles to live by.1. ...
Authority and Ethics Authority, however, is not always bad to cite in ethicaldebates and should be given or recognized acc...
Authority and Ethics Authority, however, is not always bad to cite in ethicaldebates and should be given or recognized acc...
Authority and Ethics Authority, however, is not always bad to cite in ethicaldebates and should be given or recognized acc...
Partiality and Impartiality
Partiality and ImpartialityYou are standing outside a burning building andtrapped inside are the following three people of...
Partiality and ImpartialityYou are standing outside a burning building andtrapped inside are the following three people of...
Partiality and ImpartialityYou are standing outside a burning building andtrapped inside are the following three people of...
Partiality and ImpartialityYou are standing outside a burning building andtrapped inside are the following three people of...
Partiality and ImpartialityYou are standing outside a burning building andtrapped inside are the following three people of...
Partiality and Impartiality
Partiality and ImpartialityPartial Reasons: are reasons that show our biases foror against persons based on our relationsh...
Partiality and Impartiality Impartial Reasons: are reasons not at all based upon subjective decisions in any dealings with...
Partiality and Impartiality Impartial Reasons: are reasons not at all based upon subjective decisions in any dealings with...
Partiality and Impartiality
Partiality and Impartiality       To what extent is this possible in real life?1. Suppose a doctor working in the ER comes...
Skepticism Vs. Cynicism
Skepticism Vs. CynicismSkepticism: Refers to both a philosophicalstance and an everyday attitude of doubting- butnot neces...
Skepticism Vs. CynicismSkepticism: Refers to both a philosophicalstance and an everyday attitude of doubting- butnot neces...
The Moral Act:Evaluating different theories and human nature...  Handouts    Moral Act    Ill Father    Inglorious Bastards
Basic God Talk and Ethics
Basic God Talk and EthicsGod = Omnipotent, Omniscient, Personal,Truth, Goodness, Entity and Creator ofTemporal Reality (ex...
Basic God Talk and EthicsGod = Omnipotent, Omniscient, Personal,Truth, Goodness, Entity and Creator ofTemporal Reality (ex...
Basic God Talk and EthicsGod = Omnipotent, Omniscient, Personal,Truth, Goodness, Entity and Creator ofTemporal Reality (ex...
Basic God Talk and EthicsGod = Omnipotent, Omniscient, Personal,Truth, Goodness, Entity and Creator ofTemporal Reality (ex...
Basic God Talk and EthicsGod = Omnipotent, Omniscient, Personal,Truth, Goodness, Entity and Creator ofTemporal Reality (ex...
Basic God Talk and Ethics
Basic God Talk and EthicsWhat is the true relationship between          Good and Evil?
Basic God Talk and EthicsWhat is the true relationship between          Good and Evil? 1. Good = Evil (Identity vs Power)
Basic God Talk and EthicsWhat is the true relationship between          Good and Evil? 1. Good = Evil (Identity vs Power) ...
Basic God Talk and EthicsWhat is the true relationship between          Good and Evil? 1. Good = Evil (Identity vs Power) ...
Basic God Talk and Ethics  What is the true relationship between            Good and Evil?    1. Good = Evil (Identity vs ...
Basic God Talk and Ethics         What is the true relationship between                   Good and Evil?          1. Good ...
Basic God Talk and Ethics
Basic God Talk and EthicsIs good the lack of evil or evil the lack of good?       (Entailing only one really exists?)
Basic God Talk and EthicsIs good the lack of evil or evil the lack of good?       (Entailing only one really exists?)     ...
Basic God Talk and EthicsIs good the lack of evil or evil the lack of good?       (Entailing only one really exists?)     ...
Basic God Talk and Ethics   Is good the lack of evil or evil the lack of good?          (Entailing only one really exists?...
Basic God Talk and Ethics   Is good the lack of evil or evil the lack of good?          (Entailing only one really exists?...
Divine Command Theory
Divine Command TheoryDivine Command Theory: is any ethical theorythat is centered around a belief in a God thatentails spe...
Divine Command Theory
Divine Command Theory     Bad Argument 1.
Divine Command Theory                   Bad Argument 1.1. Acting ethically involves obeying some ethical norm.
Divine Command Theory                   Bad Argument 1.1. Acting ethically involves obeying some ethical norm.2. Ethical n...
Divine Command Theory                   Bad Argument 1.1. Acting ethically involves obeying some ethical norm.2. Ethical n...
Divine Command Theory                   Bad Argument 1.1. Acting ethically involves obeying some ethical norm.2. Ethical n...
Divine Command Theory                   Bad Argument 1.1. Acting ethically involves obeying some ethical norm.2. Ethical n...
Divine Command Theory
Divine Command Theory     Bad Argument 2.
Divine Command Theory                 Bad Argument 2.1. Most people would act unethically if they could get               ...
Divine Command Theory                  Bad Argument 2.1. Most people would act unethically if they could get              ...
Divine Command Theory                  Bad Argument 2.1. Most people would act unethically if they could get              ...
Divine Command Theory                  Bad Argument 2.1. Most people would act unethically if they could get              ...
Divine Command Theory                  Bad Argument 2.1. Most people would act unethically if they could get              ...
Divine Morality...problems
Divine Morality...problemsAtheists and Agnostics have a hard timeaccepting GOD as the moral authority.
Divine Morality...problemsAtheists and Agnostics have a hard timeaccepting GOD as the moral authority.Appealing to God as ...
Divine Morality...problemsAtheists and Agnostics have a hard timeaccepting GOD as the moral authority.Appealing to God as ...
Divine Morality...problemsAtheists and Agnostics have a hard timeaccepting GOD as the moral authority.Appealing to God as ...
Divine Morality...problems
Divine Morality...problemsWhat about fanatical religion and doing God’s will?   Is there anything wrong or immoral about J...
Divine Morality...problems  What about fanatical religion and doing God’s will?     Is there anything wrong or immoral abo...
Why Obey God?
Why Obey God?1) heaven2) hell3) beauty4) love5) truth6) nobody better to follow7) God made me...8) God knows best...
Religion and Reality
Religion and Reality  World View (Epistemology)              +             =   Morality      Truth (Ontology)Epistemology ...
Faith or Reason
Faith or ReasonWhat is faith? The acceptance of certain answersconcerning reality that have yet to be, or may never be,pro...
Faith or ReasonWhat is faith? The acceptance of certain answersconcerning reality that have yet to be, or may never be,pro...
Faith or ReasonWhat is faith? The acceptance of certain answersconcerning reality that have yet to be, or may never be,pro...
Faith or ReasonWhat is faith? The acceptance of certain answersconcerning reality that have yet to be, or may never be,pro...
The Moral Guide of Science...
The Moral Guide of Science...What does science have to offer the moralphilosopher?
The Moral Guide of Science...What does science have to offer the moralphilosopher?Are there genes that guide behavior good...
The Moral Guide of Science...What does science have to offer the moralphilosopher?Are there genes that guide behavior good...
The Moral Guide of Science...What does science have to offer the moralphilosopher?Are there genes that guide behavior good...
The Moral Guide of Science...
The Moral Guide of Science...What can science offer to argue against fanatical religious       groups such as the one’s gu...
The Moral Guide of Science...What can science offer to argue against fanatical religious       groups such as the one’s gu...
is/oughtDavid Hume
is/ought                David HumeThe is / ought dilemma states that one cannot makeany ought statements from is facts.
is/ought                 David HumeThe is / ought dilemma states that one cannot makeany ought statements from is facts.Th...
is/ought                 David HumeThe is / ought dilemma states that one cannot makeany ought statements from is facts.Th...
is/ought                 David HumeThe is / ought dilemma states that one cannot makeany ought statements from is facts.Th...
is/ought                 David HumeThe is / ought dilemma states that one cannot makeany ought statements from is facts.Th...
is/oughtDavid Hume
is/ought                  David Hume    Does science have anything to do with oughtstatements? or is science concealed to ...
is/ought                  David Hume    Does science have anything to do with oughtstatements? or is science concealed to ...
The Naturalistic Fallacy            G. E. MooreWhat is the definition of good without saying          “this” or “that” is g...
The Naturalistic Fallacy                       G. E. Moore   What is the definition of good without saying             “thi...
The Naturalistic Fallacy                G. E. Moore…the assumption that because some quality or combinationof qualities in...
The Naturalistic Fallacy              G. E. MooreThe naturalistic fallacy is related to (and even confused with) the is-ou...
Can Science Go Too far?
Can Science Go Too far?Cloning, Genetic Engineering, etc... Frankenstein? Clonesfor organs? If there is no God is there an...
Can Science Go Too far?Cloning, Genetic Engineering, etc... Frankenstein? Clonesfor organs? If there is no God is there an...
Can Science Go Too far?Cloning, Genetic Engineering, etc... Frankenstein? Clonesfor organs? If there is no God is there an...
Can Science Go Too far?Cloning, Genetic Engineering, etc... Frankenstein? Clonesfor organs? If there is no God is there an...
Science and Religion
Science and ReligionWhy not both?
Science and ReligionWhy not both?The way to reconcile science and religion is tosay that science and ethics are different,...
Science and ReligionWhy not both?The way to reconcile science and religion is tosay that science and ethics are different,...
Science and Religion
Science and ReligionUnlike the scientific method, which stops where the cold facts     begin, the method of moral reflection...
Science and ReligionUnlike the scientific method, which stops where the cold facts     begin, the method of moral reflection...
Science and ReligionUnlike the scientific method, which stops where the cold facts     begin, the method of moral reflection...
Science and ReligionUnlike the scientific method, which stops where the cold facts     begin, the method of moral reflection...
Science and ReligionUnlike the scientific method, which stops where the cold facts     begin, the method of moral reflection...
Ego Ethics
Ego Ethics“No matter what we do, we always act out ofself-interest: That even if we think we are actingfor charitable reas...
Ego Ethics“No matter what we do, we always act out ofself-interest: That even if we think we are actingfor charitable reas...
Ego Ethics“No matter what we do, we always act out ofself-interest: That even if we think we are actingfor charitable reas...
Self-Interested?
Self-Interested?1) Helping little old ladies with heavy groceries.2) Putting coins in other peoples’ parking metersso they...
Self-Interested?
Self-Interested?Is there a difference between acting with self-interest                  and acting selfishly?
Self-Interested?Is there a difference between acting with self-interest                  and acting selfishly?Self-Interest...
Self-Interested?Is there a difference between acting with self-interest                  and acting selfishly?Self-Interest...
Psychological Egoism
Psychological EgoismStates that it is human nature to act selfishly. It ishardwired in our genes. All moral acts aremotivat...
Psychological EgoismStates that it is human nature to act selfishly. It ishardwired in our genes. All moral acts aremotivat...
Psychological EgoismStates that it is human nature to act selfishly. It ishardwired in our genes. All moral acts aremotivat...
Psychological EgoismStates that it is human nature to act selfishly. It ishardwired in our genes. All moral acts aremotivat...
Psychological EgoismStates that it is human nature to act selfishly. It ishardwired in our genes. All moral acts aremotivat...
Psychological Egoism
Psychological EgoismPsychological egoists claim that:
Psychological Egoism          Psychological egoists claim that:1. We only do things because we really want to, so we     s...
Psychological Egoism           Psychological egoists claim that: 1. We only do things because we really want to, so we    ...
Psychological Egoism           Psychological egoists claim that: 1. We only do things because we really want to, so we    ...
Ethical Egoism
Ethical EgoismThere is an important difference betweenPsychological Egoism and Ethical Egoism.
Ethical EgoismThere is an important difference betweenPsychological Egoism and Ethical Egoism.Psychological Egoism makes c...
