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Research Proposal:Research Proposal:
The Influence of TransparencyThe Influence of Transparency
on the Leaders' Beh...
2 - 17
Main parts to be covered in this research proposal:Main parts to be covered in this research proposal:
Transparency...
3 - 17
1. Introduction1. Introduction
Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours
1.1 Background1.1 Background
●● ““We live in an...
4 - 17
1. Introduction1. Introduction
Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours
1.2 Problem Statement1.2 Problem Statement
●● T...
5 - 17
1. Introduction1. Introduction
Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours
1.3 Research Questions1.3 Research Questions
1)...
6 - 17
1. Introduction1. Introduction
Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours
1.5 Research Significance1.5 Research Significa...
7 - 17
2. Review of Literature2. Review of Literature
Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours
2.1 The Concept of Transparency...
8 - 17
2. Review of Literature2. Review of Literature
Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours
2.2 Concepts related to the Lea...
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2. Review of Literature2. Review of Literature
Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours
2.32.3 Behaviors of a Transpare...
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2. Review of Literature2. Review of Literature
Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours
2.4 Relationship between Trans...
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Figure 2.1: Research framework/Theoretical frameworkFigure 2.1: Research framework/Theoretical framework
2. Review...
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2. Review of Literature2. Review of Literature
Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours
2.6 Research Hypotheses2.6 Res...
13 - 17
3. Research Methodology3. Research Methodology
Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours
3.1 Research Design3.1 Researc...
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3. Research Methodology3. Research Methodology
Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours
3.2 Research Location3.2 Resea...
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3. Research Methodology3. Research Methodology
Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours
3.4 Research Instrument3.4 Res...
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3. Research Methodology3. Research Methodology
Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours
3.5 Data Collection and Analys...
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Thank You forThank You for
Your Attention …Your Attention …
Eyad Al-Samman, 2012Eyad Al-Samman, 2012
OUM-YemenOUM-...
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The Influence of Transparency on leaders behaviors

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  1. 1. 1 - 17 Research Proposal:Research Proposal: The Influence of TransparencyThe Influence of Transparency on the Leaders' Behaviorson the Leaders' Behaviors A Study Among the EmployeesA Study Among the Employees of the Ministry of Finance, Yemenof the Ministry of Finance, Yemen BMBRBMBR 51035103 March 2012 Supervised by: Dr. Murad Al-Nashmi Presented by: Eyad Al-Samman I.D.#: 201010047
  2. 2. 2 - 17 Main parts to be covered in this research proposal:Main parts to be covered in this research proposal: Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours 1.1 Background1.1 Background 1.2 Problem statement1.2 Problem statement 1.3 Research question1.3 Research question 1.4 Research objectives1.4 Research objectives 1.5 Research significance1.5 Research significance 1.1 Background1.1 Background 1.2 Problem statement1.2 Problem statement 1.3 Research question1.3 Research question 1.4 Research objectives1.4 Research objectives 1.5 Research significance1.5 Research significance IntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroduction1 1.1 The concept of transparency1.1 The concept of transparency 1.2 Dimensions and forms of Transparency1.2 Dimensions and forms of Transparency 1.3 Concepts related to leaders’ behaviours1.3 Concepts related to leaders’ behaviours 1.4 Definition and behaviours of a transparent leader1.4 Definition and behaviours of a transparent leader 1.5 Relationship between transparency and leaders’ behaviours1.5 Relationship between transparency and leaders’ behaviours 1.6 Research framework1.6 Research