The ability to understand the basic properties of numbers, adding or taking away; appreciate principles of cause and effect, one-to-one correspondence; ability to predict, as in which objects will float, sink, etc.
How you can nurture : Provide manipulatives to help children experiment with numbers; use simple machines to help children think
The ability to understand other people and work effectively with them and to notice who plays with them at school, and why.
How you can nurture : Give children lots of opportunities to talk about one another and their social interactions, and to problem-solve conflicts together, play games in which one has to figure out the knowledge or intentions of other players.
The ability to use language to express meaning, understand others, tell a simple story; react appropriately to stories with different moods; learn new vocabulary or a second language that is used naturally.
How you can nurture : Make sure your program is rich with language opportunities and that children’s linguistic expression is listened to and appreciated.
The ability to recognize species of plants or animals in one’s environment, for example, to learn the characteristics of different birds.
How you can nurture : Play games in which children recognize fine distinctions among members of a plant or animal group; explore the outdoors regularly and bring the outdoors in; provide sample books, visual, and props related to the natural world.