Ethical EgoismThere is an important difference betweenPsychological Egoism and Ethical Egoism.Psychological Egoism makes c...
Ethical Egoism
Ethical EgoismEthical Egoists say we only have one duty, and that is to ourselves                            not others.
Ethical EgoismEthical Egoists say we only have one duty, and that is to ourselves                            not others.  ...
Ethical EgoismEthical Egoists say we only have one duty, and that is to ourselves                            not others.  ...
Ethical EgoismEthical Egoists say we only have one duty, and that is to ourselves                            not others.  ...
Ethical Egoism Ethical Egoists say we only have one duty, and that is to ourselves                             not others....
Ethical Egoism Ethical Egoists say we only have one duty, and that is to ourselves                             not others....
Ethical Egoism Ethical Egoists say we only have one duty, and that is to ourselves                             not others....
Ethical Egoism Ethical Egoists say we only have one duty, and that is to ourselves                             not others....
Egoism: Pros
Egoism: ProsEthical Egoism is morally right because itencourages individuals to look out forthemselves. Since we know best...
Egoism: ProsEthical Egoism is morally right because itencourages individuals to look out forthemselves. Since we know best...
Objections:
Objections:Do people only do things because they really wantto?
Objections:Do people only do things because they really wantto?People do things all the time that they do not wantto do, r...
Objections:Do people only do things because they really wantto?People do things all the time that they do not wantto do, r...
Objections:Do people only do things because they really wantto?People do things all the time that they do not wantto do, r...
Objections:
Objections:Another objection states that if everyone is selfish there is no criteria to distinguish between good and bad pe...
Objections:Another objection states that if everyone is selfish there is no criteria to distinguish between good and bad pe...
Objections: II
Objections: IIWhich comes first wanting that good feeling fordoing something good or wanting to do good forothers?
Objections: IIWhich comes first wanting that good feeling fordoing something good or wanting to do good forothers?The good ...
Objections: IIWhich comes first wanting that good feeling fordoing something good or wanting to do good forothers?The good ...
Objections: II
Objections: IIOne major Theoretical Inconsistency:
Objections: II          One major Theoretical Inconsistency:     Since it is to one’s advantage that others not actegotist...
Objections: II          One major Theoretical Inconsistency:     Since it is to one’s advantage that others not actegotist...
Objections: II          One major Theoretical Inconsistency:     Since it is to one’s advantage that others not actegotist...
Ethical Subjectivism
Ethical SubjectivismEthical Subjectivism = does not tell us what isgood or bad, right or wrong. Rather, it tells usonly th...
Ethical SubjectivismEthical Subjectivism = does not tell us what isgood or bad, right or wrong. Rather, it tells usonly th...
Ethical SubjectivismEthical Subjectivism = does not tell us what isgood or bad, right or wrong. Rather, it tells usonly th...
Main Ideas: Subjectivism
Main Ideas: Subjectivism1. Ethical beliefs come down to feelings. Feelingsare subjective. (Emotivism)
Main Ideas: Subjectivism1. Ethical beliefs come down to feelings. Feelingsare subjective. (Emotivism)2. Individuals just d...
Main Ideas: Subjectivism1. Ethical beliefs come down to feelings. Feelingsare subjective. (Emotivism)2. Individuals just d...
What Is Wrong With  Subjectivism?
What Is Wrong With          Subjectivism?Is it true that ethical beliefs are only based onindividual feelings? (What about...
What Is Wrong With           Subjectivism?Is it true that ethical beliefs are only based onindividual feelings? (What abou...
What Is Wrong With                 Subjectivism?Is it true that ethical beliefs are only based onindividual feelings? (Wha...
What Is Wrong With                 Subjectivism?Is it true that ethical beliefs are only based onindividual feelings? (Wha...
What Is Wrong With  Subjectivism?
What Is Wrong With            Subjectivism?    There are also very good ways to weigharguments for or against something so...
Ethical Subjectivism:  A Contradiction
Ethical Subjectivism:        A ContradictionA subjectivist has no choice but to hold both ofthe following positions:
Ethical Subjectivism:        A ContradictionA subjectivist has no choice but to hold both ofthe following positions:    Po...
Ethical Subjectivism:        A ContradictionA subjectivist has no choice but to hold both ofthe following positions:    Po...
Ethical Subjectivism:        A ContradictionA subjectivist has no choice but to hold both ofthe following positions:    Po...
Ethical Subjectivism:        A ContradictionA subjectivist has no choice but to hold both ofthe following positions:    Po...
Ethical Subjectivism:  A Contradiction
Ethical Subjectivism:             A ContradictionTherefore, do people that believe in ethical subjectivism             hav...
Ethical Subjectivism:             A ContradictionTherefore, do people that believe in ethical subjectivism             hav...
Ethical Subjectivism:             A ContradictionTherefore, do people that believe in ethical subjectivism             hav...
Ethical Subjectivism:               A Contradiction Therefore, do people that believe in ethical subjectivism             ...
Ethical Subjectivism:               A Contradiction Therefore, do people that believe in ethical subjectivism             ...
Ancient Greek Virtue Ethics
Ancient Greek Virtue EthicsA character trait is an ingrained part of your identity that     habitually influences almost ev...
Ancient Greek Virtue Ethics  A character trait is an ingrained part of your identity that       habitually influences almos...
Ancient Greek Virtue Ethics
Ancient Greek Virtue EthicsVirtues:          Vices: Generosity        Selfishness Courage           Cowardice Kindness     ...
Ancient Greek Virtue Ethics
Ancient Greek Virtue Ethics  For every virtue there are two vices one of          excess and one of defect.A virtue is alw...
Why be Virtuous?
Why be Virtuous?A life without virtue is an unhappy life.
Why be Virtuous?A life without virtue is an unhappy life.Pleasures and pains are fleeting states of mind.Happiness, by cont...
Why be Virtuous?A life without virtue is an unhappy life.Pleasures and pains are fleeting states of mind.Happiness, by cont...
Why be Virtuous?
Why be Virtuous?Can a master criminal who never got caught for stealing       billions of dollars ever be truly happy?
Why be Virtuous?Can a master criminal who never got caught for stealing       billions of dollars ever be truly happy?   L...
Why be Virtuous?Can a master criminal who never got caught for stealing       billions of dollars ever be truly happy?   L...
Objectivity and Virtues
Objectivity and VirtuesVirtues - good character traits - are good for thesoul, or make for the soul’s happiness - becauset...
Objectivity and VirtuesVirtues - good character traits - are good for thesoul, or make for the soul’s happiness - becauset...
Objectivity and VirtuesVirtues - good character traits - are good for thesoul, or make for the soul’s happiness - becauset...
Habit: Virtue and Vice
Habit: Virtue and ViceOne’s character traits are so deeply embedded intheir personality that they cannot really controlthe...
Habit: Virtue and ViceOne’s character traits are so deeply embedded intheir personality that they cannot really controlthe...
Habit: Virtue and ViceOne’s character traits are so deeply embedded intheir personality that they cannot really controlthe...
Habit: Virtue and Vice
Habit: Virtue and ViceAny virtue can become a vice when in service of evil.Even more disturbing, a person who excels in al...
Habit: Virtue and Vice  Any virtue can become a vice when in service of evil.  Even more disturbing, a person who excels i...
“Natural Ethics”
“Natural Ethics”What is nature and what is natural?(Beaver vs Man)
“Natural Ethics”What is nature and what is natural?(Beaver vs Man)Can nature be used as a criteria to determine ifsomethin...
“Natural Ethics”What is nature and what is natural?(Beaver vs Man)Can nature be used as a criteria to determine ifsomethin...
“Natural Ethics”What is nature and what is natural?(Beaver vs Man)Can nature be used as a criteria to determine ifsomethin...
“Natural Ethics”
“Natural Ethics” Though there are difficulties in knowing what is naturaland unnatural, we will see that the idea of human ...
Nature as a Moral Order
Nature as a Moral OrderNature is orderly... (laws of physics, biology, etc.)
Nature as a Moral OrderNature is orderly... (laws of physics, biology, etc.)A dog has a natural behavior and so does ahuma...
Nature as a Moral OrderNature is orderly... (laws of physics, biology, etc.)A dog has a natural behavior and so does ahuma...
Nature as a Moral OrderNature is orderly... (laws of physics, biology, etc.)A dog has a natural behavior and so does ahuma...
Nature as a Moral Order
Nature as a Moral OrderThe phrase “in order to” emphasizes the idea that there  is some purpose or end that a behavior, pe...
Nature as a Moral OrderThe phrase “in order to” emphasizes the idea that there  is some purpose or end that a behavior, pe...
Nature as a Moral OrderThe phrase “in order to” emphasizes the idea that there  is some purpose or end that a behavior, pe...
Nature as a Moral OrderThe phrase “in order to” emphasizes the idea that there  is some purpose or end that a behavior, pe...
Nature as a Moral OrderThe phrase “in order to” emphasizes the idea that there  is some purpose or end that a behavior, pe...
Natural Morality
Natural MoralityPeople can develop their humanity more or lesswell. People ought to be as naturally human aspossible, and ...
Natural MoralityPeople can develop their humanity more or lesswell. People ought to be as naturally human aspossible, and ...
Natural MoralityPeople can develop their humanity more or lesswell. People ought to be as naturally human aspossible, and ...
Natural MoralityPeople can develop their humanity more or lesswell. People ought to be as naturally human aspossible, and ...
St. Thomas Aquinas
St. Thomas AquinasAquinas added Christianity into the Aristotelianview of nature.
St. Thomas AquinasAquinas added Christianity into the Aristotelianview of nature.However, in contrast to Aristotle, he hel...
St. Thomas AquinasAquinas added Christianity into the Aristotelianview of nature.However, in contrast to Aristotle, he hel...
Natural Perfection:Aquinas and Aristotle
Natural Perfection:          Aquinas and AristotleAquinas accepted the following from Aristotle:
Natural Perfection:          Aquinas and AristotleAquinas accepted the following from Aristotle:1. In nature everything ha...
Natural Perfection:          Aquinas and AristotleAquinas accepted the following from Aristotle:1. In nature everything ha...
Natural Perfection:Aquinas and Aristotle
Natural Perfection:             Aquinas and Aristotle   3. Nature and its moral laws are knowable throughcommon sense and ...
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  • PHI ethics2200C

    1. 1. Introduction to Ethicsand Moral Philosophy A General Overview... Prof. Mario V. Cardone, PhL.
    2. 2. What is Ethics?
    3. 3. What is Ethics? Ethics involves asking questions about the good life; itrequires examining “right” and “wrong” conduct, “good” and “bad” values.
    4. 4. What is Ethics? Ethics involves asking questions about the good life; itrequires examining “right” and “wrong” conduct, “good” and “bad” values. An ethical life is the life of imperfect mortal beings. But beingimperfect and mortal is what makes life so interesting. You’ve gotonly so much time to live, so your choices matter to you. Because your choices matter to you, you have to give them purpose and meaning. That involves making hard choices, and balancing conflicting duties, goals and values.
    5. 5. What is Ethics? Ethics involves asking questions about the good life; itrequires examining “right” and “wrong” conduct, “good” and “bad” values.
    6. 6. What is Ethics? Ethics involves asking questions about the good life; itrequires examining “right” and “wrong” conduct, “good” and “bad” values. Morality : Are the rules utilized by society to govern the “right conduct” of members. Ethics: Branch of philosophy that seeks to understand the nature, purposes, justification, and founding principles of moral rules and the systems they comprise.
    7. 7. What is Ethics?