framework 1.7 Research hypotheses1.7 Research hypotheses 1.1 The concept of transparency1.1 The concept of transparency 1.2 Dimensions and forms of Transparency1.2 Dimensions and forms of Transparency 1.3 Concepts related to leaders’ behaviours1.3 Concepts related to leaders’ behaviours 1.4 Definition and behaviours of a transparent leader1.4 Definition and behaviours of a transparent leader 1.5 Relationship between transparency and leaders’ behaviours1.5 Relationship between transparency and leaders’ behaviours 1.6 Research framework1.6 Research framework 1.7 Research hypotheses1.7 Research hypotheses Literature ReviewLiterature ReviewLiterature ReviewLiterature Review2 1.1 Research design1.1 Research design 1.2 Research location1.2 Research location 1.3 Unit of analysis1.3 Unit of analysis 1.4 Population and sampling1.4 Population and sampling 1.5 Instruments1.5 Instruments 1.6 Data collection1.6 Data collection 1.7 Data analysis techniques1.7 Data analysis techniques 1.1 Research design1.1 Research design 1.2 Research location1.2 Research location 1.3 Unit of analysis1.3 Unit of analysis 1.4 Population and sampling1.4 Population and sampling 1.5 Instruments1.5 Instruments 1.6 Data collection1.6 Data collection 1.7 Data analysis techniques1.7 Data analysis techniques MethodologyMethodologyMethodologyMethodology3
  3. 3. 3 - 17 1. Introduction1. Introduction Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours 1.1 Background1.1 Background ●● ““We live in an age ofWe live in an age of transparencytransparency.”.” (Kristin Lord, 2006)(Kristin Lord, 2006) ●● Transparency, if applied appropriately andTransparency, if applied appropriately and understood comprehensively by all members of anunderstood comprehensively by all members of an organization, can:organization, can: - Build trust between employees and leaders.- Build trust between employees and leaders. - Enhance the behaviors that leaders have.- Enhance the behaviors that leaders have. - Create an ambiance of candor and frankness.- Create an ambiance of candor and frankness. ●● The behaviors of leaders who work and influenceThe behaviors of leaders who work and influence other followers in private or government entities canother followers in private or government entities can be related with the level of applied transparency inbe related with the level of applied transparency in these entities.these entities.
  4. 4. 4 - 17 1. Introduction1. Introduction Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours 1.2 Problem Statement1.2 Problem Statement ●● The aim of this research is to analyze andThe aim of this research is to analyze and evaluate the relationship betweenevaluate the relationship between transparencytransparency andand leaders' behaviorsleaders' behaviors workingworking in the Ministry of Finance in Yemen as ain the Ministry of Finance in Yemen as a government entity.government entity. ●● Through a behavioral perspective, thisThrough a behavioral perspective, this study will be designed tostudy will be designed to relate the leaders’relate the leaders’ behaviorsbehaviors andand the leaders’ ability to fosterthe leaders’ ability to foster organizational transparencyorganizational transparency..
  5. 5. 5 - 17 1. Introduction1. Introduction Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours 1.3 Research Questions1.3 Research Questions 1) Do transparency dimensions, adopted in a government1) Do transparency dimensions, adopted in a government entity, haveentity, have relationshiprelationship with the leaders' behaviors?with the leaders' behaviors? 1.4 Research Objectives1.4 Research Objectives 1) To determine weather the1) To determine weather the informational transparencyinformational transparency isis related to therelated to the leaders' behaviorsleaders' behaviors.. 2) Which one of the transparency dimensions has2) Which one of the transparency dimensions has moremore influenceinfluence on the leaders' behaviors?on the leaders' behaviors? 2) To determine weather the2) To determine weather the participatory transparencyparticipatory transparency isis related to therelated to the leaders' behaviorsleaders' behaviors.. 3) To determine weather the3) To determine weather the accountability transparencyaccountability transparency isis related to therelated to the leaders' behaviorsleaders' behaviors.. 4) To determine weather the4) To determine weather the secretive transparencysecretive transparency isis related to therelated to the leaders' behaviorsleaders' behaviors..
  6. 6. 6 - 17 1. Introduction1. Introduction Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours 1.5 Research Significance1.5 Research Significance ●● The results of this study will:The results of this study will: - Fill the gap regarding the influences of different- Fill the gap regarding the influences of different transparency dimensions on a leader's behavior in a publictransparency dimensions on a leader's behavior in a public entity.entity. - Give a wide perspective for leaders working in public- Give a wide perspective for leaders working in public entities regarding the influence of transparency it makes onentities regarding the influence of transparency it makes on their behaviors.their behaviors. - Identify the new term recently circulated in administrative- Identify the new term recently circulated in administrative circles known as “the transparent leader.”circles known as “the transparent leader.” - Provide the management of the Ministry of Finance, Yemen,- Provide the management of the Ministry of Finance, Yemen, a perception on transparency and leader's behaviors withina perception on transparency and leader's behaviors within the ministry itself to enhance the behaviors of the ministry'sthe ministry itself to enhance the behaviors of the ministry's leaders toward their subordinates and their ministry.leaders toward their subordinates and their ministry.
  7. 7. 7 - 17 2. Review of Literature2. Review of Literature Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours 2.1 The Concept of Transparency2.1 The Concept of Transparency ●● The wordThe word “transparency”“transparency” can be defined as "free from pretense or deceit”can be defined as "free from pretense or deceit” and “characterized by visibility or accessibility of information especiallyand “characterized by visibility or accessibility of information especially concerning business practices.“concerning business practices.“ Miriam-Webster DictionaryMiriam-Webster Dictionary ●● Corporate transparency as the degree to which firms regularly revealCorporate transparency as the degree to which firms regularly reveal substantial information about their financial condition and accountingsubstantial information about their financial condition and accounting practices to creditors, stakeholders, and the government in a reliable manner.practices to creditors, stakeholders, and the government in a reliable manner. (Rondinelli 2007; Cavusgil, Knight, and Riesenberger 2008)(Rondinelli 2007; Cavusgil, Knight, and Riesenberger 2008) ●● The four important elements of transparency are:The four important elements of transparency are: 1. Information that is truthful, substantial, and useful.1. Information that is truthful, substantial, and useful. 2. Participation of stakeholders (i.e., employees, leaders) in identifying the2. Participation of stakeholders (i.e., employees, leaders) in identifying the information they need.information they need. 3. Objective, balanced reporting of an organization's activities and policies3. Objective, balanced reporting of an organization's activities and policies that holds the organization accountable.that holds the organization accountable. 4. Secrecy, which was a reverse item factor measuring the opposite of4. Secrecy, which was a reverse item factor measuring the opposite of openness.openness. (Rawlins,(Rawlins, 2006)2006)
  8. 8. 8 - 17 2. Review of Literature2. Review of Literature Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours 2.2 Concepts related to the Leaders’ Behaviours2.2 Concepts related to the Leaders’ Behaviours ●● The wordThe word “leadership”“leadership” can be defined as "the process ofcan be defined as "the process of directing the behaviors of others toward the accomplishment ofdirecting the behaviors of others toward the accomplishment of some objectives.”some objectives.” Certo & Certo (2009; pp. 387)Certo & Certo (2009; pp. 387) ●● Creating transparencyCreating transparency is the third most essential and character-is the third most essential and character- based behaviors that a high trust leader can learn and apply.based behaviors that a high trust leader can learn and apply. Leaders’ Behaviors should include the following:Leaders’ Behaviors should include the following: - Telling the truth in a way people can verify.- Telling the truth in a way people can verify. - Getting real and genuine.- Getting real and genuine. - Being open and authentic.- Being open and authentic. - Showing a particular quality of disclosure.- Showing a particular quality of disclosure. - Operating on the premise of, “What you see is what you get.”- Operating on the premise of, “What you see is what you get.” - Not having hidden agendas.- Not having hidden agendas. - Not hiding information.- Not hiding information. (Covey, 2006)(Covey, 2006) ●● ““An authentic and trustworthy leader generates an atmosphereAn authentic and trustworthy leader generates an atmosphere of candor and integrity.”of candor and integrity.” (Luttrell, 2008)(Luttrell, 2008)
  9. 9. 9 - 17 2. Review of Literature2. Review of Literature Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours 2.32.3 Behaviors of a Transparent LeaderBehaviors of a Transparent Leader ●● AA transparent leadertransparent leader is a leader who possesses the leadershipis a leader who possesses the leadership qualities of:qualities of: - Honesty. - Trust- Honesty. - Trust - Integrity. - Loyalty- Integrity. - Loyalty (Cox, 2009)(Cox, 2009) ●● Several traits should exist in a leader to be transparent:Several traits should exist in a leader to be transparent: - Be overwhelming honest.- Be overwhelming honest. - Gather intelligence by asking for a feedback.- Gather intelligence by asking for a feedback. - Deliver bad news well.- Deliver bad news well. - Confess mistakes.- Confess mistakes. (Walker & Pagano, 2005)(Walker & Pagano, 2005) ●● AA conversionconversion from afrom a typical leadertypical leader to ato a transparent leadertransparent leader can becan be achieved through the following steps:achieved through the following steps: - A leader should make the change real.- A leader should make the change real. - A leader should make the change visible to the right people.- A leader should make the change visible to the right people. - A leader should seek support through having partners take a stand.- A leader should seek support through having partners take a stand. - A leader should ask for feedback in a special way, (360- A leader should ask for feedback in a special way, (360°° Feedback).Feedback).