    8. 8. What is Ethics?Ethics (also known as moral philosophy is a branch ofphilosophy which seeks to address questions aboutmorality, such as what the fundamental semantic,ontological, and epistemic nature of ethics or morality is(meta-ethics), how moral values should be determined(normative ethics), how a moral outcome can beachieved in specific situations (applied ethics), howmoral capacity or moral agency develops and what itsnature is (moral psychology), and what moral valuespeople actually abide by (descriptive ethics).
    9. 9. Ethics’ Three Basic Aspects
    10. 10. Ethics’ Three Basic AspectsHuman Nature What are the physical / metaphysical correlates that permit humanity to be ethical, and why/how does it exist? Are animals ethical...if so to what extent? What makes humanity ethical / unique?Theoretical What are the systems of thought or ways of developing the theories behind how humanity expresses and maintains its moral standards and why?Practical How can / is theory applied to everyday life and particular situations? How can ethical theory guide one’s behavior?
    11. 11. Ethics’ Three Basic Aspects
    12. 12. Ethics’ Three Basic AspectsEthics is comprised of three areas that are interdependent:Theory incorporates its understanding of human actionbased upon a development of human nature to addresspractical applications that people can utilize to guide future actions.
    13. 13. Simply Put...
    14. 14. Simply Put...Socrates said, “Ethics concerns no small matter buthow we ought to live.”Are there ethical and non-ethical actions. Maybe?Ethics is a part of everyone’s everyday life.Ethical dilemmas can be “big” (abortion) or“small” (Whether someone overweight should orshould not eat an extra burger).
    15. 15. Simply Put...
    16. 16. Simply Put...Ethics is an everyday aspect of human life,and in order to live the ethical life one hascertain commitments and beliefs on whichthey act.
    17. 17. Simply Put... Ethics is an everyday aspect of human life, and in order to live the ethical life one has certain commitments and beliefs on which they act.Find a place, where ethical issues have been workedout in your mind so you have worked out your ownbeliefs and commitments, and are leading the best, most consistent, ethical life you can.
    18. 18. Why Study Ethics? Some of the Big Issues:
    19. 19. Why Study Ethics? Some of the Big Issues:Abortion Just War TheoryMurder: Capital TorturePunishment Genetic ManipulationEuthanasia CloningEugenics Pre-Marital SexStem Cell Research Homosexual “Marriage”Transgender Surgery Medical EthicsCheating Holocaust
    20. 20. Why Study Ethics? Some of the Big Issues:
    21. 21. Why Study Ethics? Some of the Big Issues:Rape? Child Abuse? Genocide? Plagiarism???
    22. 22. Why Study Ethics? Some of the Big Issues:
    23. 23. Why Study Ethics? Some of the Big Issues: Being able to determine the ethical nature of these and many other ethical questions permits the world, one’s society, and theindividual, to seek out and find fulfilling lives in relation to each other in each circumstance accordingly. ?Otherwise Anarchy?
    24. 24. Why Study Ethics? Some of the Big Issues: Being able to determine the ethical nature of these and many other ethical questions permits the world, one’s society, and theindividual, to seek out and find fulfilling lives in relation to each other in each circumstance accordingly. ?Otherwise Anarchy? Is this motive enough? Why bother, do people really care? Can ethics be avoided? Should people be able to do whatever they want, whenever they want?
    25. 25. Why Study Ethics? Some of the Big Issues:
    26. 26. Why Study Ethics? Some of the Big Issues:More importantly, can you contribute to these great debates of our time and history?
    27. 27. Ethical Language
    28. 28. Ethical LanguageWhen starting to think about ethics, you should think about theimportance of the words you use: it’s important to be aware ofhow they affect one’s thinking about an ethical dilemma.
    29. 29. Ethical LanguageWhen starting to think about ethics, you should think about theimportance of the words you use: it’s important to be aware ofhow they affect one’s thinking about an ethical dilemma.(1) “Abortion is the killing of an innocent fetus.”
    30. 30. Ethical LanguageWhen starting to think about ethics, you should think about theimportance of the words you use: it’s important to be aware ofhow they affect one’s thinking about an ethical dilemma.(1) “Abortion is the killing of an innocent fetus.”(2) “Abortion is simply the removal of an insignificantscrap of organic tissue.”
    31. 31. Ethical LanguageWhen starting to think about ethics, you should think about theimportance of the words you use: it’s important to be aware ofhow they affect one’s thinking about an ethical dilemma.(1) “Abortion is the killing of an innocent fetus.”(2) “Abortion is simply the removal of an insignificantscrap of organic tissue.”Speakers can emotionally load their language and useprovocative language to get people on their side, or use language toturn people away from beliefs that oppose their own.
    32. 32. Ethical Language
    33. 33. Ethical LanguageEmotionally loaded language assumes that one already knows what is right and wrong.
    34. 34. Ethical LanguageEmotionally loaded language assumes that one already knows what is right and wrong.Instead of playing on people’s emotions, appeal to their reason.
    35. 35. Circular Reasoning
    36. 36. Circular ReasoningCircular Reasoning: Is any train of argumentin which the conclusion being argued for isalready stated, implicitly or explicitly, in thesupporting reasons given for that conclusion.P is true because of P“It is wrong to have an abortion becauseabortions are wrong.”
    37. 37. Labeling
    38. 38. LabelingLabeling: Is the term used to put actions,people, or objects into overly simplistic categoriesor stereotypes.e.g. A comatose individual should never bereferred to as a “vegetable” or “invalid” inproper ethical debates.
    39. 39. Ethical Dilemmas
    40. 40. Ethical DilemmasA dilemma arises whenever a choice has to bemade in which something good has to be givenup or something bad has to be suffered nomatter what is chosen.An ethical dilemma forces us to choose in a waythat involves breaking some ethical norm orcontradiction some ethical value.
    41. 41. Ethical Dilemmas
    42. 42. Ethical Dilemmas Remember that what on first glance seems to be anethical dilemma with no happy solutions might not be. Always assume that there are more options than just two. Then try to think of all the factors that bear on the issue at hand.
    43. 43. Ethical Dilemmas Remember that what on first glance seems to be anethical dilemma with no happy solutions might not be. Always assume that there are more options than just two. Then try to think of all the factors that bear on the issue at hand. Not all ethical dilemmas involve choosing between two happy options. Sometimes an ethical dilemmainvolves having to choose between two actions, both of which are undesirable options.
    44. 44. Values Vs. Preferences
    45. 45. Values Vs. PreferencesValue: is something that has worth, at least for somepeople. It points out a good that we should go aftereither because it is valuable in itself (what ethicists callan “intrinsic” value e.g. happiness) or because it is away to reach some other value or good (what ethicistscall an “instrumental” value e.g. money).Personal Preferences: Are personal likes anddislikes that aide individuals in making decisions oreven behaving accordingly.
    46. 46. Values Vs. Preferences
    47. 47. Values Vs. Preferences(1) Values are the result of evaluations, or valuejudgements. Evaluations judge things, situations, andactions along a scale ranging from good to bad.
    48. 48. Values Vs. Preferences(1) Values are the result of evaluations, or valuejudgements. Evaluations judge things, situations, andactions along a scale ranging from good to bad.(2) A value is held by some group of persons. This iscrucial, because it shows how values are differentfrom personal preferences.
    49. 49. Values Vs. Preferences(1) Values are the result of evaluations, or valuejudgements. Evaluations judge things, situations, andactions along a scale ranging from good to bad.(2) A value is held by some group of persons. This iscrucial, because it shows how values are differentfrom personal preferences.(3) Values are different from facts since values have asocietal efficacious nature that ethically voided facts donot.
    50. 50. Values Vs. Preferences(1) Values are the result of evaluations, or valuejudgements. Evaluations judge things, situations, andactions along a scale ranging from good to bad.(2) A value is held by some group of persons. This iscrucial, because it shows how values are differentfrom personal preferences.(3) Values are different from facts since values have asocietal efficacious nature that ethically voided facts donot.(4) Some values possess intrinsic worth.
    51. 51. Values Vs. Preferences
    52. 52. Values Vs. Preferences Ethical values come in degrees from less to more, but not allvalues fit this model: others are “all or nothing,” which means you either have them or you do not. (e.g. human rights)
    53. 53. Values Vs. Preferences Ethical values come in degrees from less to more, but not allvalues fit this model: others are “all or nothing,” which means you either have them or you do not. (e.g. human rights) When stating a personal preference, one is describing a factabout themselves, but when stating a value, although it mightseem the same as stating a fact, one is really saying something more in that others should value it as well.
    54. 54. The Big Picture and Meta-Ethics
    55. 55. The Big Picture and Meta-EthicsMeta-ethics concerns itself with the meaning ofethical judgments and/or prescriptions and withthe notion of which properties, if any, areresponsible for the truth or validity thereof.
    56. 56. The Big Picture and Meta-EthicsMeta-ethics concerns itself with the meaning ofethical judgments and/or prescriptions and withthe notion of which properties, if any, areresponsible for the truth or validity thereof.Meta-ethics emphasizes that one should concernoneself with second order questions about ethics;specifically the semantics, epistemology,and ontology of ethics.
    57. 57. Ethical Semantics
    58. 58. Ethical SemanticsThe ethical semantics (dealing with language and words)divides into descriptivism and non-descriptivism.
    59. 59. Ethical SemanticsThe ethical semantics (dealing with language and words)divides into descriptivism and non-descriptivism.Descriptivism: ethical language (including commands andduties) is a subdivision of descriptive language and has meaningin virtue of the same kind of properties as descriptivepropositions. (Ethical language has “power/efficaciousness”from its linguistic assertions and communicative basis)Ethicsis what it is described as...
    60. 60. Ethical SemanticsThe ethical semantics (dealing with language and words)divides into descriptivism and non-descriptivism.Descriptivism: ethical language (including commands andduties) is a subdivision of descriptive language and has meaningin virtue of the same kind of properties as descriptivepropositions. (Ethical language has “power/efficaciousness”from its linguistic assertions and communicative basis)Ethicsis what it is described as...Non-descriptivism: contends that ethical propositionsare irreducible in the sense that their meaning cannot beexplicated sufficiently in terms of descriptive truth-conditions. (Ethical language is not the only basis for its“power/ efficaciousness”) Ethics is more then its description..
    61. 61. Ethical Epistemology
    62. 62. Ethical EpistemologyThe epistemology of ethics divides into cognitivism andnon-cognitivism.
    63. 63. Ethical EpistemologyThe epistemology of ethics divides into cognitivism andnon-cognitivism.Non-Cognitivism: (stronger) Ethical claims reach beyond thescope of human cognition into areas such as consequences, utility,etc. (weaker) Ethics is concerned with actions rather than withthe knowledge involved in the actions.
    64. 64. Ethical EpistemologyThe epistemology of ethics divides into cognitivism andnon-cognitivism.Non-Cognitivism: (stronger) Ethical claims reach beyond thescope of human cognition into areas such as consequences, utility,etc. (weaker) Ethics is concerned with actions rather than withthe knowledge involved in the actions.Cognitivism: Ethics is essentially concerned with judgmentsof the same kind as knowledge judgments; namely aboutmatters of fact. (the ethical arena is fought in the mind/
    65. 65. Ontological Ethics
    66. 66. Ontological EthicsThe ontology of ethics is concerned with value-bearingproperties or any ideas, objects, and aspects of reality that cangive ethics a fundamental grounding in reality.
    67. 67. Ontological EthicsThe ontology of ethics is concerned with value-bearingproperties or any ideas, objects, and aspects of reality that cangive ethics a fundamental grounding in reality.Non-descriptivists (Ethics is not what it does but more) andnon-cognitivists (Ethics: mind has limited or no role) willgenerally tend to argue that ethical claims do not require a specificontology. (Called “anti-realism” or ethics that has no grounding inthe world. Subjective and Relative...)