  10. 10. 10 - 17 2. Review of Literature2. Review of Literature Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours 2.4 Relationship between Transparency and Leaders’2.4 Relationship between Transparency and Leaders’ BehavioursBehaviours ●● FewFew andand limitedlimited number of researches have reviewed thenumber of researches have reviewed the relationship betweenrelationship between transparencytransparency in public or privatein public or private organizations andorganizations and the behaviors or leadersthe behaviors or leaders working and belongingworking and belonging to these entities.to these entities. ●● The development of leadership skills related toThe development of leadership skills related to transparencytransparency cancan lead tolead to improved effectiveness as a leaderimproved effectiveness as a leader.. (Crumpton, 2011)(Crumpton, 2011) ●● Transparency is the more personal and direct aspect of theTransparency is the more personal and direct aspect of the leader.leader. (Cox, 2009)(Cox, 2009) ●● Leaders of transparent organizationsLeaders of transparent organizations areare healthyhealthy in terms ofin terms of their behaviors and skills including their abilities to learn how totheir behaviors and skills including their abilities to learn how to behave as transparent leaders.behave as transparent leaders.
  11. 11. 11 - 17 Figure 2.1: Research framework/Theoretical frameworkFigure 2.1: Research framework/Theoretical framework 2. Review of Literature2. Review of Literature Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours 2.5 Research Framework2.5 Research Framework
  12. 12. 12 - 17 2. Review of Literature2. Review of Literature Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours 2.6 Research Hypotheses2.6 Research Hypotheses ●● Hypothesis 1:Hypothesis 1: Informational transparencyInformational transparency is relatedis related to the leaders' behaviors.to the leaders' behaviors. ●● Hypothesis 2:Hypothesis 2: Participatory transparencyParticipatory transparency is relatedis related to the leaders' behaviors.to the leaders' behaviors. ●● Hypothesis 4:Hypothesis 4: Secrecy (as a reverse item to transparency)Secrecy (as a reverse item to transparency) is relatedis related to theto the leaders' behaviors.leaders' behaviors. ●● Hypothesis 3:Hypothesis 3: Accountability transparencyAccountability transparency is relatedis related to the leaders‘ behaviors.to the leaders‘ behaviors.
  13. 13. 13 - 17 3. Research Methodology3. Research Methodology Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours 3.1 Research Design3.1 Research Design ●● This proposal will use the descriptive study design.This proposal will use the descriptive study design. ●● The descriptive research is a study designed toThe descriptive research is a study designed to describe the major characteristics of some problemdescribe the major characteristics of some problem situation.situation. ●● This research will attempt to explore the effect ofThis research will attempt to explore the effect of the transparency four main factors:the transparency four main factors: 1) Substantial information.1) Substantial information. 2) Participation of stakeholders.2) Participation of stakeholders. 3) Accountability.3) Accountability. 4) Secrecy (as a reverse item),4) Secrecy (as a reverse item), on the leaders' behaviors in a government (public)on the leaders' behaviors in a government (public) entity, namely, Ministry of Finance.entity, namely, Ministry of Finance.