    68. 68. Ontological EthicsThe ontology of ethics is concerned with value-bearingproperties or any ideas, objects, and aspects of reality that cangive ethics a fundamental grounding in reality.Non-descriptivists (Ethics is not what it does but more) andnon-cognitivists (Ethics: mind has limited or no role) willgenerally tend to argue that ethical claims do not require a specificontology. (Called “anti-realism” or ethics that has no grounding inthe world. Subjective and Relative...)Realists have to explain what kinds of entities, properties, or statesare relevant for ethics and why they have the normative statuscharacteristic of ethics. (They have to defend what they consider to
    69. 69. Normative Ethics
    70. 70. Normative EthicsNormative Ethics: The study of what makes actions right andwrong. (Why is child abuse wrong? The answer is an argued norm/average oftolerated or intolerable behavior (guideline theory) that can be applied to othermoral circumstances)
    71. 71. Normative EthicsNormative Ethics: The study of what makes actions right andwrong. (Why is child abuse wrong? The answer is an argued norm/average oftolerated or intolerable behavior (guideline theory) that can be applied to othermoral circumstances)Normative theories offer an overarching moral principle towhich one could appeal in resolving difficult moral decisions.
    72. 72. Normative EthicsNormative Ethics: The study of what makes actions right andwrong. (Why is child abuse wrong? The answer is an argued norm/average oftolerated or intolerable behavior (guideline theory) that can be applied to othermoral circumstances)Normative theories offer an overarching moral principle towhich one could appeal in resolving difficult moral decisions.During the middle of the 20th century, the study of normativeethics declined as meta-ethics grew in prominence. This focus onmeta-ethics was in part caused by an intense linguistic focus inanalytic philosophy and by the popularity of logical positivism.
    73. 73. Normative EthicsNormative Ethics: The study of what makes actions right andwrong. (Why is child abuse wrong? The answer is an argued norm/average oftolerated or intolerable behavior (guideline theory) that can be applied to othermoral circumstances)Normative theories offer an overarching moral principle towhich one could appeal in resolving difficult moral decisions.During the middle of the 20th century, the study of normativeethics declined as meta-ethics grew in prominence. This focus onmeta-ethics was in part caused by an intense linguistic focus inanalytic philosophy and by the popularity of logical positivism.There is currently a renewed interest in normative ethics and astepping away from linguistic focuses and/or cognitive-ethics.
    74. 74. Normative Ethics
    75. 75. Normative Ethics Norms are regular ways of doing things thateverybody agrees on. Unlike other conventions, ethicalnorms regulate all aspects of our lives in ways that are crucial for the existence of society. No norms, no society.
    76. 76. Sentencing Vs. CulpabilitySentencing is when an individual is decidedly deserving ofpunishment in a court of law for breaking a law that entailseither an immoral act or a criminal act that is not immoralhas been committed. Culpability is the degree of blame-worthiness that doesnot necessarily mean that the guilty party should bepunished according to the law, though they might be. Murder can be both immoral and criminal. Culpable andsentence-able.Underage smoking may just be immoral and not criminalpending the ethical theory used. Culpable but not sentence-able.
    77. 77. Which Ethical Norms should be put into
    78. 78. Which Ethical Norms should be put into Should drinking in public be illegal? Is it unethical?
    79. 79. Which Ethical Norms should be put into Should drinking in public be illegal? Is it unethical? Should women legally be allowed to go topless as men do? Is it unethical?
    80. 80. Which Ethical Norms should be put into Should drinking in public be illegal? Is it unethical? Should women legally be allowed to go topless as men do? Is it unethical? Should sex with animals be illegal? Is it unethical?
    81. 81. Which Ethical Norms should be put into Should drinking in public be illegal? Is it unethical? Should women legally be allowed to go topless as men do? Is it unethical? Should sex with animals be illegal? Is it unethical? Should transgender surgery be illegal? Is it unethical?
    82. 82. Which Ethical Norms should be put into
    83. 83. Which Ethical Norms should be put into Moral consciousness permits people to determine thedifferences between personal preferences, values, ethical, unethical, legal, and illegal actions as well as any action that is a mixture of all or some of the stated options.
    84. 84. Which Ethical Norms should be put into
    85. 85. Which Ethical Norms should be put into Moral conscience consists of the ability to almostautomatically empathize with others, to identify yourself with them, and to feel their pain as if it were your own.
    86. 86. Which Ethical Norms should be put into Moral conscience consists of the ability to almostautomatically empathize with others, to identify yourself with them, and to feel their pain as if it were your own. The moral attitude is simply a kind of mental projection, a putting yourself in the shoes of the other. Its a way of mentally registering the fact that the needs of others matter as much to them as your needs matter to you .
    87. 87. Which Ethical Norms should be put into Moral conscience consists of the ability to almostautomatically empathize with others, to identify yourself with them, and to feel their pain as if it were your own. The moral attitude is simply a kind of mental projection, a putting yourself in the shoes of the other. Its a way of mentally registering the fact that the needs of others matter as much to them as your needs matter to you .Having registered this fact, the moral person concludes thateach person’s needs deserve to be weighed equally, and that pursuing one’s goals at the expense of others’ is wrong. Emotivism: Feelings determine right or wrong.
    88. 88. Which Ethical Norms should be put into
    89. 89. Which Ethical Norms should be put intoLaws are meant to guide behavior of a society, why are certain behaviors tolerable to some and intolerable to others?
    90. 90. Which Ethical Norms should be put intoLaws are meant to guide behavior of a society, why are certain behaviors tolerable to some and intolerable to others? In the end there is always the question of who or whathas the moral authority to guide human behavior on an individual, societal, or global scale.
    91. 91. The Point of Doing Ethics
    92. 92. The Point of Doing EthicsThe point of doing ethics is not to get people tochange their mind about things, or to get them to thinkabout ethics in one particular way. It is to get people tothink about why they value certain things -like charity-and why they think it is right to practice them and howto solve ethical dilemmas.
    93. 93. The Point of Doing EthicsThe point of doing ethics is not to get people tochange their mind about things, or to get them to thinkabout ethics in one particular way. It is to get people tothink about why they value certain things -like charity-and why they think it is right to practice them and howto solve ethical dilemmas.Sometimes thinking through one’s beliefs and theirreasons for having them will lead them to concludethat they were wrong, that they do not agree withdifferent reasons, and that maybe they need to changetheir beliefs and actions accordingly.
    94. 94. The Point of Doing Ethics
    95. 95. The Point of Doing Ethics Dogmatism: Is the stubborn refusal to consider challenges to your own ethical point- of-view. It is also the out-of-handrejection of competing ethical theories or explanations.
    96. 96. Authority and Ethics
    97. 97. Authority and EthicsWhy is murder wrong?
    98. 98. Authority and EthicsWhy is murder wrong? A. Because your parents said so.
    99. 99. Authority and EthicsWhy is murder wrong? A. Because your parents said so. B. Because your pastor/rabbi/priest said so.
    100. 100. Authority and EthicsWhy is murder wrong? A. Because your parents said so. B. Because your pastor/rabbi/priest said so. C. Because your best friend said so.
    101. 101. Authority and EthicsWhy is murder wrong? A. Because your parents said so. B. Because your pastor/rabbi/priest said so. C. Because your best friend said so. D. Because you read it in the paper.
    102. 102. Authority and EthicsWhy is murder wrong? A. Because your parents said so. B. Because your pastor/rabbi/priest said so. C. Because your best friend said so. D. Because you read it in the paper. E. Because the organization you belong to is against it.
    103. 103. Authority and EthicsWhy is murder wrong? A. Because your parents said so. B. Because your pastor/rabbi/priest said so. C. Because your best friend said so. D. Because you read it in the paper. E. Because the organization you belong to is against it. F. Because God said so.
    104. 104. Authority and EthicsWhy is murder wrong? A. Because your parents said so. B. Because your pastor/rabbi/priest said so. C. Because your best friend said so. D. Because you read it in the paper. E. Because the organization you belong to is against it. F. Because God said so. G. Because you flipped a coin.
    105. 105. Authority and EthicsWhy is murder wrong? A. Because your parents said so. B. Because your pastor/rabbi/priest said so. C. Because your best friend said so. D. Because you read it in the paper. E. Because the organization you belong to is against it. F. Because God said so. G. Because you flipped a coin. H. Because your doctor said so.
    106. 106. Authority and Ethics
    107. 107. Authority and EthicsReasons why authority is not the best solution forethical dilemmas and moral principles to live by.
    108. 108. Authority and EthicsReasons why authority is not the best solution forethical dilemmas and moral principles to live by.1. What makes the authority an authority on morals andethics? A specific authority, say parent or doctor, has no generalauthority in the realm of enforcing/mandating ethical values.Authorities on this level are relativistic.
    109. 109. Authority and EthicsReasons why authority is not the best solution forethical dilemmas and moral principles to live by.1. What makes the authority an authority on morals andethics? A specific authority, say parent or doctor, has no generalauthority in the realm of enforcing/mandating ethical values.Authorities on this level are relativistic.2. Believing something only because someone important toyou said so is no real reason for accepting a moral principleor a solution to an ethical dilemma.
    110. 110. Authority and EthicsReasons why authority is not the best solution forethical dilemmas and moral principles to live by.1. What makes the authority an authority on morals andethics? A specific authority, say parent or doctor, has no generalauthority in the realm of enforcing/mandating ethical values.Authorities on this level are relativistic.2. Believing something only because someone important toyou said so is no real reason for accepting a moral principleor a solution to an ethical dilemma.3. One never should have to accept all the beliefs andconvictions of any one particular group even if to maintaina membership with them. (Were all Germans Nazis?)
    111. 111. Authority and Ethics Authority, however, is not always bad to cite in ethicaldebates and should be given or recognized according to the capacity, specialization, and power relevant to the subject in question.
    112. 112. Authority and Ethics Authority, however, is not always bad to cite in ethicaldebates and should be given or recognized according to the capacity, specialization, and power relevant to the subject in question.
    113. 113. Authority and Ethics Authority, however, is not always bad to cite in ethicaldebates and should be given or recognized according to the capacity, specialization, and power relevant to the subject in question. The Catholic Church believes itself to be a moralauthority. Should people recognize this claim? Why or why not?
    114. 114. Partiality and Impartiality
    115. 115. Partiality and ImpartialityYou are standing outside a burning building andtrapped inside are the following three people ofwhich you only have enough time to save one, theyare all equidistant from your entrance:
    116. 116. Partiality and ImpartialityYou are standing outside a burning building andtrapped inside are the following three people ofwhich you only have enough time to save one, theyare all equidistant from your entrance: 1. Your beloved mother.
    117. 117. Partiality and ImpartialityYou are standing outside a burning building andtrapped inside are the following three people ofwhich you only have enough time to save one, theyare all equidistant from your entrance: 1. Your beloved mother. 2. A Scientist close to finding a cure for cancer.
    118. 118. Partiality and ImpartialityYou are standing outside a burning building andtrapped inside are the following three people ofwhich you only have enough time to save one, theyare all equidistant from your entrance: 1. Your beloved mother. 2. A Scientist close to finding a cure for cancer. 3. A highly intelligent ape that holds the secret to the missing link in evolution.
    119. 119. Partiality and ImpartialityYou are standing outside a burning building andtrapped inside are the following three people ofwhich you only have enough time to save one, theyare all equidistant from your entrance: 1. Your beloved mother. 2. A Scientist close to finding a cure for cancer. 3. A highly intelligent ape that holds the secret to the missing link in evolution. Which would you choose to save and why?
    120. 120. Partiality and Impartiality
    121. 121. Partiality and ImpartialityPartial Reasons: are reasons that show our biases foror against persons based on our relationships with them or other personal preferences. e.g. Racists are partial inthat they treat one type of person different then another based upon personal preferences.
    122. 122. Partiality and Impartiality Impartial Reasons: are reasons not at all based upon subjective decisions in any dealings with other people. A doctor should be impartial and treat all of his patientsequally and with the same amount of care and dedication. Partial Reasons: are reasons that show our biases for or against persons based on our relationships with them or other personal preferences. e.g. Racists are partial in that they treat one type of person different then another based upon personal preferences.
    123. 123. Partiality and Impartiality Impartial Reasons: are reasons not at all based upon subjective decisions in any dealings with other people. A doctor should be impartial and treat all of his patientsequally and with the same amount of care and dedication.
    124. 124. Partiality and Impartiality
    125. 125. Partiality and Impartiality To what extent is this possible in real life?1. Suppose a doctor working in the ER comes across his daughter after a bad car accident and has to choose between her and her friend to start treatment?2. Suppose that a judge has to sentence a war criminal for crimes against humanity? Can he be impartial?
    126. 126. Skepticism Vs. Cynicism
    127. 127. Skepticism Vs. CynicismSkepticism: Refers to both a philosophicalstance and an everyday attitude of doubting- butnot necessarily denying- the truth of commonlyheld beliefs. It entails the willing suspension ofbelief, and requires that reason is applied to allideas that one is presented with.
    128. 128. Skepticism Vs. CynicismSkepticism: Refers to both a philosophicalstance and an everyday attitude of doubting- butnot necessarily denying- the truth of commonlyheld beliefs. It entails the willing suspension ofbelief, and requires that reason is applied to allideas that one is presented with.Cynicism: Is the view that we can never come toan appropriate understanding of what is right andwrong. It holds that all ethical principles andtheories are flawed and it is pointless to do ethics.
    129. 129. The Moral Act:Evaluating different theories and human nature... Handouts Moral Act Ill Father Inglorious Bastards
    130. 130. Basic God Talk and Ethics
    131. 131. Basic God Talk and EthicsGod = Omnipotent, Omniscient, Personal,Truth, Goodness, Entity and Creator ofTemporal Reality (ex nihilo). e.g. squared circle,bolder so heavy?
    132. 132. Basic God Talk and EthicsGod = Omnipotent, Omniscient, Personal,Truth, Goodness, Entity and Creator ofTemporal Reality (ex nihilo). e.g. squared circle,bolder so heavy?What is the connection between God and Ethics?
    133. 133. Basic God Talk and EthicsGod = Omnipotent, Omniscient, Personal,Truth, Goodness, Entity and Creator ofTemporal Reality (ex nihilo). e.g. squared circle,bolder so heavy?What is the connection between God and Ethics?Can a nonbeliever be ethical?
    134. 134. Basic God Talk and EthicsGod = Omnipotent, Omniscient, Personal,Truth, Goodness, Entity and Creator ofTemporal Reality (ex nihilo). e.g. squared circle,bolder so heavy?What is the connection between God and Ethics?Can a nonbeliever be ethical?Can ethics be based on the Bible?
    135. 135. Basic God Talk and EthicsGod = Omnipotent, Omniscient, Personal,Truth, Goodness, Entity and Creator ofTemporal Reality (ex nihilo). e.g. squared circle,bolder so heavy?What is the connection between God and Ethics?Can a nonbeliever be ethical?Can ethics be based on the Bible?Were do believers stand in relation to non-believers ethically?
    136. 136. Basic God Talk and Ethics
    137. 137. Basic God Talk and EthicsWhat is the true relationship between Good and Evil?
    138. 138. Basic God Talk and EthicsWhat is the true relationship between Good and Evil? 1. Good = Evil (Identity vs Power)
    139. 139. Basic God Talk and EthicsWhat is the true relationship between Good and Evil? 1. Good = Evil (Identity vs Power) 2. Good < Evil
    140. 140. Basic God Talk and EthicsWhat is the true relationship between Good and Evil? 1. Good = Evil (Identity vs Power) 2. Good < Evil 3. Good > Evil
    141. 141. Basic God Talk and Ethics What is the true relationship between Good and Evil? 1. Good = Evil (Identity vs Power) 2. Good < Evil 3. Good > Evil4. Good and Evil need each other to exist. (Symbiotic / Yin Yang)
    142. 142. Basic God Talk and Ethics What is the true relationship between Good and Evil? 1. Good = Evil (Identity vs Power) 2. Good < Evil 3. Good > Evil 4. Good and Evil need each other to exist. (Symbiotic / Yin Yang)*If they are equal in identity they cancel each other out because good is bad and bad is good.
    143. 143. Basic God Talk and Ethics
    144. 144. Basic God Talk and EthicsIs good the lack of evil or evil the lack of good? (Entailing only one really exists?)
    145. 145. Basic God Talk and EthicsIs good the lack of evil or evil the lack of good? (Entailing only one really exists?) Can there ever be too much Evil?
    146. 146. Basic God Talk and EthicsIs good the lack of evil or evil the lack of good? (Entailing only one really exists?) Can there ever be too much Evil? Can there ever be too much Good?
    147. 147. Basic God Talk and Ethics Is good the lack of evil or evil the lack of good? (Entailing only one really exists?) Can there ever be too much Evil? Can there ever be too much Good?How can they be symbiotic or equal if too much gooddoes not make any sense and too much evil is always intolerable?
    148. 148. Basic God Talk and Ethics Is good the lack of evil or evil the lack of good? (Entailing only one really exists?) Can there ever be too much Evil? Can there ever be too much Good?How can they be symbiotic or equal if too much gooddoes not make any sense and too much evil is always intolerable?The Catholic Church holds that Good is greater thanEvil, Goodness is its own entity while evil is the lack of Good and depends on the good to exist: Coherent?
    149. 149. Divine Command Theory
    150. 150. Divine Command TheoryDivine Command Theory: is any ethical theorythat is centered around a belief in a God thatentails specific regulations of one’s behaviors,relationships with others, as well as with GodHimself.It is good because God says it and badbecause God condemns it.
    151. 151. Divine Command Theory
    152. 152. Divine Command Theory Bad Argument 1.
    153. 153. Divine Command Theory Bad Argument 1.1. Acting ethically involves obeying some ethical norm.
    154. 154. Divine Command Theory Bad Argument 1.1. Acting ethically involves obeying some ethical norm.2. Ethical norms are a set of general commands that are supposed to be true for everyone, at all times and all places
    155. 155. Divine Command Theory Bad Argument 1.1. Acting ethically involves obeying some ethical norm.2. Ethical norms are a set of general commands that are supposed to be true for everyone, at all times and all places3. Humans can not be the authors of such commands, because then the commands would not be true for everyone everywhere.
    156. 156. Divine Command Theory Bad Argument 1.1. Acting ethically involves obeying some ethical norm.2. Ethical norms are a set of general commands that are supposed to be true for everyone, at all times and all places3. Humans can not be the authors of such commands, because then the commands would not be true for everyone everywhere.4. Whoever makes these commands must be eternal and exist everywhere at all times.
    157. 157. Divine Command Theory Bad Argument 1.1. Acting ethically involves obeying some ethical norm.2. Ethical norms are a set of general commands that are supposed to be true for everyone, at all times and all places3. Humans can not be the authors of such commands, because then the commands would not be true for everyone everywhere.4. Whoever makes these commands must be eternal and exist everywhere at all times.5. 1-4 entail that acting ethically involves following God’s Laws.
    158. 158. Divine Command Theory
    159. 159. Divine Command Theory Bad Argument 2.
    160. 160. Divine Command Theory Bad Argument 2.1. Most people would act unethically if they could get away with it.
    161. 161. Divine Command Theory Bad Argument 2.1. Most people would act unethically if they could get away with it.2. Fear of punishment and desire for reward are what keep people in check.
    162. 162. Divine Command Theory Bad Argument 2.1. Most people would act unethically if they could get away with it.2. Fear of punishment and desire for reward are what keep people in check.3. Earthly punishment and reward are not good enoughincentives, because people know they can get away with things as well as not receive a just reward.
    163. 163. Divine Command Theory Bad Argument 2.1. Most people would act unethically if they could get away with it.2. Fear of punishment and desire for reward are what keep people in check.3. Earthly punishment and reward are not good enoughincentives, because people know they can get away with things as well as not receive a just reward.4. What keeps most people in check is punishment and reward in a life hereafter.
    164. 164. Divine Command Theory Bad Argument 2.1. Most people would act unethically if they could get away with it.2. Fear of punishment and desire for reward are what keep people in check.3. Earthly punishment and reward are not good enoughincentives, because people know they can get away with things as well as not receive a just reward.4. What keeps most people in check is punishment and reward in a life hereafter.5. So most people would act unethically unless there is a God watching them for the after life.
    165. 165. Divine Morality...problems
    166. 166. Divine Morality...problemsAtheists and Agnostics have a hard timeaccepting GOD as the moral authority.
    167. 167. Divine Morality...problemsAtheists and Agnostics have a hard timeaccepting GOD as the moral authority.Appealing to God as the moral authority onlyworks for those who believe in that moralauthority.... true? or false?
    168. 168. Divine Morality...problemsAtheists and Agnostics have a hard timeaccepting GOD as the moral authority.Appealing to God as the moral authority onlyworks for those who believe in that moralauthority.... true? or false?Can God say that an immoral act is notimmoral? (e.g. Abraham killing his son.)
    169. 169. Divine Morality...problemsAtheists and Agnostics have a hard timeaccepting GOD as the moral authority.Appealing to God as the moral authority onlyworks for those who believe in that moralauthority.... true? or false?Can God say that an immoral act is notimmoral? (e.g. Abraham killing his son.)Besides the ten commandments...how is DivineCommand Theory practical on a daily basis?Bible interpretations?
    170. 170. Divine Morality...problems
    171. 171. Divine Morality...problemsWhat about fanatical religion and doing God’s will? Is there anything wrong or immoral about Jihad? Why or Why not?
    172. 172. Divine Morality...problems What about fanatical religion and doing God’s will? Is there anything wrong or immoral about Jihad? Why or Why not? Which religion is the one true religion? Can there be more than one religious truth for reality?Why or Why not? Which morality should one follow and why? !!!!
    173. 173. Why Obey God?
    174. 174. Why Obey God?1) heaven2) hell3) beauty4) love5) truth6) nobody better to follow7) God made me...8) God knows best...
    175. 175. Religion and Reality
    176. 176. Religion and Reality World View (Epistemology) + = Morality Truth (Ontology)Epistemology + Ontology = Correct OpinionEpistemology - Ontology = Incorrect Opinion
    177. 177. Faith or Reason
    178. 178. Faith or ReasonWhat is faith? The acceptance of certain answersconcerning reality that have yet to be, or may never be,proven or rationally established.
    179. 179. Faith or ReasonWhat is faith? The acceptance of certain answersconcerning reality that have yet to be, or may never be,proven or rationally established.What is reason? The logical application of understandingtowards the human experience of reality regarding both theknown and the unknown.
    180. 180. Faith or ReasonWhat is faith? The acceptance of certain answersconcerning reality that have yet to be, or may never be,proven or rationally established.What is reason? The logical application of understandingtowards the human experience of reality regarding both theknown and the unknown.Which should guide moral action more? WHY?Are Faithand Reason always at odds with each other? or are they twodifferent tools to approach reality?