  14. 14. 14 - 17 3. Research Methodology3. Research Methodology Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours 3.2 Research Location3.2 Research Location ●● This research will be implemented inThis research will be implemented in the Ministry of Finance (MoF)the Ministry of Finance (MoF),, Yemen, as a government entity which has eight sectors:Yemen, as a government entity which has eight sectors: 1- Minister's Office.1- Minister's Office. 2- Foreign Affairs Sector.2- Foreign Affairs Sector. 3- Budget Sector.3- Budget Sector. 4- Financial and Administrative Affairs Sector.4- Financial and Administrative Affairs Sector. 5- Regulations Sector.5- Regulations Sector. 6- Revenue Sector.6- Revenue Sector. 7- Economic Units Sector, and Planning Sector.7- Economic Units Sector, and Planning Sector. 3.3 Population and Sampling3.3 Population and Sampling ●● The members ofThe members of the leading teamthe leading team working in the MoF are theworking in the MoF are the populationpopulation of this study.of this study. ●● Given that theGiven that the population is smallpopulation is small, all, all population will be taken as apopulation will be taken as a samplesample.. ●● The list of the population sample will contain the names of membersThe list of the population sample will contain the names of members that hold leading positions in different functional categories including:that hold leading positions in different functional categories including: 1- Deputy ministers. 2. Deputy ministers’ assistants.1- Deputy ministers. 2. Deputy ministers’ assistants. 3- Director generals. 4. Deputies of director generals.3- Director generals. 4. Deputies of director generals.
  15. 15. 15 - 17 3. Research Methodology3. Research Methodology Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours 3.4 Research Instrument3.4 Research Instrument ●● TheThe surveysurvey method will be used by asking questions throughmethod will be used by asking questions through aa questionnairequestionnaire as the research instrument.as the research instrument. ●● TheThe questionnairequestionnaire will consist of three parts as shown inwill consist of three parts as shown in Table 3.1.Table 3.1. Part CPart C Transparency DimensionsTransparency Dimensions Part BPart B Leaders’ BehavioursLeaders’ Behaviours Part APart A Demographic profileDemographic profile Part NamePart Name DescriptionDescription Table 3.1: Main parts of the study's questionnaireTable 3.1: Main parts of the study's questionnaire
  16. 16. 16 - 17 3. Research Methodology3. Research Methodology Transparency vs. Leaders’ Behaviours 3.5 Data Collection and Analysis Techniques3.5 Data Collection and Analysis Techniques ●● The questionnaire’s questionsThe questionnaire’s questions part Bpart B will be collected regarding thewill be collected regarding the leaders' behaviors through theleaders' behaviors through the Multifactor Leadership QuestionnaireMultifactor Leadership Questionnaire.. ●● The questionnaire’s questionsThe questionnaire’s questions part Cpart C will be developed from a surveywill be developed from a survey prepared by Rawlins (2008) regarding theprepared by Rawlins (2008) regarding the transparency dimensions.transparency dimensions. ●● Collected data will be analyzed using aCollected data will be analyzed using a Windows SoftwareWindows Software known asknown as Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS).Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). ●● AA ReliabilityReliability TestTest for both independent and dependent variables will befor both independent and dependent variables will be made.made. ●● TheThe Cronbach's AlphaCronbach's Alpha CoefficientCoefficient will be also computed to examine thewill be also computed to examine the reliability of the instrument.reliability of the instrument. ●● Frequency AnalysesFrequency Analyses will be also done to the demographic factors suchwill be also done to the demographic factors such as age and gender.as age and gender. ●● Pearson Correlation AnalysisPearson Correlation Analysis will be sued to test the relationshipwill be sued to test the relationship between the transparency's independent variables and the dependentbetween the transparency's independent variables and the dependent variable.variable.
  17. 17. 17 - 17 Thank You forThank You for Your Attention …Your Attention … Eyad Al-Samman, 2012Eyad Al-Samman, 2012 OUM-YemenOUM-Yemen
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