    181. 181. Faith or ReasonWhat is faith? The acceptance of certain answersconcerning reality that have yet to be, or may never be,proven or rationally established.What is reason? The logical application of understandingtowards the human experience of reality regarding both theknown and the unknown.Which should guide moral action more? WHY?Are Faithand Reason always at odds with each other? or are they twodifferent tools to approach reality?Notes Summary...
    182. 182. The Moral Guide of Science...
    183. 183. The Moral Guide of Science...What does science have to offer the moralphilosopher?
    184. 184. The Moral Guide of Science...What does science have to offer the moralphilosopher?Are there genes that guide behavior good or bad?To what extent?
    185. 185. The Moral Guide of Science...What does science have to offer the moralphilosopher?Are there genes that guide behavior good or bad?To what extent?Most ethical arguments concern disagreementsabout facts. Science can help clarify those facts.Being properly informed is key to making rightdecisions.
    186. 186. The Moral Guide of Science...What does science have to offer the moralphilosopher?Are there genes that guide behavior good or bad?To what extent?Most ethical arguments concern disagreementsabout facts. Science can help clarify those facts.Being properly informed is key to making rightdecisions.Science offers fact evaluations to counteractfanatical sentiments and fanatical ethics.
    187. 187. The Moral Guide of Science...
    188. 188. The Moral Guide of Science...What can science offer to argue against fanatical religious groups such as the one’s guilty for 9/11?
    189. 189. The Moral Guide of Science...What can science offer to argue against fanatical religious groups such as the one’s guilty for 9/11? Can science find an objective ground to say they acted unethically despite their claim to do God’s will?
    190. 190. is/oughtDavid Hume
    191. 191. is/ought David HumeThe is / ought dilemma states that one cannot makeany ought statements from is facts.
    192. 192. is/ought David HumeThe is / ought dilemma states that one cannot makeany ought statements from is facts.The child is playing with friends.
    193. 193. is/ought David HumeThe is / ought dilemma states that one cannot makeany ought statements from is facts.The child is playing with friends.The child ought to share with his friends.
    194. 194. is/ought David HumeThe is / ought dilemma states that one cannot makeany ought statements from is facts.The child is playing with friends.The child ought to share with his friends.The ought statement is not grounded in the isstatement, but is a subjective/relative moraljudgment.
    195. 195. is/ought David HumeThe is / ought dilemma states that one cannot makeany ought statements from is facts.The child is playing with friends.The child ought to share with his friends.The ought statement is not grounded in the isstatement, but is a subjective/relative moraljudgment.The is statement is objective and factual and hasno efficacious relation to subjective ethical
    196. 196. is/oughtDavid Hume
    197. 197. is/ought David Hume Does science have anything to do with oughtstatements? or is science concealed to only factual is statements?
    198. 198. is/ought David Hume Does science have anything to do with oughtstatements? or is science concealed to only factual is statements? Bye bye ethics? or is there more to reality than science can show or argue?
    199. 199. The Naturalistic Fallacy G. E. MooreWhat is the definition of good without saying “this” or “that” is good?
    200. 200. The Naturalistic Fallacy G. E. Moore What is the definition of good without saying “this” or “that” is good? ...the term "good" (in the sense of intrinsic value) is indefinable, because it names a simple, non-natural property. It is, rather, "one of those innumerable objects of thought which are themselves incapable of definition, because they are the ultimate terms by reference to which whatever is capable of definition must be defined" (Principia Ethica § 10 ¶ 1). Many ethical philosophershave tried to prove some of their claims about ethics by appealing to an analysis ofthe meaning of the term "good"; they held that "good" can be defined in terms ofone or more natural properties which we already understand (as "pleasure", in the case of hedonists). Moore coined the term "naturalistic fallacy" to describe these arguments; he explains that the fallacy is also another type of fallacy, which we might call the"definitional fallacy". The fallacy is committed whenever a statement to the effect that some object has a simple indefinable property is misunderstood as a definition that gives the meaning of the simple indefinable property.
    201. 201. The Naturalistic Fallacy G. E. Moore…the assumption that because some quality or combinationof qualities invariably and necessarily accompanies the qualityof goodness, or is invariably and necessarily accompanied by it,or both, this quality or combination of qualities isidentical with goodness.If, for example, it is believed that whatever is pleasant is andmust be good, or that whatever is good is and must be pleasant,or both, it is committing the naturalistic fallacy to inferfrom this that goodness and pleasantness are one and the samequality. The naturalistic fallacy is the assumption that becausethe words good and, say, pleasant necessarily describe thesame objects, they must attribute the same quality to them.
    202. 202. The Naturalistic Fallacy G. E. MooreThe naturalistic fallacy is related to (and even confused with) the is-ought problem, which comes from HumesTreatise. The term is sometimes used loosely to describe arguments that claim to draw ethical conclusions from natural facts.
    203. 203. Can Science Go Too far?
    204. 204. Can Science Go Too far?Cloning, Genetic Engineering, etc... Frankenstein? Clonesfor organs? If there is no God is there anything to stopscientists from doing whatever they want whenever theywant as long as it is possible? (Nazi research finds cure...Do we use it?)
    205. 205. Can Science Go Too far?Cloning, Genetic Engineering, etc... Frankenstein? Clonesfor organs? If there is no God is there anything to stopscientists from doing whatever they want whenever theywant as long as it is possible? (Nazi research finds cure...Do we use it?)Plato argued all knowledge is technical expertise, includingknowledge of right and wrong. Are scientists justified inclaiming moral authority? Why or why not?
    206. 206. Can Science Go Too far?Cloning, Genetic Engineering, etc... Frankenstein? Clonesfor organs? If there is no God is there anything to stopscientists from doing whatever they want whenever theywant as long as it is possible? (Nazi research finds cure...Do we use it?)Plato argued all knowledge is technical expertise, includingknowledge of right and wrong. Are scientists justified inclaiming moral authority? Why or why not?Can ethics be placed on a firm foundation through science?or will it always be a matter of belief ? How far can sciencetake ethics?
    207. 207. Can Science Go Too far?Cloning, Genetic Engineering, etc... Frankenstein? Clonesfor organs? If there is no God is there anything to stopscientists from doing whatever they want whenever theywant as long as it is possible? (Nazi research finds cure...Do we use it?)Plato argued all knowledge is technical expertise, includingknowledge of right and wrong. Are scientists justified inclaiming moral authority? Why or why not?Can ethics be placed on a firm foundation through science?or will it always be a matter of belief ? How far can sciencetake ethics?Should ethics be done away with all together and let sciencejust lead the way? Why not?
    208. 208. Science and Religion
    209. 209. Science and ReligionWhy not both?
    210. 210. Science and ReligionWhy not both?The way to reconcile science and religion is tosay that science and ethics are different, butequally necessary, perspectives for viewing theworld. (Explain the elephant and the blind mice)
    211. 211. Science and ReligionWhy not both?The way to reconcile science and religion is tosay that science and ethics are different, butequally necessary, perspectives for viewing theworld. (Explain the elephant and the blind mice)In other words, science gives you one angle ofthe elephant, while religion another perspective,and ethics yet another perspective... They are alllooking at the same thing from a different viewpoint.
    212. 212. Science and Religion
    213. 213. Science and ReligionUnlike the scientific method, which stops where the cold facts begin, the method of moral reflection has no end.
    214. 214. Science and ReligionUnlike the scientific method, which stops where the cold facts begin, the method of moral reflection has no end.Man needs religion and ethics to give their lives meaning andpurpose. Science can tell us what the most efficient means are for achieving our ends, but it can’t tell us which ends are the right ones.
    215. 215. Science and ReligionUnlike the scientific method, which stops where the cold facts begin, the method of moral reflection has no end.Man needs religion and ethics to give their lives meaning andpurpose. Science can tell us what the most efficient means are for achieving our ends, but it can’t tell us which ends are the right ones. This is because the right ones are questions of value, not a question of fact.
    216. 216. Science and ReligionUnlike the scientific method, which stops where the cold facts begin, the method of moral reflection has no end.Man needs religion and ethics to give their lives meaning andpurpose. Science can tell us what the most efficient means are for achieving our ends, but it can’t tell us which ends are the right ones. This is because the right ones are questions of value, not a question of fact. Ethics and religion still need science because science tells us what can and cannot be said, argued, or, done.
    217. 217. Science and ReligionUnlike the scientific method, which stops where the cold facts begin, the method of moral reflection has no end.Man needs religion and ethics to give their lives meaning andpurpose. Science can tell us what the most efficient means are for achieving our ends, but it can’t tell us which ends are the right ones. This is because the right ones are questions of value, not a question of fact. Ethics and religion still need science because science tells us what can and cannot be said, argued, or, done. e.g. A way out of fanatical God justifications.
    218. 218. Ego Ethics
    219. 219. Ego Ethics“No matter what we do, we always act out ofself-interest: That even if we think we are actingfor charitable reasons, we are just plain wrong.”
    220. 220. Ego Ethics“No matter what we do, we always act out ofself-interest: That even if we think we are actingfor charitable reasons, we are just plain wrong.”“We should always act on our own self-interest =the best moral approach to the ethical life.”
    221. 221. Ego Ethics“No matter what we do, we always act out ofself-interest: That even if we think we are actingfor charitable reasons, we are just plain wrong.”“We should always act on our own self-interest =the best moral approach to the ethical life.”Is unselfishness possible? Is it even desirable?
    222. 222. Self-Interested?
    223. 223. Self-Interested?1) Helping little old ladies with heavy groceries.2) Putting coins in other peoples’ parking metersso they do not get parking tickets.3) Giving money to homeless people on thestreet.4) Grabbing a dog before it runs out into traffic.5)Raking up your neighbor’s leaves.6) Giving a ride to a friend to go somewhere.
    224. 224. Self-Interested?
    225. 225. Self-Interested?Is there a difference between acting with self-interest and acting selfishly?
    226. 226. Self-Interested?Is there a difference between acting with self-interest and acting selfishly?Self-Interest is acting upon one’s concerns everything considered.
    227. 227. Self-Interested?Is there a difference between acting with self-interest and acting selfishly?Self-Interest is acting upon one’s concerns everything considered.Selfishness is when one’s concerns out weigh those of others.
    228. 228. Psychological Egoism
    229. 229. Psychological EgoismStates that it is human nature to act selfishly. It ishardwired in our genes. All moral acts aremotivated by self-interest.
    230. 230. Psychological EgoismStates that it is human nature to act selfishly. It ishardwired in our genes. All moral acts aremotivated by self-interest.Can any action be interpreted as done solelybecause of self-interests?
    231. 231. Psychological EgoismStates that it is human nature to act selfishly. It ishardwired in our genes. All moral acts aremotivated by self-interest.Can any action be interpreted as done solelybecause of self-interests?People only do what they want to do...
    232. 232. Psychological EgoismStates that it is human nature to act selfishly. It ishardwired in our genes. All moral acts aremotivated by self-interest.Can any action be interpreted as done solelybecause of self-interests?People only do what they want to do... Mother Theresa was only doing what she wanted to do, nothing more to it.
    233. 233. Psychological EgoismStates that it is human nature to act selfishly. It ishardwired in our genes. All moral acts aremotivated by self-interest.Can any action be interpreted as done solelybecause of self-interests?People only do what they want to do... Mother Theresa was only doing what she wanted to do, nothing more to it.Doing good acts makes us feel reallygood about ourselves.
    234. 234. Psychological Egoism
    235. 235. Psychological EgoismPsychological egoists claim that:
    236. 236. Psychological Egoism Psychological egoists claim that:1. We only do things because we really want to, so we should not be praised for doing good acts.
    237. 237. Psychological Egoism Psychological egoists claim that: 1. We only do things because we really want to, so we should not be praised for doing good acts.2. We want the good feelings that come with doing good things, so doing good acts is really self-serving.
    238. 238. Psychological Egoism Psychological egoists claim that: 1. We only do things because we really want to, so we should not be praised for doing good acts.2. We want the good feelings that come with doing good things, so doing good acts is really self-serving.Do you agree? or see anything wrong with these claims?
    239. 239. Ethical Egoism
    240. 240. Ethical EgoismThere is an important difference betweenPsychological Egoism and Ethical Egoism.
    241. 241. Ethical EgoismThere is an important difference betweenPsychological Egoism and Ethical Egoism.Psychological Egoism makes claims abouthow we do behave: we act from self-interestedmotives.
    242. 242. Ethical EgoismThere is an important difference betweenPsychological Egoism and Ethical Egoism.Psychological Egoism makes claims abouthow we do behave: we act from self-interestedmotives.Ethical Egoism makes claims about how weshould behave: We should always act on ourown self-interest.
    243. 243. Ethical Egoism
    244. 244. Ethical EgoismEthical Egoists say we only have one duty, and that is to ourselves not others.
    245. 245. Ethical EgoismEthical Egoists say we only have one duty, and that is to ourselves not others. Ethical Egoism is an individualist theory. It starts with the individual’s rights and freedoms.
    246. 246. Ethical EgoismEthical Egoists say we only have one duty, and that is to ourselves not others. Ethical Egoism is an individualist theory. It starts with the individual’s rights and freedoms. The common good is not as important as individual goods.
    247. 247. Ethical EgoismEthical Egoists say we only have one duty, and that is to ourselves not others. Ethical Egoism is an individualist theory. It starts with the individual’s rights and freedoms. The common good is not as important as individual goods.Altruism is seen in this theory as bad and limits men because the individual is lost to another’s will or wants.
    248. 248. Ethical Egoism Ethical Egoists say we only have one duty, and that is to ourselves not others. Ethical Egoism is an individualist theory. It starts with the individual’s rights and freedoms. The common good is not as important as individual goods. Altruism is seen in this theory as bad and limits men because the individual is lost to another’s will or wants.You might do nice things for other people but only in so far as it helps you out in the long run.
    249. 249. Ethical Egoism Ethical Egoists say we only have one duty, and that is to ourselves not others. Ethical Egoism is an individualist theory. It starts with the individual’s rights and freedoms. The common good is not as important as individual goods. Altruism is seen in this theory as bad and limits men because the individual is lost to another’s will or wants.You might do nice things for other people but only in so far as it helps you out in the long run. What is the difference between hedonism and ethical egoism?
    250. 250. Ethical Egoism Ethical Egoists say we only have one duty, and that is to ourselves not others. Ethical Egoism is an individualist theory. It starts with the individual’s rights and freedoms. The common good is not as important as individual goods. Altruism is seen in this theory as bad and limits men because the individual is lost to another’s will or wants.You might do nice things for other people but only in so far as it helps you out in the long run. What is the difference between hedonism and ethical egoism? Pleasure vs Self-Interest?
    251. 251. Ethical Egoism Ethical Egoists say we only have one duty, and that is to ourselves not others. Ethical Egoism is an individualist theory. It starts with the individual’s rights and freedoms. The common good is not as important as individual goods. Altruism is seen in this theory as bad and limits men because the individual is lost to another’s will or wants.You might do nice things for other people but only in so far as it helps you out in the long run. What is the difference between hedonism and ethical egoism? Pleasure vs Self-Interest? Sometimes pleasure is not in my best Self-Interest.
    252. 252. Egoism: Pros
    253. 253. Egoism: ProsEthical Egoism is morally right because itencourages individuals to look out forthemselves. Since we know best what is in ourself-interests, ethical egoism is better thantheories that encourage us to “do for others”.
    254. 254. Egoism: ProsEthical Egoism is morally right because itencourages individuals to look out forthemselves. Since we know best what is in ourself-interests, ethical egoism is better thantheories that encourage us to “do for others”.Promoting altruism and charity is bad because itplaces the individual at the mercy of society. If wewant a society that is really all it can be, we need toencourage individuals to be great, and notsacrifice themselves for the common good. Greatsocieties are born of great individuals.
    255. 255. Objections:
    256. 256. Objections:Do people only do things because they really wantto?
    257. 257. Objections:Do people only do things because they really wantto?People do things all the time that they do not wantto do, rather they are done out of obligation.
    258. 258. Objections:Do people only do things because they really wantto?People do things all the time that they do not wantto do, rather they are done out of obligation.To say that people only do things they want to do isa truism and misses the point that people do nothave to do any particular action wether they wantto or not.
    259. 259. Objections:Do people only do things because they really wantto?People do things all the time that they do not wantto do, rather they are done out of obligation.To say that people only do things they want to do isa truism and misses the point that people do nothave to do any particular action wether they wantto or not.If there is an inner struggle to do something, perhapssometimes simply wanting to do a good thing is notenough. “Wants are not always so clear-cut”.
    260. 260. Objections:
    261. 261. Objections:Another objection states that if everyone is selfish there is no criteria to distinguish between good and bad people which is absurd. If everyone is selfish no one is “good”.
    262. 262. Objections:Another objection states that if everyone is selfish there is no criteria to distinguish between good and bad people which is absurd. If everyone is selfish no one is “good”. Mother Theresa’s wants were different from say a murder’s.
    263. 263. Objections: II
    264. 264. Objections: IIWhich comes first wanting that good feeling fordoing something good or wanting to do good forothers?
    265. 265. Objections: IIWhich comes first wanting that good feeling fordoing something good or wanting to do good forothers?The good feeling always follows good acts not theother way around.
    266. 266. Objections: IIWhich comes first wanting that good feeling fordoing something good or wanting to do good forothers?The good feeling always follows good acts not theother way around.Should there not be benefits for being a goodperson? Should people not be properly motivatedto be good?
    267. 267. Objections: II
    268. 268. Objections: IIOne major Theoretical Inconsistency:
    269. 269. Objections: II One major Theoretical Inconsistency: Since it is to one’s advantage that others not actegotistically, it follows that it would be immoral for one to publicly advocate ethical egoism.
    270. 270. Objections: II One major Theoretical Inconsistency: Since it is to one’s advantage that others not actegotistically, it follows that it would be immoral for one to publicly advocate ethical egoism. This combined with the idea of anti-social (individual over the group) mentality that it is insufficient to be properly called a “morality”.
    271. 271. Objections: II One major Theoretical Inconsistency: Since it is to one’s advantage that others not actegotistically, it follows that it would be immoral for one to publicly advocate ethical egoism. This combined with the idea of anti-social (individual over the group) mentality that it is insufficient to be properly called a “morality”. (Morality = Social Behavior rules of good and bad conduct.)
    272. 272. Ethical Subjectivism
    273. 273. Ethical SubjectivismEthical Subjectivism = does not tell us what isgood or bad, right or wrong. Rather, it tells usonly that what moral judgments come down to isan expression of opinion.
    274. 274. Ethical SubjectivismEthical Subjectivism = does not tell us what isgood or bad, right or wrong. Rather, it tells usonly that what moral judgments come down to isan expression of opinion.Ethical subjectivism makes you an expert on allmoral issues.
    275. 275. Ethical SubjectivismEthical Subjectivism = does not tell us what isgood or bad, right or wrong. Rather, it tells usonly that what moral judgments come down to isan expression of opinion.Ethical subjectivism makes you an expert on allmoral issues.Whatever an individual believes is right andwrong is right and wrong for that individual.There is no “higher” court of appeal.
    276. 276. Main Ideas: Subjectivism
    277. 277. Main Ideas: Subjectivism1. Ethical beliefs come down to feelings. Feelingsare subjective. (Emotivism)
    278. 278. Main Ideas: Subjectivism1. Ethical beliefs come down to feelings. Feelingsare subjective. (Emotivism)2. Individuals just do not agree on what is rightand wrong. (There is only opinion even amongtheories.)
    279. 279. Main Ideas: Subjectivism1. Ethical beliefs come down to feelings. Feelingsare subjective. (Emotivism)2. Individuals just do not agree on what is rightand wrong. (There is only opinion even amongtheories.)3. Ethical Beliefs are not objectively provable.One cannot prove that unicorns exist, not because they do not exist but becauseevidence always points to what is...
    280. 280. What Is Wrong With Subjectivism?
    281. 281. What Is Wrong With Subjectivism?Is it true that ethical beliefs are only based onindividual feelings? (What about reason, experience,imagination, etc...)
    282. 282. What Is Wrong With Subjectivism?Is it true that ethical beliefs are only based onindividual feelings? (What about reason, experience,imagination, etc...)To say morals only depend on individual feelings isan oversimplification of morality.
    283. 283. What Is Wrong With Subjectivism?Is it true that ethical beliefs are only based onindividual feelings? (What about reason, experience,imagination, etc...)To say morals only depend on individual feelings isan oversimplification of morality.Feelings can also be misguided when based uponfalse beliefs. Trolly dilemma: push man or hit train switch to save the group? Feelingschange the answer but not the consequences...
    284. 284. What Is Wrong With Subjectivism?Is it true that ethical beliefs are only based onindividual feelings? (What about reason, experience,imagination, etc...)To say morals only depend on individual feelings isan oversimplification of morality.Feelings can also be misguided when based uponfalse beliefs. Trolly dilemma: push man or hit train switch to save the group? Feelingschange the answer but not the consequences...The fact that you and I have different beliefs aboutmoral issues does not mean that there is no truth ofthe matter. (correct vs. incorrect opinion)
    285. 285. What Is Wrong With Subjectivism?
    286. 286. What Is Wrong With Subjectivism? There are also very good ways to weigharguments for or against something so that one can see that some moral positions are betterthan others despite the claim that the good and bad are matters of opinion.In other words, some opinions are better than others for objective reasons.
    287. 287. Ethical Subjectivism: A Contradiction
    288. 288. Ethical Subjectivism: A ContradictionA subjectivist has no choice but to hold both ofthe following positions:
    289. 289. Ethical Subjectivism: A ContradictionA subjectivist has no choice but to hold both ofthe following positions: Pornography is immoral.
    290. 290. Ethical Subjectivism: A ContradictionA subjectivist has no choice but to hold both ofthe following positions: Pornography is immoral. Pornography is not immoral.
    291. 291. Ethical Subjectivism: A ContradictionA subjectivist has no choice but to hold both ofthe following positions: Pornography is immoral. Pornography is not immoral.If two people hold these positions, and it is truefor both of them, then subjectivists have to saythat pornography is both moral and immoral.
    292. 292. Ethical Subjectivism: A ContradictionA subjectivist has no choice but to hold both ofthe following positions: Pornography is immoral. Pornography is not immoral.If two people hold these positions, and it is truefor both of them, then subjectivists have to saythat pornography is both moral and immoral.(A = -A) Is a logical contradiction.
    293. 293. Ethical Subjectivism: A Contradiction
    294. 294. Ethical Subjectivism: A ContradictionTherefore, do people that believe in ethical subjectivism have any moral beliefs at all?
    295. 295. Ethical Subjectivism: A ContradictionTherefore, do people that believe in ethical subjectivism have any moral beliefs at all?What good is a moral belief if you do not think others should follow it as well?
    296. 296. Ethical Subjectivism: A ContradictionTherefore, do people that believe in ethical subjectivism have any moral beliefs at all?What good is a moral belief if you do not think others should follow it as well? Remember ethics is social by nature.
    297. 297. Ethical Subjectivism: A Contradiction Therefore, do people that believe in ethical subjectivism have any moral beliefs at all? What good is a moral belief if you do not think others should follow it as well? Remember ethics is social by nature.Is “moral progress” possible? (e.g. End of Slavery?) Or is it only about how people feel about slavery?
    298. 298. Ethical Subjectivism: A Contradiction Therefore, do people that believe in ethical subjectivism have any moral beliefs at all? What good is a moral belief if you do not think others should follow it as well? Remember ethics is social by nature.Is “moral progress” possible? (e.g. End of Slavery?) Or is it only about how people feel about slavery? What good is ethics if everybody is right and nobody is wrong?
    299. 299. Ancient Greek Virtue Ethics
    300. 300. Ancient Greek Virtue EthicsA character trait is an ingrained part of your identity that habitually influences almost everything you do. Good traits are virtues and bad traits are vices.
    301. 301. Ancient Greek Virtue Ethics A character trait is an ingrained part of your identity that habitually influences almost everything you do. Good traits are virtues and bad traits are vices.People usually have several virtues and vices at the same time.If you have too many vices are you morally corrupt? Can one have to many virtues? Is that morally praise-able?
    302. 302. Ancient Greek Virtue Ethics
    303. 303. Ancient Greek Virtue EthicsVirtues: Vices: Generosity Selfishness Courage Cowardice Kindness Thoughtlessness Thoughtfulness Rudeness Politeness Malevolence Honesty Dishonesty Loyalty Infidelity
    304. 304. Ancient Greek Virtue Ethics
    305. 305. Ancient Greek Virtue Ethics For every virtue there are two vices one of excess and one of defect.A virtue is always the mean between two vices. Prudence is used to find the right virtue and degree of virtue for the right moment and person. Always act with moderation accordingly. e.g. Courage and the Soldier
    306. 306. Why be Virtuous?
    307. 307. Why be Virtuous?A life without virtue is an unhappy life.
    308. 308. Why be Virtuous?A life without virtue is an unhappy life.Pleasures and pains are fleeting states of mind.Happiness, by contrast, is a more enduring stateof fulfillment and well-being achievable onlythrough virtue. (Contra Hedonism)
    309. 309. Why be Virtuous?A life without virtue is an unhappy life.Pleasures and pains are fleeting states of mind.Happiness, by contrast, is a more enduring stateof fulfillment and well-being achievable onlythrough virtue. (Contra Hedonism)Happiness is an end-in-itself and perhaps themost important end-in-itself. (as opposed to anend-for-another end)
    310. 310. Why be Virtuous?
    311. 311. Why be Virtuous?Can a master criminal who never got caught for stealing billions of dollars ever be truly happy?
    312. 312. Why be Virtuous?Can a master criminal who never got caught for stealing billions of dollars ever be truly happy? Lacking essential non-criminal virtues, like honesty (honest criminal?) the master criminal and his gang of thugs will have a hard time trusting each other. Bad company is as bad company does.
    313. 313. Why be Virtuous?Can a master criminal who never got caught for stealing billions of dollars ever be truly happy? Lacking essential non-criminal virtues, like honesty (honest criminal?) the master criminal and his gang of thugs will have a hard time trusting each other. Bad company is as bad company does. The only way to get rid of vice - and get happy - is by becoming virtuous.
    314. 314. Objectivity and Virtues
    315. 315. Objectivity and VirtuesVirtues - good character traits - are good for thesoul, or make for the soul’s happiness - becausethey are directly linked to things that are goodfor us objectively.
    316. 316. Objectivity and VirtuesVirtues - good character traits - are good for thesoul, or make for the soul’s happiness - becausethey are directly linked to things that are goodfor us objectively.Virtues are universally recognized by almost allsocieties as human excellences.
    317. 317. Objectivity and VirtuesVirtues - good character traits - are good for thesoul, or make for the soul’s happiness - becausethey are directly linked to things that are goodfor us objectively.Virtues are universally recognized by almost allsocieties as human excellences.Man pursues excellence and virtue for their ownsake as they are the direct cause of “happiness.”
    318. 318. Habit: Virtue and Vice
    319. 319. Habit: Virtue and ViceOne’s character traits are so deeply embedded intheir personality that they cannot really controltheir expression. A man is the product of manyyears of training, experience, and habitformation.
    320. 320. Habit: Virtue and ViceOne’s character traits are so deeply embedded intheir personality that they cannot really controltheir expression. A man is the product of manyyears of training, experience, and habitformation.To what extent can a person break a habit? Areall habits “breakable”? Why are habits hard tobreak?
    321. 321. Habit: Virtue and ViceOne’s character traits are so deeply embedded intheir personality that they cannot really controltheir expression. A man is the product of manyyears of training, experience, and habitformation.To what extent can a person break a habit? Areall habits “breakable”? Why are habits hard tobreak?Can evil people, or at any rate peoplecommitting immoral acts, be virtuous?(Robin-hood)
    322. 322. Habit: Virtue and Vice
    323. 323. Habit: Virtue and ViceAny virtue can become a vice when in service of evil.Even more disturbing, a person who excels in all thevirtues can still commit horrible crimes out of sheer ignorance of what they are doing.
    324. 324. Habit: Virtue and Vice Any virtue can become a vice when in service of evil. Even more disturbing, a person who excels in all the virtues can still commit horrible crimes out of sheer ignorance of what they are doing. Aristotle recognized that we are all uniquely differentfrom one another in capacities and circumstances, so that the proper model of happiness for one person is not necessarily fit for another person.
    325. 325. “Natural Ethics”
    326. 326. “Natural Ethics”What is nature and what is natural?(Beaver vs Man)
    327. 327. “Natural Ethics”What is nature and what is natural?(Beaver vs Man)Can nature be used as a criteria to determine ifsomething is immoral?Does unnatural = immoral ?
    328. 328. “Natural Ethics”What is nature and what is natural?(Beaver vs Man)Can nature be used as a criteria to determine ifsomething is immoral?Does unnatural = immoral ?Is homosexuality wrong because it is unnatural?
    329. 329. “Natural Ethics”What is nature and what is natural?(Beaver vs Man)Can nature be used as a criteria to determine ifsomething is immoral?Does unnatural = immoral ?Is homosexuality wrong because it is unnatural?Is masturbation wrong because it defeats thepurpose of the natural end of sex? What aboutoral sex?
    330. 330. “Natural Ethics”
    331. 331. “Natural Ethics” Though there are difficulties in knowing what is naturaland unnatural, we will see that the idea of human nature plays a very important role in justifying basic rights that are universally valid for all human society. All men are natural and a part of nature.If there is a common ethical standard inherent in man’s nature it is universally defensible.
    332. 332. Nature as a Moral Order
    333. 333. Nature as a Moral OrderNature is orderly... (laws of physics, biology, etc.)
    334. 334. Nature as a Moral OrderNature is orderly... (laws of physics, biology, etc.)A dog has a natural behavior and so does ahuman. Therefore, it is unnatural and immoralfor a man to act like a dog.
    335. 335. Nature as a Moral OrderNature is orderly... (laws of physics, biology, etc.)A dog has a natural behavior and so does ahuman. Therefore, it is unnatural and immoralfor a man to act like a dog.In some instances when a living thing behavesabnormally we also attach a value judgment. Itis said to be sick or defective.
    336. 336. Nature as a Moral OrderNature is orderly... (laws of physics, biology, etc.)A dog has a natural behavior and so does ahuman. Therefore, it is unnatural and immoralfor a man to act like a dog.In some instances when a living thing behavesabnormally we also attach a value judgment. Itis said to be sick or defective.Defective = not being or acting as it is expected.
    337. 337. Nature as a Moral Order
    338. 338. Nature as a Moral OrderThe phrase “in order to” emphasizes the idea that there is some purpose or end that a behavior, person, or animal serves.
    339. 339. Nature as a Moral OrderThe phrase “in order to” emphasizes the idea that there is some purpose or end that a behavior, person, or animal serves. This means that function, nature, and morality are all intertwined in purpose and meaning.
    340. 340. Nature as a Moral OrderThe phrase “in order to” emphasizes the idea that there is some purpose or end that a behavior, person, or animal serves. This means that function, nature, and morality are all intertwined in purpose and meaning.But does everything have a purpose or not ?!?!?!
    341. 341. Nature as a Moral OrderThe phrase “in order to” emphasizes the idea that there is some purpose or end that a behavior, person, or animal serves. This means that function, nature, and morality are all intertwined in purpose and meaning.But does everything have a purpose or not ?!?!?! Does every kind of thing have it’s own nature, and does that nature prescribe a standard of perfection and purpose for it?
    342. 342. Nature as a Moral OrderThe phrase “in order to” emphasizes the idea that there is some purpose or end that a behavior, person, or animal serves. This means that function, nature, and morality are all intertwined in purpose and meaning.But does everything have a purpose or not ?!?!?! Does every kind of thing have it’s own nature, and does that nature prescribe a standard of perfection and purpose for it? What is “perfection” ?
    343. 343. Natural Morality
    344. 344. Natural MoralityPeople can develop their humanity more or lesswell. People ought to be as naturally human aspossible, and do nothing that lowers the humanstandard to any animalistic standard.
    345. 345. Natural MoralityPeople can develop their humanity more or lesswell. People ought to be as naturally human aspossible, and do nothing that lowers the humanstandard to any animalistic standard.For every kind of thing there is a standard ofwell-being, excellence, and virtue.
    346. 346. Natural MoralityPeople can develop their humanity more or lesswell. People ought to be as naturally human aspossible, and do nothing that lowers the humanstandard to any animalistic standard.For every kind of thing there is a standard ofwell-being, excellence, and virtue.Do dogs have virtues and excellences as dogs?
    347. 347. Natural MoralityPeople can develop their humanity more or lesswell. People ought to be as naturally human aspossible, and do nothing that lowers the humanstandard to any animalistic standard.For every kind of thing there is a standard ofwell-being, excellence, and virtue.Do dogs have virtues and excellences as dogs?Virtues are relative to the entities nature.
    348. 348. St. Thomas Aquinas
    349. 349. St. Thomas AquinasAquinas added Christianity into the Aristotelianview of nature.
    350. 350. St. Thomas AquinasAquinas added Christianity into the Aristotelianview of nature.However, in contrast to Aristotle, he held thatnature was created by God and reflected Hispurposes.
    351. 351. St. Thomas AquinasAquinas added Christianity into the Aristotelianview of nature.However, in contrast to Aristotle, he held thatnature was created by God and reflected Hispurposes.The ultimate purpose of life was not happinesshere on earth, but happiness in heaven and thehereafter.
    352. 352. Natural Perfection:Aquinas and Aristotle
    353. 353. Natural Perfection: Aquinas and AristotleAquinas accepted the following from Aristotle:
    354. 354. Natural Perfection: Aquinas and AristotleAquinas accepted the following from Aristotle:1. In nature everything has a purpose. Lower kinds ofnature exist in order to serve higher kinds. Each kindstrives to develop its own nature as much as possible.Humans strive to develop reason.
    355. 355. Natural Perfection: Aquinas and AristotleAquinas accepted the following from Aristotle:1. In nature everything has a purpose. Lower kinds ofnature exist in order to serve higher kinds. Each kindstrives to develop its own nature as much as possible.Humans strive to develop reason.2. Because every living thing has a nature that isappropriate to the kind of thing it is, failure to developthis nature to its fullest extent is an imperfection. It isimmoral to be imperfect because higher perfectionsdepend upon lower entities’ perfections.
    356. 356. Natural Perfection:Aquinas and Aristotle
    357. 357. Natural Perfection: Aquinas and Aristotle 3. Nature and its moral laws are knowable throughcommon sense and reason. Every human being naturallypossesses common sense and reason, everyone in principle can know nature’s moral laws, which are one and the same for all people.

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